DefinitionRight wing populism is an ideology that primarily espouses , , and . argues that two definitions can be given of the "populist radical right": a maximum and a minimum one, with the "maximum" group being a subgroup of the "minimum" group. The minimum definition describes what Michael Freeden has called the "core concept" of the right-wing populist ideology, that is the concept shared by all parties generally included in the family. Looking at the primary literature, Mudde concludes that the core concept of right-populism "is undoubtedly the " ". "This concept", he explains, "also certainly functions as a "coat-hanger" for most other ideological features. Consequently, the minimum definition of the party family should be based on the key concept, the nation". He however rejects the use of " " as a "core ideology" of right-wing populism on the ground that there are also purely "civic" or "liberal" forms of nationalism, preferring instead the term " nativism": a xenophobic form of nationalism asserting that "states should be inhabited exclusively by members of the native group ("the nation"), and that non-native elements (persons and ideas) are fundamentally threatening to the homogeneous nation-state". Mudde further argues that "while nativism could include racist arguments, it can also be non-racist (including and excluding on the basis of culture or even religion)", and that the term nativism does not reduce the parties to mere single-issue parties, such as the term "anti-immigrant" does. In the maximum definition, to nativism is added —an attitude, not necessary anti-democratic or automatic, to prefer " " and the submission to authority—and —a "thin-centered ideology that considers society to be ultimately separated into two homogeneous and antagonistic groups, "the pure people" versus "the corrupt elite", and which argues that politics should be an expression of the "general will of the people", if needed before human rights or constitutional guarantees. Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser reiterated in 2017 that within European right-wing populism there is a "marriage of convenience" of populism based on an "ethnic and chauvinistic definition of the people", authoritarianism, and nativism. This results in right-wing populism having a "xenophobic nature." Roger Eatwell, Emeritus Professor of Comparative Politics at the , writes that "whilst populism and fascism differ notably ideologically, in practice the latter has borrowed aspects of populist discourse and style, and populism can degenerate into leader-oriented authoritarian and exclusionary politics." For populism to transition into fascism or proto-fascism, it requires a " nihilistic culture and an intractable crisis."
pulism is like fascism in being a response to liberal and socialist explanations of the political. And also like fascism, populism does not recognize a legitimate political place for an opposition that it regards as acting against the desires of the people and that it also accuses of being tyrannical, conspiratorial, and antidemocratic. ... The opponents are turned into public enemies, but only rhetorically. If populism moves from rhetorical enmity to practices of enemy identification and persecution, we could be talking about its transformation into fascism or another form of dictatorial repression. This has happened in the past ... and without question it could happen in the future. This morphing of populism back into fascism is always a possibility, but it is very uncommon, and when it does happen, and populism becomes fully antidemocratic, it is no longer populism.In summary, Erik Berggren and Andres Neergard wrote in 2015 that " st researchers agree ..that , anti-immigration sentiments, nativism, ethno-nationalism are, in different ways, central elements in the ideologies, politics, and practices of right-wing populism and Extreme Right Wing Parties." Similarly, historian Rick Shenkman describes the ideology presented by right-wing populism as "a deadly mix of xenophobia, racism, and authoritarianism." Tamir Bar-On also concluded in 2018 that the literature generally places "nativism" or "ethnic nationalism" as the core concept of the ideology, which "implicitly posits a politically dominant group, while minorities are conceived as threats to the nation". It is "generally, but not necessarily racist"; in the case of the Dutch PVV for instance, "a religious inority, i.e. Muslimsinstead of an ethnic minority constitutes the main 'enemy'". Scholars use terminology inconsistently, sometimes referring to right-wing populism as " radical right" or other terms such as new nationalism. noted that "standard reference works use alternate typologies and diverse labels categorising parties as ' far' or 'extreme' right, ' ', ' ' or ' neofascist', ' antiestablishment', ' national populist', 'protest', 'ethnic', ' ', ' antigovernment', 'antiparty', ' ', ' ' and so on".
Motivations and methodsTo and Matthew Goodwin, "national populists prioritize the culture and interests of the nation, and promise to give voice to a people who feel that they have been neglected, even held in contempt, by distant and often corrupt elites." They are part, Eatwell and Goodwin follow, of a "growing revolt against mainstream politics and liberal values. This challenge is in general not anti-democratic. Rather, national populists are opposed to certain ''aspects'' of liberal democracy as it has evolved in the West. .."direct" conception of democracy differs from the "liberal" one that has flourished across the West following the defeat of fascism and which has gradually become more elitist in character." Furthermore, national populists question what they call the "erosion of the nation-state", "hyper ethnic change" and the "capacity to rapidly absorb ighrates of immigration", the "highly unequal societies" of the West's current economic settlement, and are suspicious of "cosmopolitan and globalizing agendas". Populist parties use crisis in their domestic governments to enhance anti-globalist reactions; these include refrainment towards trade and anti-immigration policies. The support for these ideologies commonly comes from people whose employment might have low occupational mobility. This makes them more likely to develop an anti-immigrant and anti-globalization mentality that aligns with the ideals of the populist party. and see "national populism" as an attempt to combine socio-economical values of the left and political values of the right, and the support for a republic that would bypass traditional political divisions and institutions. As they aim at a unity of the political (the ''demos''), ethnic (the ''ethnos'') and social (the ''working class'') interpretations of the "people", national populists claim to defend the "average citizen" and "common sense", against the "betrayal of inevitably corrupt elites". As Front National ideologue François Duprat put in the 1970s, inspired by the Latin American right of that time, right-populism aims to constitute a "national, social, and popular" ideology. If itself is shared by both left and right parties, their premises are indeed different in that right-wing populists perceive society as in a state of decadence, from which "only the healthy common people can free the nation by forming one national class from the different social classes and casting aside the corrupt elites". Methodologically, by co-opting concepts from the left – such as and , which is espoused by the left as a means of preserving minority ethnic cultures within a pluralistic society – and then jettisoning their non-hierarchical essence, right-wing populists are able to, in the words of sociologist Jens Rydgren, "mobilize on xenophobic and racist public opinions without being stigmatized as racists."
EuropeEuropean right-wing populism can be traced back to the period 1870–1900 in the aftermath of the , with the nascence of two different trends in Germany and France: the ''Völkisch'' movement and . ''Völkischen'' represented a , racialist, and from the 1900s antisemitic tendency in German society, as they idealized a bio-mystical "original nation", that still could be found in their views in the rural regions, a form of "primitive democracy freely subjected to their natural elites". In France, the anti-parliamentarian , led by Boulanger, Déroulède and , called for a "plebiscitary republic", with the president elected by , and the popular will expressed not through elected representatives (the "corrupted elites"), but rather via "legislative plebiscites", another name for referendums. It also evolved to antisemitism after the (1894). Modern national populism—what Pierro Ignazi called "post-industrial parties"—emerged in the 1970s, in a dynamic sustained by voters' rejection of the and of the tax system, both deemed "confiscatory"; the rise of xenophobia against the backdrop of immigration which, because originating from outside Europe, was considered to be of a new kind; and finally, the end of the prosperity that had reigned since the post–World War II era, symbolized by the oil crisis of 1973. Two precursor parties consequently appeared in the early 1970s: the , ancestor of the ; and the Anders Lange's Party in Norway. A new wave of right-wing populism arose in the aftermath of the . "Neo-populists" are nationalist and Islamophobic politicians who aspire "to be the champions of freedoms for minorities (gays, Jews, women) against the Arab-Muslim masses"; a trend first embodied by the Dutch , and later followed by ' and 's . According to and , those parties are however not a real of the left and right, as both their ideology and voter base are interclassist. Furthermore, neo-populist parties went from a critique of the welfare state to that of , and their priority demand remains the reduction of immigration. Political scientist and professor Matthew Goodwin has argued that the growth of European right-wing populist parties has sometimes depended on the country or region they have been founded in, and that the public in some European nations such as , and initially had an aversion to nationalist forces in the late twentieth century, either due to their political histories concerning World War Two, having codes of neutrality and maintaining better economic stability compared to other nations. However, parties in these countries that have been founded since the turn of the century have performed well in elections due to not having past stigma associated with and beliefs, and have mobilized on concerns felt by voters over non-Western immigration, Islam, terrorism, loss of national identity or sovereignty, and beliefs that the political establishment has ignored concerns felt by ordinary people. Goodwin has also opined that political commentators have misjudged voters' concerns as solely related to economic fears and not cultural issues, and that right-wing populists have scored ideological victories by not just performing well in elections but pressuring mainstream parties into adopting similar policies to win back voters.
Contemporary movements by countryPiero Ignazi divided right-wing populist parties, which he called "extreme right parties", into two categories: he placed traditional right-wing parties that had developed out of the historical right and post-industrial parties that had developed independently. He placed the , the , the German People's Union and the former Dutch Centre Party in the first category, whose prototype would be the disbanded ; whereas he placed the French , the German Republicans, the Dutch Centre Democrats, the former Belgian (which would include certain aspects of traditional extreme right parties), the Danish , the Norwegian and the in the second category. Right-wing populist parties in the English-speaking world include the and Australia's One Nation. The U.S. and include right-wing populist factions.
BrazilIn , right-wing populism began to rise roughly around the time won the 2014 presidential election. In the Brazilian general election of 2014, Levy Fidelix, from the presented himself with a conservative speech and, according to him, the only candidate. He spoke for traditional and opposed abortion, legalization of marijuana, same-sex marriage and proposed homosexual individuals to be treated far away from the good citizens' and workers' families. In the first round of the general election, Fidelix received 446,878 votes, representing 0.43% of the popular vote. Fidelix ranked 7th out of 11 candidates. In the second round, Fidelix supported candidate . In addition, according to the political analyst of the Inter-Union Department of Parliamentary Advice Antônio Augusto de Queiroz the elected in 2014 may be considered the most conservative since the "re-democratization" movement, noting an increase in the number of parliamentarians linked to more conservative segments, such as ruralists, the , the Police of Brazil, police and the Christian religious right. The subsequent economic crisis of 2015 and investigations of corruption scandals led to a right-wing movement that sought to rescue Fiscal conservatism, fiscally and Social conservatism, socially conservative ideas from in Political opposition, opposition to the Left-wing politics, left-wing policies of the Workers' Party (Brazil), Workers' Party. At the same time, Right-libertarianism, right-libertarians such as those that make up the Free Brazil Movement emerged among many others. For Manheim (1952), within a single real generation there may be several generations which he called "differentiated and antagonistic". For him, it is not the common birth date that marks a generation, though it matters, but rather the historical moment in which they live in common. In the case, the historical moment was the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff. They can be called the "post-Dilma generation". Centrist interim President Michel Temer took office following the impeachment of President Rousseff. Temer held 3% approval ratings in October 2017, facing a corruption scandal after accusations for obstructing justice and racketeering were placed against him. He managed to avoid trial thanks to the support of the right-wing parties in the Brazilian Congress. On the other hand, President of the Federal Senate (Brazil), President of the Senate Renan Calheiros, who was acknowledged as one of the key figures behind Rousseff's destitution and member of the Centrist Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, was himself removed from office after facing embezzlement charges. In March 2016, after entering the Social Christian Party (Brazil), Social Christian Party, Far-right politics, far-right congressman Jair Bolsonaro decided to run for President of the Republic. In 2017, he tried to become the presidential nominee of Patriota, but, eventually, Bolsonaro entered the Social Liberal Party (Brazil), Party and, supported by the , he won the 2018 Brazilian general election, 2018 presidential election followed by left-wing former Mayor of São Paulo Fernando Haddad of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's Workers' Party. Lula was banned to run after being convicted on criminal corruption charges and being imprisoned. Bolsonaro has been accused of racist, xenophobic, misogynistic and homophobic rhetoric. His campaign was centered on opposition to crime, political corruption, LGBT identity and support for tax cuts, militarism, Catholic Church, Catholicism and Evangelicalism.
CanadaCanada has a history of right-wing populist protest parties and politicians, most notably in Western Canada partly due to the idea of Western alienation. The highly successful Social Credit Party of Canada consistently won seats in British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, but fell into obscurity by the 1970s. In the late 1980s, the Reform Party of Canada led by Preston Manning became another right-wing populist movement formed as a result of the policies of the Centre-right politics, centre-right Progressive Conservative Party of Canada which alienated many Blue Tory, Blue Tories and led to a feeling of neglect in the West of Canada. Initially motivated by a single-issue desire to give a voice to Western Canada, the Reform Party subsequently expanded its platform to include a blend of socially conservative and right-wing populist policies. It grew from a fringe party into a major political force in the 1990s and became the official opposition party before reforming itself as the Canadian Alliance. The Alliance ultimately merged with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the modern day , after which the Alliance faction dropped some of its populist and socially conservative ideas. In recent years, right-wing populist elements have existed within the Conservative Party of Canada and mainstream provincial parties, and have most notably been espoused by Ontario MP Kellie Leitch; businessman Kevin O'Leary; Premier of Quebec, Quebec Premier François Legault; the former Mayor of Toronto, Rob Ford; and his brother, Premier of Ontario, Ontario Premier Doug Ford Jr., Doug Ford. In August 2018, Conservative MP Maxime Bernier left the party, and the following month he founded the People's Party of Canada, which has been described as a "right of centre, populist" movement. Bernier lost his seat in the 2019 Canadian elections and the People's Party scored just above 1% of the vote, however in the 2021 election it saw an improved performance and climbed to nearly 5% of the popular vote.
Costa RicaIn the 2018 Costa Rican general election, most recent political campaign, both Evangelical Christian candidate Fabricio Alvarado and right-wing anti-establishment candidate Juan Diego Castro were described as examples of right-wing populists.
United StatesEarly antecedents of right-wing populism which existed in the USA during the 1800s include the Anti-Masonic Party, Anti-Masonic and Know Nothing, Know-Nothing Parties. The People's Party (United States), Populist Party (which existed in the 1890s) was a primarily Left-wing populism, left-wing populist movement. Moore (1996) argues that "populist opposition to the growing power of political, economic, and cultural elites" helped shape "conservative and right-wing movements" since the 1920s. Historical right-wing populist figures in both major parties in the United States have included Thomas E. Watson, Strom Thurmond, Huey Long, Joe McCarthy, Barry Goldwater, George Wallace and Pat Buchanan. The Tea Party movement has been characterized as "a right-wing anti-systemic populist movement" by Rasmussen and Schoen (2010). They add: "Today our country is in the midst of a...new populist revolt that has emerged overwhelmingly from the right – manifesting itself as the Tea Party movement". In 2010, David Barstow wrote in ''The New York Times'': "The Tea Party movement has become a platform for conservative populist discontent". Some political figures closely associated with the Tea Party, such as U.S. Senator Ted Cruz and former U.S. Representative Ron Paul, have been described as appealing to right-wing populism. In the U.S. House of Representatives, the Freedom Caucus, which is associated with the Tea Party movement, has been described as right-wing populist. 's Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016, 2016 presidential campaign, noted for its anti-establishment, anti-immigration and anti-free trade rhetoric, was characterized as that of a right-wing populist. The ideology of Trump's former Chief Strategist, Steve Bannon, has also been described as such.
AustraliaThe main right-wing populist party in Australia is One Nation, led by Pauline Hanson, Australian Senate, Senator for Queensland. One Nation typically supports the governing Coalition (Australia), Coalition. Other parties formerly represented in the Australian Parliament with right-wing populist elements and rhetoric include the Australian Conservatives, led by Cory Bernardi, Senator for South Australia, David Leyonhjelm, Senator for New South Wales, and Katter's Australian Party, led by Queensland House of Representatives (Australia), MP Bob Katter. Some figures within the Coalition, have been described as right-wing populists, including former Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton.
JapanFormer Prime Ministers Shinzo Abe, former Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi, current Tokyo governors Yuriko Koike, former Tokyo governors Shintaro Ishihara and former Osaka mayors Tōru Hashimoto, have been characterized as right-wing nationalists and populists. For example, in a speech to Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), LDP lawmakers in Tokyo on 8 March 2019, Steve Bannon said that “Prime Minister Abe is a great hero to the grassroots, the populist, and the nationalist movement throughout the world.” In addition, ''Netto-uyoku'', ''Zaitokukai'' and Japan First Party are evaluated as similar to Western far-right populism and alt-right movement.
PakistanThe recent wave of right-wing populism is in Pakistan in the form of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, Pakistan Tehreek Insaaf (PTI). Its leader Imran Khan has furiously attacked traditional politicians and made people believe that only he has the solutions. British journalist Ben Judah, in an interview, compared Imran Khan with Donald Trump on his populist rhetoric.
South KoreaConservatism in South Korea has traditionally been more inclined toward elitism than . However, since the 2016 South Korean political scandal, Korean conservative forces have changed their political lines to populism as the distrust of the elite spread among the Korean public. Hong Joon-pyo and Lee Un-ju of the United Future Party are leading right-wing populists advocating Homophobia, anti-homosexuality, anti-immigration and . Yoon Seok-youl, a candidate for the PPP in the 2022 South Korean presidential election, is also criticized as a "populist" for using hostile sentiment toward feminism and proposing unrealistic economic policies. South Korean right-wing populists show a revisionist view of Gwangju Uprising, and insist that the impeachment of former President Park Geun-hye is wrong, stimulating conservative public nostalgia for the Park Chung-hee administration. It also shows a radical anti-North Korea, anti-Chinese and anti-communist stance.
TaiwanTaiwan's right-wing populists tend to deny the independent identity of their country's 'Taiwan' and emphasize their identity as a 'Republic of China'. Taiwan's left-wing nationalist, left-wing Taiwanese nationalism, Taiwanese nationalists have strong pro-American tendencies, so Taiwan's major and minor conservatives are critical of this. In particular, Taiwan's right-wing populists demand that economic growth Issues and right-wing Chinese nationalism, Chinese nationalist issues be more important than liberal democracy, and that they become closer to the People's Republic of China. One of Taiwan's leading right-wing populists is Terry Gou, Han Kuo-yu and Chang Ya-chung.
European countriesSenior European Union diplomats cite growing anxiety in Europe about Russian financial support for far-right and populist movements and told the ''Financial Times'' that the intelligence agencies of "several" countries had stepped up scrutiny of possible links with Moscow. In 2016, the Czech Republic warned that Russia tries to "Divide and rule, divide and conquer" the European Union by supporting right-wing populist politicians across the bloc. However, as there in the United States of America, there seems to be an underlying problem that isn't massively discussed in the media. That underlying problem is that of housing. A 2019 study shows an immense correlation between the price of housing and voting for populist parties. In that study, it was revealed that the French citizens that saw the price of their houses stagnate or drop, were much more likely to vote for in the 2017 French presidential election. Whereas those that the price of their house rise, were much more likely to vote for Emmanuel Macron. The same pattern emerged in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, in which those that saw the price of their house rise, voted to Remain. Whereas those that saw it flatline or drop, voted to Leave.
AustriaThe Austrian Freedom Party of Austria, Freedom Party (FPÖ) established in 1955 claims to represent a "Third Camp" (''Drittes Lager''), beside the Social Democratic Party of Austria, Socialist Party and the social Catholic Austrian People's Party. It succeeded the Federation of Independents founded after World War II, adopting the pre-war heritage of German nationalism in Austria, German nationalism, although it did not advocate Nazism and placed itself in the political centre. Though it did not gain much popularity for decades, it exercised considerable Balance of power (parliament), balance of power by supporting several Austrian Federal Government, federal governments, be it right-wing or left-wing, e.g. the Socialist Bruno Kreisky, Kreisky cabinet of 1970 (see Kreisky–Peter–Wiesenthal affair). From 1980, the Freedom Party adopted a more moderate stance. Upon the 1983 Austrian legislative election, 1983 federal election, it entered a coalition government with the Socialist Party, whereby party chairman Norbert Steger served as Vice-Chancellor of Austria, Vice-Chancellor. The liberal interlude however ended, when Jörg Haider was elected chairman in 1986. By his down-to-earth manners and patriotism, patriotic attitude, Haider re-integrated the party's nationalist base voters. Nevertheless, he was also able to obtain votes from large sections of population disenchanted with politics by publicly denouncing corruption and nepotism of the Austrian ''Proporz'' system. The electoral success was boosted by Austria's 1995 enlargement of the European Union, accession to the European Union in 1995. Upon the 1999 Austrian legislative election, 1999 federal election, the Freedom Party (FPÖ) with 26.9% of the votes cast became the second strongest party in the National Council (Austria), National Council parliament. Having entered a coalition government with the People's Party, Haider had to face the disability of several FPÖ ministers, but also the impossibility of agitation against members of his own cabinet. In 2005, he finally countered the FPÖ's loss of reputation by the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) relaunch in order to carry on his government. The remaining FPÖ members elected Heinz-Christian Strache chairman, but since the 2006 Austrian legislative election, 2006 federal election both right-wing parties have run separately. After Haider was killed in a car accident in 2008, the BZÖ has lost a measurable amount of support. The FPÖ regained much of its support in subsequent elections. Its candidate Norbert Hofer made it into the runoff in the 2016 Austrian presidential election, 2016 presidential election, though he narrowly lost the election. After the 2017 Austrian legislative election, 2017 legislative elections, the FPÖ formed a First Kurz government, government coalition with the Austrian People's Party, but lost seats in 2019 Austrian legislative election, 2019.
Belgium, established in 1978, operated on a platform of law and order, anti-immigration (with particular focus on Islamic immigration) and secession of the Flanders region of the country. The secession was originally planned to end in the annexation of Flanders by the culturally and linguistically similar Netherlands until the plan was abandoned due to the multiculturalism in that country. In the elections to the Flemish Parliament in June 2004, the party received 24.2% of the vote, within less than 2% of being the largest party. However, in November of the same year, the party was ruled illegal under Belgian Anti-Racism Law, the country's anti-racism law for, among other things, advocating segregated schools for citizens and immigrants. In less than a week, the party was re-established under the name Vlaams Belang, initially with a near-identical ideology before moderating parts of its statute. It advocates the adoption of the Flemish culture and Flemish language, language by immigrants who wish to stay in the country. It also calls for a zero tolerance stance on illegal immigration and the reinstatement of border controls. Despite some accusations of antisemitism from Belgium's Jewish population, the party has demonstrated a staunch pro-Israel stance as part of its opposition to Islam. In Antwerp, sections of the city's significant Jewish population have begun to support the party. With 23 of 124 seats, Vlaams Belang leads the opposition in the Flemish Parliament and it also holds 11 out of the 150 seats in the Belgian House of Representatives. The Flemish nationalist and conservative liberal N-VA party has been described as populist or containing right-wing populist elements by foreign media such as the German ''Die Zeit'' magazine, however the party itself has rebutted the term and does not label itself as such. In the French-speaking Walloon region, Mischaël Modrikamen, an associate of Steve Bannon, was chairman of the People's Party (Belgium), Parti Populaire (PP), which contested elections in Wallonia. Political analysts have generally observed that right-wing populist parties tend to perform better with the Flemish electorate over French speaking Belgian voters on the whole, owing to the Flemish vote moving to the right in recent decades and Flemish parties intertwining Flemish nationalism with other issues. As of the 2019 federal, regional and European elections Vlaams Belang (VB) has surged from 248,843 votes in 2014 to 783,977 votes on 26 May 2019.
BulgariaVolya (Bulgarian political party), Volya is a right-wing populist political party founded by Bulgarian businessman Veselin Mareshki on 15 July 2007. Before 2016, it was known variously as Today. The party advocates populist and reform policies, promoting patriotism, strict immigration controls, friendlier relations with Moscow, Bulgarian withdrawal form NATO, and the need to "sweep away the garbage" of a corrupt political establishment.
CyprusThe ELAM (Cyprus), ELAM (National People's Front) (Εθνικό Λαϊκό Μέτωπο) was formed in 2008. Its platform includes maintaining Cypriot identity, opposition to further European integration, immigration and the ''status quo'' that remains due to Turkey's invasion of a third of the island (and the international community's lack of intention to solve the issue).
DenmarkIn the early 1970s, the home of the strongest right-wing-populist party in Europe was in Denmark, the .Jens Rydgren. "Explaining the Emergence of Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties: The Case of Denmark" ''West European Politics'', Vol. 27, No. 3, May 2004, pp. 474–502." In the 1973 Danish parliamentary election, 1973 election, it received almost 16% of the vote. In the following years, its support dwindled away, but was replaced by the in the 1990s, which has gone on to be an important support party for the governing coalition in the 2000s (decade). The Danish People's Party is the largest and most influential right-wing populist party in Denmark today. It won 37 seats in the 2015 Danish general election and became the second largest party in Denmark. The Danish People's Party advocates immigration reductions, particularly from non-Western countries, favor cultural assimilation of first generation migrants into Danish society and are opposed to Denmark becoming a multicultural society. Additionally, the Danish People's Party's stated goals are to enforce a strict rule of law, to maintain a strong welfare system for those in need, to promote economic growth by strengthening education and encouraging people to work and in favor of protecting the environment. In 2015, The New Right (Denmark), The New Right was founded, and have 4 seats in the current Folketing.
FinlandIn Finland the main right-wing party is the . Together with National Coalition Party, National Coalition and Centre Party (Finland), Centre-Party, it formed the government coalition after the 2015 Finnish parliamentary election, 2015 parliamentary election. In 2017 the governmental branch broke off to form the Blue Reform, which took the coalition position from the . Blue Reform is currently in Finnish Government, government coalition and the in opposition and are the fastest growing party in Finland. In 2018 a Finnish member of the parliament Paavo Väyrynen formed the Seven Star Movement. The party is anti-immigration but is in center in economic politics.
FranceFrance's (NF) – renamed in 2018 as the "National Rally" – has been cited the "prototypical populist radical right-wing party". The party was founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen as the unification of a number of French nationalist movements of the time, it was developed by him into a well-organized party. After struggline for a decade, the party reached its first peak in 1984. By 2002, Le Pen received more votes than the Socialist candidate in the first round of voting for the French presidency, becoming the first time a NF candidate had qualified for a high-level run-off election. Since Le Pen's daughter, , took over as the head of the party in 2011, the National Front has established itself as one of the main political parties in France. Marine Le Pen's policy of "de-demonizing", or normalizing the party resulted in her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, being first suspended and then ejected from the party in 2015. Marine Le Pen finished second in the 2017 French presidential election, 2017 election and lost in the second round of voting versus Emmanuel Macron which was held on 7 May 2017. However, polls published in 2018 showed that a majority of the French population consider the party to be a threat to democracy.
HungaryThe 2018 Hungarian parliamentary election result was a victory for the Fidesz–Christian Democratic People's Party (Hungary), KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority, with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. Orbán and Fidesz campaigned primarily on the issues of immigration and foreign meddling, and the election was seen as a victory for right-wing populism in Europe.
GermanySince 2013, the most popular right-wing populist party in Germany has been Alternative for Germany which managed to finish third in the 2017 German federal election, making it the first right-wing populist party to enter the Bundestag, Germany's national parliament. Before, right-wing populist parties had gained seats in Composition of the German State Parliaments, German State Parliaments only. Left-wing populism is represented in the Bundestag by The Left (Germany), The Left party. On a regional level, right-wing populist movements like Pro NRW and Citizens in Rage (''Bürger in Wut'', BIW) sporadically attract some support. In 1989, The Republicans (Germany), The Republicans (''Die Republikaner'') led by Franz Schönhuber entered the Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin and achieved more than 7% of the German votes cast in the 1989 European Parliament election in West Germany, 1989 European election, with six seats in the European Parliament. The party also won seats in the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg twice in 1992 and 1996, but after 2000 the Republicans' support eroded in favour of the far-right German People's Union and the Neo-Nazism, Neo-Nazi (NPD), which in the 2009 German federal election, 2009 federal election held 1.5% of the popular vote (winning up to 9% in regional ''Landtag'' parliamentary elections). In 2005, a nationwide Pro Germany Citizens' Movement (''pro Deutschland'') was founded in Cologne. The Pro Germany movement appears as a conglomerate of numerous small parties, voters' associations and societies, distinguishing themselves by campaigns against extremism and immigrants. Its representatives claim a zero tolerance policy and the combat of corruption. With the denial of a multiethnic society (''Überfremdung'') and the islamization, their politics extend to far-right positions. Other minor right-wing populist parties include the German Freedom Party founded in 2010, the former East German German Social Union (East Germany), German Social Union (DSU) and the dissolved Party for a Rule of Law Offensive ("Schill party").
GreeceThe most prominent right-wing populist party in Greece is the Independent Greeks, Independent Greeks (ANEL). Despite being smaller than the more extreme Golden Dawn party, after the January 2015 Greek legislative election, January 2015 legislative elections ANEL formed a governing coalition with the left-wing Syriza, Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA), thus making the party a governing party and giving it a place in the First Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras, Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras. The Golden Dawn (Greece), Golden Dawn has grown significantly in Greece during the country's economic downturn, gaining 7% of the vote and 18 out of 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament. The party's ideology includes irredentism, annexation of territory in Albania and Turkey, including the Turkish cities of Istanbul and Izmir. Controversial measures by the party included a poor people's kitchen in Athens which only supplied to Greek citizens and was shut down by the police. The Popular Orthodox Rally is not represented in the Greek legislature, but supplied 2 of the country's 22 MEPS until 2014. It supports anti-globalisation and lower taxes for small businesses as well as opposition to Turkish accession, Turkish accession to the European Union and the Republic of Macedonia's Macedonia naming dispute, use of the name Macedonia as well as immigration only for Europeans. Its participation in government has been one of the reasons why it became unpopular with its voters who turned to Golden Dawn (Greece), Golden Dawn in Greece's 2012 elections.
ItalyIn Italy, the most prominent right-wing populist party is Lega Nord, Lega, formerly Lega Nord (Northern League), whose leaders reject the right-wing label, though not the "populist" one. The League is a federalism, federalist, regionalism (politics), regionalist and sometimes secessionist party, founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties of Northern Italy, Northern and Central Italy, most of which had arisen and expanded during the 1980s. LN's program advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for the Northern regions. At times, the party has advocated for the secession of the North, which it calls Padania. The party generally takes an anti-Southern Italy, Southern Italian stance as members are known for opposing Southern Italian emigration to Northern Italian cities, stereotyping Southern Italians as welfare abusers and detrimental to Italian society and attributing Italy's economic troubles and the disparity of the North–South divide in Italy, North-South divide in the Italian economy to supposed inherent negative characteristics of the Southern Italians, such as laziness, lack of education or criminality. Certain LN members have been known to publicly deploy the offensive slur "''terrone''", a common pejorative term for Southern Italians that is evocative of negative Southern Italian stereotypes. As a federalist, regionalist, populist party of the North, LN is also highly critical of the centralized power and political importance of Rome, sometimes adopting to a lesser extent an anti-Roman stance in addition to an anti-Southern stance. With the rise of immigration into Italy since the late 1990s, LN has increasingly turned its attention to criticizing mass immigration to Italy. The LN, which also opposes illegal immigration, is critical of Islam and proposes Italy's exit from the Eurozone, is considered a Euroscepticism, Eurosceptic movement and as such is apart of the Identity and Democracy(ID) group in the European Parliament. LN was or is part of the national government in 1994, 2001–2006, 2008–2011 and 2018–2019. Most recently, the party, which notably includes among its members the Presidents of Lombardy and Veneto, won 17.4% of the vote in the 2018 Italian general election, 2018 general election, becoming the third-largest party in Italy (largest within the centre-right coalition). In the 2014 European Parliament election in Italy, 2014 European election, under the leadership of Matteo Salvini it took 6.2% of votes. Under Salvini, the party has to some extent embraced Italian nationalism and emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration and other "populist" policies, while forming an alliance with right-wing populist parties in Europe. LN is now the first party in Italy, followed by Giorgia Meloni, Meloni's party Brothers of Italy, which is also a Right-wing populist party. Silvio Berlusconi, leader of Forza Italia (2013), Forza Italia and Prime Minister of Italy from 1994–1995, 2001–2006 and 2008–2011, has sometimes been described as a right-wing populist, although his party is not typically described as such. A number of national conservatism, national conservative, nationalism, nationalist and arguably right-wing populist parties are strong especially in Lazio, the region around Rome and Southern Italy. Most of them originated as a result of the (a National conservatism, national-conservative party, whose best result was 8.7% of the vote in the 1972 Italian general election, 1972 general election) and its successor National Alliance (Italy), National Alliance (which reached 15.7% of the vote in 1996 Italian general election, 1996 general election). They include the Brothers of Italy (4.4% in 2018), New Force (Italy), New Force (0.3%), ''CasaPound'' (0.1%), Tricolour Flame (0.1%), Social Idea Movement (0.01%) and ''Progetto Nazionale'' (0.01%). Additionally, in the German language, German-speaking South Tyrol the local second-largest party, ''Die Freiheitlichen'', is often described as a right-wing populist party.
NetherlandsIn the Netherlands, right-wing populism was represented in the 150-seat House of Representatives (Netherlands), House of Representatives in 1982, when the Centre Party won a single seat. During the 1990s, a splinter party, the Centre Democrats, was slightly more successful, although its significance was still marginal. Not before 2002 did a right-wing populist party break through in the Netherlands, when the (LPF) won 26 seats and subsequently formed a coalition with the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). Pim Fortuyn, Fortuyn, who had strong views against immigration, particularly by Muslims, was assassinated in May 2002, two weeks before the election. Ideologically, the LPF differed somewhat compared to other European right-wing populist movements by holding more liberal stances on certain social issues such as abortion, gay rights and euthanasia, (Fortuyn himself was openly gay), while maintaining a strict stand on immigration, law and order and the . Fortuyn was also credited with shifting the Dutch political landscape by bringing the topics of multiculturalism, immigration and the integration of immigrants into the political mainstream. However, the coalition had broken up by 2003, and the LPF went into steep decline until it was dissolved. Since 2006, the (PVV) has been represented in the House of Representatives and has been described as inheriting the mantle of the Pim Fortuyn List. Following the 2010 general election, it has been in a pact with the 2010 Dutch cabinet formation#Formateur Opstelten, right-wing minority government of CDA and VVD after it won 24 seats in the House of Representatives. The party is Euroscepticism, Eurosceptic and plays a leading role in the changing stance of the Dutch government towards European integration as they came second in the 2009 European Parliament election in the Netherlands, 2009 European Parliament election, winning 4 out of 25 seats. The party's main programme revolves around strong Party for Freedom#Party programme, criticism of Islam, restrictions on migration from new European Union countries and Islamic countries, pushing for cultural assimilation of migrants into Dutch society, opposing the accession of Turkey to the European Union, advocating for the Netherlands to withdraw from the European Union and advocating for a return to the guilder through ending Dutch usage of the euro. The PVV withdrew its support for the First Rutte cabinet in 2012 after refusing to support austerity measures. This triggered the 2012 Dutch general election, 2012 general election in which the PVV was reduced to 15 seats and excluded from the new government. In the 2017 Dutch general election, Wilders' PVV gained an extra five seats to become the second largest party in the Dutch House of Representatives, bringing their total to 20 seats. From 2017 onwards, the Forum for Democracy (Netherlands), Forum for Democracy (FvD) has emerged as another right-wing populist force in the Netherlands. The FvD also advocates a stricter immigration policy and a referendum on Dutch membership of the EU.
PolandThe largest right-wing populist party in Poland is Law and Justice, which currently holds both the presidency and a governing majority in the Sejm. It combines and opposition to immigration, criticism of immigration with strong support for NATO and an economic interventionism, interventionist economic policy. Polish Congress of the New Right, headed by Michał Marusik, aggressively promotes fiscally conservative concepts like radical tax reductions preceded by abolishment of social security, universal public healthcare, state-sponsored education and abolishment of Communist Polish 1944 agricultural reform as a way to dynamical economic and welfare growth. The party is considered populist both by right-wing and left-wing publicists.
RomaniaThe Alliance for the Union of Romanians (AUR), a right-wing populist party, became the fourth-largest political force in Romania after the 2020 Romanian legislative election.
SpainIn Spain, the appearance of right-wing populism began to gain strength after the December 2018 2018 Andalusian regional election, election for the Parliament of Andalusia, in which the right-wing populist party Vox (political party), VOX managed to obtain 12 seats, and agreed to support a coalition government of the parties of the right People's Party (Spain), People's Party and Citizens (Spanish political party), Citizens, even though the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Socialist Party won the elections. VOX, that has been frequently described as Far-right politics, far-right, both by the left parties and by Spanish or international press, promotes characteristic policies of the populist right, such as the expulsion of all illegal immigrants from the country -even of legal immigrants who commit crimes-, a generalized criminal tightening, combined with traditional claims of right-wing conservatives, such as the centralization of the State and the suppression of the Autonomous communities of Spain, Autonomous Communities, and has harshly criticized the laws against gender violence, approved by the socialist government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, but later maintained by the PP executive of Mariano Rajoy, accusing the people and institutions that defend them of applying "''gender totalitarianism''". Party official Javier Ortega Smith is being investigated for alleged hate speech after Spanish prosecutors admitted a complaint by an Islamic association in connection with a rally that talked about “the Islamist invasion”. The party election manifesto that was finally published merged classic far-right-inspired policies with Right-libertarianism, right-libetarianism in tax and social security matters. After months of political uncertainty and protests against the party in Andalusia and other regions, in the April 2019 Spanish general election, 2019 Spanish general election VOX managed to obtain 24 deputies in the Congress of Deputies, with 10.26% of the vote, falling short from expectations after an intense electoral campaign in which VOX gathered big crowds of people at their events. Although the People's Party and Citizens leaders, Pablo Casado and Albert Rivera, had admitted repeatedly during the campaign that they would again agree with VOX in order to reach the government, the sum of all their seats finally left them far from any possibility, giving the government to the socialist Pedro Sánchez (politician), Pedro Sánchez.
SwedenIn Sweden, the first openly populist movement to be represented in the Riksdag (Swedish parliament), New Democracy (Sweden), New Democracy was founded in 1994 by businessman Bert Karlsson and aristocrat Ian Wachtmeister. Although New Democracy promoted economic issues as its foremost concern, it also advocated restrictions on immigration and welfare chauvinism. The party saw a sharp rise in support in 1994 before going into a decline soon after.Rydgren, 2006, pp. 33–34.Rydgren, 2006, p. 54. In 2010, the entered parliament for the first time. The Sweden Democrats originally had connections to white nationalism during its early days, but later began expelling hardline members and moderated its platform to transform itself into a more mainstream movement. The party calls for more robust immigration and asylum policies, compulsory measures for immigrants to be assimilated into Swedish society, and for stricter law and order policies. The are currently the third largest party in Sweden with 17.53% of popular votes in the 2018 Swedish general election, parliamentary election of 2018.
SwitzerlandIn Switzerland, the right-wing populist Swiss People's Party (SVP) reached an all-time high in the 2015 Swiss federal election, 2015 elections. The party is mainly considered to be National conservatism, national conservative, but it has also variously been identified as "extreme right" and "radical right-wing populist", reflecting a spectrum of ideologies present among its members. In its far-right wing, it includes members such as Ulrich Schlüer, Pascal Junod, who heads a Neue Rechte, New Right study group and has been linked to Holocaust denial and neo-Nazism. In Switzerland, radical right populist parties held close to 10% of the popular vote in 1971, were reduced to below 2% by 1979 and again grew to more than 10% in 1991. Since 1991, these parties (the Swiss Democrats and the Swiss Freedom Party) have been absorbed by the SVP. During the 1990s, the SVP grew from being the fourth largest party to being the largest and gained a second seat the Swiss Federal Council in 2003, with prominent politician and businessman Christoph Blocher. In 2015, the SVP received 29.4% of the vote, the highest vote ever recorded for a single party throughout Swiss parliamentary history.
TurkeyThe Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justice and Development Party (AKP) and its leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has been in power since 2002. Victory Party (Turkey) is a Turkish nationalism, Patriotic and Kemalism, Kemalist political party in Turkey founded on August 26, 2021 under the leadership of Ümit Özdağ. It is represented in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey by two deputies. Victory Party (Turkey) is the continuation of the Ayyıldız Movement initiated by Ümit Özdağ, the founding petition of the party was submitted to the Ministry of the Interior (Turkey), Ministry of the Interior on 26 August 2021 and then the party was officially established. The party leader Özdağ and his deputies aim to re-institute Turkish Kemalism and Turkish Nationalism ideologies in the government and claim sending back of all Syrian, Afghan and other refugees to their homeland. Victory Party (Turkey) is the new leader party of the Right-wing politics and Far-right politics in Turkey. Party; it is against immigrants and aims to send them all back to where they came from.
United KingdomMedia outlets such as ''The New York Times'' have called the (UKIP), then led by Nigel Farage, the largest right-wing populist party in the United Kingdom. UKIP campaigned for an Brexit, exit from the European Union prior to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 European membership referendum and a Points-based immigration system (United Kingdom), points-based immigration system similar to that used in Australia. The United Kingdom's governing Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party has seen defections to UKIP over the European Union and immigration debates as well as LGBT rights in the United Kingdom, LGBT rights. In the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party, party leader and Prime Minister Boris Johnson has been described as expressing right-wing populist views during the successful Vote Leave campaign. Jacob Rees-Mogg, the Leader of the House of Commons, has also been described as a right-wing populist. In Northern Ireland, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is the main right-wing populist force.
Right-wing populist political parties
Current right-wing populist parties or parties with right-wing populist factions
Represented in national legislatures* – Pauline Hanson's One Nation, Katter's Australian Party * – Austrian People's Party (factions), * – Vlaams Belang * – Patriota, Liberal Party (Brazil, 2006), Liberal party, Brazilian Labour Party (current), Brazilian Labour Party * – Revival (Bulgarian political party), Revival * – Conservative Party of Canada, Conservative Party (factions) * – Republican Party (Chile, 2019), Republican Party * – National Restoration Party (Costa Rica), National Restoration Party, New Republic Party (Costa Rica), New Republic Party, National Integration Party (Costa Rica), National Integration Party * – Homeland Movement (Croatia), Homeland Movement, Croatian Conservative Party * – ELAM (Cyprus), ELAM, Solidarity Movement (Cyprus), Solidarity Movement * – Freedom and Direct Democracy * – , New Right (Denmark), New Right * – Conservative People's Party of Estonia * – Identity and Democracy Party, European Conservatives and Reformists Party (factions) * – * – , Debout la France, * – Alternative for Germany * – Greek Solution, New Democracy (Greece), New Democracy (factions) * – Fidesz, Jobbik, Our Homeland Movement, Volner Party * – Bharatiya Janata Party, Shiv Sena * – Great Indonesia Movement Party * – League, Brothers of Italy, Five Star Movement (factions), Forza Italia (2013), Forza Italia (factions) * – Likud (factions), Yamina, Religious Zionist Party, Otzma Yehudit * – Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), Liberal Democratic Party, Nippon Ishin no Kai, Kibō no Tō * – National Alliance (Latvia), National Alliance, Who owns the state?, Latvia First, Law and Order (Latvia), Law and Order * – Democrats for Liechtenstein * – Alternative Democratic Reform Party * – JA21, , Forum for Democracy (Netherlands), Forum for Democracy * – VMRO-DPMNE * – * – National Union of Ethical Citizens * – Popular Force * – Nacionalista Party * – United Right (Poland), United Right (Law and Justice, United Poland), Confederation Liberty and Independence, Confederation (KORWiN (Poland), KORWiN, National Movement (Poland), National Movement) * – Enough (Portuguese political party), Chega * – Alliance for the Union of Romanians, Romanian Nationhood Party * – United Russia, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Rodina (political party), Rodina * – Serbian People's Party (2014), Serbian People's Party, Serbian Patriotic Alliance * – Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia, We Are Family (Slovakia), We Are Family, REPUBLIC (Slovakia) * – Slovenian Democratic Party, Slovenian National Party * – Freedom Front Plus * - People Power Party (South Korea), People Power Party (factions) * – Vox (political party), Vox * – * – Swiss People's Party, Geneva Citizens' Movement, Ticino League * - Kuomintang (factions), New Party (Taiwan), New party * – Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justice and Development Party, Nationalist Movement Party, Good Party Victory Party (Turkey) * – Svoboda (political party), Svoboda * – Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party (factions), Democratic Unionist Party * – (factions) * – Open Cabildo (Uruguay), Open Cabildo
Not represented in national legislatures* – Red and Black Alliance, Albanian National Front Party * – Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party, Australian Protectionist Party * – Alliance for the Future of Austria, Free Party Salzburg * – Libertair, Direct, Democratisch, People's Party (Belgium), People's Party VLOTT * – Alliance for Brazil, * – Bulgaria Without Censorship, National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria, IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement, Attack (political party), Attack, Volya (Bulgarian political party), Volya * – People's Party of Canada, Alliance of the North, National Advancement Party of Canada * – Republican Party (Chile, 2019), Republican Party, National Force (Chile), National Force * – Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Party of Rights Dr. Ante Starčević, Independents for Croatia * – Workers' Party of Social Justice, Coalition for Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia * – ,Paul Hainsworth (2008).
Former or disbanded right-wing populist parties* – Team Stronach * – National Front (Belgium), National Front, , People's Party (Belgium), People's Party * – Union Nationale (Quebec), Ralliement national, Action démocratique du Québec, Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance, Social Credit Party of Canada, Social Credit Party, Wildrose Party (Alberta) * – New Horizons (Cyprus), New Horizons * – Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja, Croatian Democratic Union (factions) * – Public Affairs (political party), Public Affairs, Dawn - National Coalition * – * – Citizens' Movement Pro Cologne, German Freedom Party, German People's Union, Pro Germany Citizens' Movement, Pro NRW, German National People's Party * – Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy * – Citizens' Party (Iceland), Citizens' Party * - Bharatiya Jana Sangh (Succeeded by Bharatiya Janata Party) * – National Alliance (Italy), National Alliance * – Japan Restoration Party * – Centre Democrats, Rudy Andeweg, Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin ''Politics and Governance in the Netherlands'', Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49 * – Portugal Pro-Life * – Democratic Republican Party (South Korea), Democratic Republican Party, Liberty Korea Party, Onward for Future 4.0 * – Platform for CataloniaAnglada: "Being populist and identitarian is being honestly democratic"
See also* Alt-right * Right-wing antiscience * Brexit * Counter-Enlightenment * Christian right * Dark Enlightenment * Economic nationalism * Fascism * Gaullism * Hindutva * Left-wing populism * National conservatism * National liberalism * Paternalistic conservatism * Putinism * Protectionism * Reactionary * Revisionist Zionism * Right-wing authoritarianism * Social conservatism * Traditionalist conservatism, Traditionalism * White backlash
ReferencesNotes Informational notes
Further reading*Goldwag, Arthur. ''The New Hate: A History of Fear and Loathing on the Populist Right''. Pantheon, February 2012, . *Wodak, Ruth. ''The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean''. London: Sage, 2015. . *Wodak, Ruth, Brigitte Mral and Majid Khosravinik, editors. ''Right wing populism in Europe: politics and discourse''. London. Bloomsbury Academic. 2013. .