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Richard Montagu (or Mountague) (1577 – 13 April 1641) was an English
cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitute ...
and
prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their r ...
.


Early life

Montagu was born during
Christmastide Christmastide is a season of the liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgy, liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines whe ...

Christmastide
1577 at
Dorney Dorney is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is ...
, Buckinghamshire, where his father Laurence Mountague was
vicar A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
, and was educated at
Eton
Eton
. He was elected from Eton to a scholarship at
King's College, Cambridge King's College is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education a ...

King's College, Cambridge
, and admitted on 24 August 1594. His name occurs in the list of junior fellows for the quarter
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Midsummer
to
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1597. He graduated BA before
Lady Day In the Western liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including c ...

Lady Day
1598, MA 1602, BD 1609. He assisted
Sir Henry Savile Sir Henry Savile (30 November 154919 February 1622) was an English scholar and mathematician, Warden A warden is a person who has been entrusted with the oversight of something important to the community, such as a college, church, prison, wild ...
in the
literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities ...
work he carried on at Eton, and the second book issued from the Eton press was his edition of ''The two Invectives of Gregory Nazianzen against Julian'', 1610. He was also to have edited
Basil the Great Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great ( grc, Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, ''Hágios Basíleios ho Mégas''; cop, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was an East Roman b ...
, but the work was never completed. In 1610, he received the
living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct *Personal life, the course of an individual human ...
of Wootton Courtney, Somerset; on 29 April 1613, he was admitted
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of Eton and in the same year received the
rectory A clergy house is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion. Such residences are known by various names, including parsonage, manse A manse () is a inhabited by, or formerly inhabited by, a , usu ...

rectory
of
Stanford Rivers Stanford Rivers is a village and civil parish in the Epping Forest (district), Epping Forest district of Essex, England. The parish, which is approximately west from the county town of Chelmsford, contains the village of Toot Hill, Essex, Toot Hi ...
, Essex. On 9 December 1616 he was installed Dean of Hereford, a post which he exchanged with Oliver Lloyd for a
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of
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Windsor
, in which he was installed on 6 September 1617. He was admitted
Archdeacon of Hereford The Archdeacon An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, E ...
on 15 September 1617. He held also the rectory of
Petworth Petworth is a small town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Chichester (district), Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the junction of the A272 road, A272 east–west road from Heathfield, East Sussex ...
, Sussex, where he rebuilt the
parsonage A clergy house is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion. Such residences are known by various names, including parsonage, manse A manse () is a clergy house A clergy house is the residenc ...

parsonage
, and was chaplain to the king. He held these
preferment A ferment (also known as bread starter) is a fermentation starter used in ''indirect'' methods of bread making. It may also be called mother dough. A ferment and a longer fermentation in the bread making, bread-making process have several benefits ...
s with his fellowship at Eton by dispensation from James I.


Controversial writer

On the death, in 1614, of
Isaac Casaubon Isaac Casaubon (; ; 18 February 1559 – 1 July 1614) was a classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world traditionally refers to the study of Ancient Greek literature, Clas ...
, with whom he had previously corresponded about the ''Exercitationes ad Baronii Annales'' (against
Baronius Cesare Baronio (also known as Caesar Baronius; 30 August 1538 – 30 June 1607) was an Italy, Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church. His best-known works are his ''Annales Ecclesia ...
), Montagu was directed by the King to publish the work. It appeared the same year, and in 1615 James requested him to prepare an answer to Baronius on similar lines. This work, based on studies of classical and patristic antiquity, was at first apparently held back at Archbishop George Abbot's command, but it was issued in 1622 under the title of ''Analecta Ecclesiasticarum Exercitationum''. In the epistle dedicatory addressed to the King, Montagu states his object to be to trace the origins of Christian faith and doctrine, and show that the Anglican position was derived from the "ancient founts". Montagu's aim was to support the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
against its enemies. He would not recognise the foreign Reformed bodies as lawful branches of the church. He never completed the task which he had set himself. In his ''Diatribae upon the first part of the late History of Tithes'', 1621, he entered directly into the controversy of the day, in an attempt to beat
John Selden John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John (; ') is a common masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British Engli ...
on
tithe A tithe (; from : ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in or s, whereas historically tithes were ...
s. Controversy against Catholic teachers in his parish was answered in a pamphlet called ''A Gag for the New Gospel'', by Matthew Kellison; he replied in ''A Gagg for the New Gospell? No. A New Gagg for an old Goose'', 1624. The 'Gagg' had contained forty-seven propositions which it attributed to the Church of England. Of these Montagu only allowed eight to be her true doctrine, again demarcating Anglican doctrine on two fronts. He also issued a defensive work, rebutting
Marco Antonio de Dominis Marco Antonio de Dominis ( hr, Markantun de Dominis) (1560September 1624) was a Dalmatian ecclesiastic, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Split, archbishop of Split and Primate of Dalmatia and all Croatia, adjudged heretic of the Catholic Faith, and m ...

Marco Antonio de Dominis
who charged Montagu with supporting "praying unto saints and angels in time of need". It proved a magnet for controversy, with answer after answer coming from the presses. There was a complaint from two East Anglian ministers, John Yates and
Nathaniel Ward Nathaniel Ward (1578 – October 1652) was a Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the L ...
; Ward had been overseas to 1624, and it was a few years later that he became vicar of Stondon Massey, close to Stanford Rivers in Essex, and one of
Thomas Hooker Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early ...
's anti-Laudian group. The House of Commons referred the book to Abbot. Abbot applied for authority to the King, and remonstrated with Montagu. But James himself approved of his work. "If that is to be a Papist" he said, "so am I a Papist". The matter did not rest with the King's death.


''Appello''

Controversy around Montagu's positions played an important part in the period 1625–9, both in publications and in political moves, and was one of the issues setting the tone for the reign of
Charles I Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name ᚲᚨᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ (in r ...

Charles I
. Montagu had the open support of three bishops (
John Buckeridge John Buckeridge (c. 1562 – 23 May 1631) was an English churchman. Biography He was a son of William Buckeridge of Basildon, Berkshire, but was born in Draycot Cerne, Wiltshire. He was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood and a ...
,
John Howson John Howson ( – 6 February 1632) was an English academic and bishop. Life He was born in the London parish of St Bride's Church, and educated at St Paul's School (London), St Paul's School. He was a student and then a canon of Christ Church, ...
, and
William Laud William Laud (; 7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was a clergyman in the Church of England, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic ...

William Laud
). His ''Appello Caesarem: a just Appeale from two unjust Informers'' (London, 1625) came out with an imprimatur from Francis White, dean of Carlisle, after George Abbot's refusal to license it. It was partly written in self-justification, but also attacked some Calvinist tenets, including the
perseverance of the saints Perseverance of the saints (also called preservation of the saints) is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Je ...
.
Francis Rous Francis Rous or Rouse, circa 1581 to 1659, was an English politician and Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that ...

Francis Rous
defended
double predestination Predestination, in Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make compara ...
against Montagu in ''Testis Veritatis'' (1626). The House of Commons took up the matter, and accused the author of dishonouring the late King (James I). A debate on the matter was followed by Montagu's committal to the custody of the
serjeant-at-arms A serjeant-at-arms, or sergeant-at-arms, is an officer appointed by a deliberative body A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure to Decision-making, make decisions. Etymology ...
. He was, however, allowed to return to Stanford Rivers on giving a bond. Charles then made Montagu one of his chaplains, and let the Commons know on 9 July that he was displeased. On 11 July parliament was prorogued. On 2 August, when the parliament was sitting at Oxford, Montagu was too ill to attend, and after discussion in which
Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke ( "cook", formerly ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A ...

Edward Coke
and
Robert Heath Sir Robert Heath (20 May 1575 – 30 August 1649) was an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer ...
took part, the matter was allowed to drop. But the question was too serious to rest for long. On 16 and 17 January 1626 a conference was held by Charles's command, as the result of which the bishops of London (
George Montaigne George Montaigne (or Mountain; 1569 – 24 October 1628) was an English bishop. Life Montaigne was born in 1569 at Cawood, Yorkshire. He was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, matriculating at Michaelmas 1586, graduating Bachelor of Arts ...
), Durham (
Richard Neile Richard Neile (or Neale; 1562 – 31 October 1640) was an English churchman, bishop successively of six English dioceses, more than any other man, including the Archbishop of York, Archdiocese of York from 1631 until his death. He was involved ...
), Winchester (
Lancelot Andrewes Lancelot Andrewes (155525 September 1626) was an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth I and James I of England, James I. During the latter's reign, An ...

Lancelot Andrewes
), Rochester (Buckeridge), and St. David's (Laud) reported to
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (, ) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; , ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian martyrs, Christian ...

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
that Montagu had not gone further than the doctrine of the Church of England, or what was compatible with it.


York House Conference

The January meeting was followed shortly by a watershed conference beginning 11 February, prompted by
Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick (5 June 158719 April 1658), Lord of the Manor of Hunningham Hunningham is a medieval Manorialism, manor located in the West Midlands (region) of Warwickshire, England. Its location is just over three miles no ...
in Buckingham's house,
York House, Strand York House (formerly Norwich Place or Norwich Palace) was one of a string of mansion houses which formerly stood on the Strand, London, Strand, the principal route from the City of London to the Palace of Westminster. Building Norwich Palace ...
, and later called the York House conference. It took place with the Bishop of Lichfield ( Thomas Morton) and the master of
Emmanuel College, Cambridge Emmanuel College is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education ...

Emmanuel College, Cambridge
( John Preston), representing the opposition to Montagu and Francis White. Buckeridge, supported by White and
John Cosin John Cosin (30 November 1594 – 15 January 1672) was an English churchman. Life He was born at Norwich, and was educated at Norwich School and at Caius College, Cambridge, where he was scholar and afterwards fellow. On taking orders he was ap ...
, defended Montagu's orthodoxy. Buckeridge even denied that the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
had erred in any directly fundamental article of faith. A second conference was held a few days later, at which Montagu defended his theses in person against Morton and Preston. The two days of discussion, attended by nobility, changed no minds.


Subsequent developments

The committee of religion renewed their censure of the ''Appeal'', and the House of Commons voted a petition to the King that the author might be fitly punished and his book burned. The King issued a proclamation (14 June 1626) commanding silence on points of controversy. In March 1628 the House of Commons again appointed a committee of religion to inquire into the cases of Montagu, Roger Mainwaring, and Cosin. Montagu still had the strongest supporters at court in Laud and Buckingham himself; and on the death of George Carleton (bishop), George Carleton, bishop of Chichester and an opponent, he was appointed to the vacant see. He was elected on 14 July 1628 and received dispensation to hold Petworth with his bishopric. On 22 August Montagu was confirmed in Bow Church. During the ceremony one Jones, a stationer, made objection to the confirmation but the objection was over-ruled as informal; and on 24 August he was consecrated at Croydon, on the same day that news came of Buckingham's assassination. A bitter pamphlet, called ''Anti-Montacutum, an Appeale or Remonstrance of the Orthodox Ministers of the Church of England against Richard Mountague'', was published in 1629 at Edinburgh. The House of Commons again took up the matter, and attempts were made at conciliation, by the issue of the declaration prefixed to the Thirty-nine Articles and printed in the ''Book of Common Prayer'', by a letter from Montagu to Abbot disclaiming Arminianism, by the grant of a special pardon to Montagu, and by the issue of a proclamation suppressing the ''Appello Caesarem''.


Bishop

In his diocese Montagu lived at Aldingbourne and
Petworth Petworth is a small town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Chichester (district), Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the junction of the A272 road, A272 east–west road from Heathfield, East Sussex ...
. His process to recover the estate and manor of Selsey, Sussex was decided against him by Robert Heath, now chief justice, in the common pleas, in 1635. He was still engaged in his research into ecclesiastical history, and published several treatises. In 1638 he was at work on a book on the Eucharistic Sacrifice, which he submitted to the approval of Laud. He was also apparently at this time much mixed up in the tortuous negotiations with the papacy which were conducted through Gregorio Panzani; at the same time Montagu was asking licence for his son to visit Rome, and the matter became in the hands of William Prynne a plausible accusation of romanising. On the translation of Matthew Wren, bishop of Norwich, to Ely, Montagu was appointed to the vacant see. He was elected on 4 May 1638, and the election received the royal assent on 9 May. He had long been suffering from a quartan ague, as well as gout and kidney stones. He was again attacked in the House of Commons on 23 February 1641 on account of a petition from the inhabitants of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, against an inhibition directed by the bishop against Mr. Carter, parson of that parish, and a commission was appointed to consider his offences. Before any further steps were taken, he died on 13 April 1641, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral.


Works

Besides works already mentioned, Montagu wrote: * ''Antidiatribae ad priorern partem diatribes J. Caesaris Bulengeri'', Cambridge, 1625. * ''Eusebii de Demonstratione Evangelica libri decem ... omnia studio R. M. Latine facta, notis illustrata'', 1628. * ''Apparatus ad Origines Ecclesiasticas'', Oxford, 1635. * ''De Originibus Ecclesiasticis'', first part, London, 1636; second part, London, 1640. * ''Articles of Inquiry put forth at his Primary Visitation as Bishop of Norwich'' (unauthorised), Cambridge, 1638; (corrected by the bishop), London, 1638; new edition, Cambridge, 1841. * ''Acts and Monuments of the Church'', London, 1642. * ''Versio et Notae in Photii Epistolas'', London, 1651.


Notes


References


Attribution

* * *


Further reading

*Sheila Lambert, ''Richard Montagu, Arminianism and Censorship'', Past and Present, No. 124 (Aug. 1989), pp. 36–68. {{DEFAULTSORT:Montagu, Richard 1577 births 1641 deaths Bishops of Chichester Bishops of Norwich 17th-century Church of England bishops 17th-century English writers 17th-century English male writers Deans of Hereford Archdeacons of Hereford People from South Bucks District People educated at Eton College Canons of Windsor Burials at Norwich Cathedral People from Aldingbourne People from Petworth