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The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern
maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it, repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were Thalassocracy, thalassocratic city-states in Italy in the Middle Ages, Italy and Dalmatia during the ...
from the 11th century to 1797 in
Liguria Liguria (, ; lij, Ligûria ) is a Regions of Italy, region of north-western Italy; its Capital city, capital is Genoa. Its territory is crossed by the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, Apennines Mountain chain, mountain range and is roughly coexte ...

Liguria
on the northwestern
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
coast. During the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
, it was a major commercial power in both the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. Between the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the major financial centers in Europe. Throughout its history, the Genoese Republic established numerous colonies throughout the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, including
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the Regions of France, 18 regions of France. It is the fourth-largest island in the Mediterranean and lies southea ...

Corsica
from 1347 to 1768,
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque dialect, Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a Sovereign state, sovereign city-state and European microstates, microstate on the ...

Monaco
, Southern Crimea from 1266 to 1475 and the islands of
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly conn ...
and
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Masti ...

Chios
from the 14th century to 1462 and 1566 respectively. With the arrival of the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recove ...
, the Republic had lost many of its colonies, and had to shift its interests and focus on banking. This decision would prove successful for Genoa, which remained as one of the hubs of
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distribution of goods and services within ...

capitalism
, with highly developed banks and trading companies. Genoa was known as "''la Superba''" ("the Superb one"), "''la Dominante''" ("The Dominant one"), "''la Dominante dei mari''" ("the Dominant of the Seas"), and "''la Repubblica dei magnifici''" ("the Republic of the Magnificents"). From the 11th century to 1528 it was officially known as the "''Compagna Communis Ianuensis"'' and from 1580 as the "''Serenìscima Repùbrica de Zêna''" ( Most Serene Republic of Genoa). From 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797 the ruler of the republic was the
Doge A doge (; ; plural dogi or doges) was an elected lord and Chief of State in several Italian city-states, notably Venice and Genoa, during the medieval and renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a peri ...
, originally elected for life, after 1528 was elected for terms of two years. However, in actuality, the Republic was an
oligarchy Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between any individual and every other individual within any selected group of people. A description of a power structure would capture the way in w ...
ruled by a small group of
merchant A merchant is a person who trades in Commodity, commodities produced by other people, especially one who trades with foreign countries. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in commerce, business or trade. Merchants have operated for ...

merchant
families, from whom the doges were selected. The Genoese navy played a fundamental role in the wealth and power of the Republic over the centuries and its importance was recognized throughout Europe. To this day, its legacy, as a key factor in the triumph of the Genoese Republic, is still recognized and its coat of arms is depicted in the flag of the
Italian Navy "Fatherland and Honour" , patron = , colors = , colors_label = , march = ( is the return of soldiers to their barrack, or sailors to their ship after a ...
. In 1284, Genoa fought victoriously against the
Republic of Pisa The Republic of Pisa ( it, Repubblica di Pisa) was an independent state centered on the Tuscan Tuscan may refer to: Places * A person from, or something of, from, or related to Tuscany, a region of Italy * Tuscan Archipelago Currency * Tuscan p ...
in the
battle of Meloria The Battle of Meloria was fought near the islet of Meloria in the Ligurian Sea on 5 and 6 August 1284 between the fleets of the Republics of Republic of Genoa, Genoa and Republic of Pisa, Pisa as part of the Genoese-Pisan War. The victory of Gen ...
for the dominance over the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean ...
, and it was an eternal rival of
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...
for dominance in the Mediterranean Sea. The republic began when
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...

Genoa
became a self-governing
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...
in the 11th century and ended when it was conquered by the
French First Republic In the history of France The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age France, Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Greek writers noted the presence of three ma ...
under
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
and replaced with the
Ligurian Republic The Ligurian Republic ( it, Repubblica Ligure) was a French client republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during th ...
. The Ligurian Republic was annexed by the
First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dom ...
in 1805; its restoration was briefly proclaimed in 1814 following the defeat of Napoleon, but it was ultimately annexed by the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
in 1815.


Name

It was officially known as Repubblica di Genova (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
: ''Res Publica Ianuensis'', Ligurian: ''Repúbrica de Zêna'') and was nicknamed by
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to ...

Petrarch
as ''La Superba'', in reference to its glory and impressive landmarks. For over eight centuries the republic was also known as ''la Dominante'' (
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
: The Dominant one), ''la Dominante dei mari'' (English: the Dominant of the Seas), and ''la Repubblica dei magnifici'' (English: the Republic of the Magnificents).


History


Background

After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period from ...

Western Roman Empire
, the city of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...

Genoa
was invaded by Germanic tribes, and, in about 643, Genoa and other Ligurian cities were captured by the
Lombard Kingdom The term Lombard refers to people or things related to Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demograp ...
under the King
Rothari Italy at the time of Rothari. Rothari (or Rothair), ( 606 – 652), of the Harodingi, house of Arodus, was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. He succeeded Arioald, who was an Arianism, Arian like himself, ...
. In 773 the Kingdom was annexed by the
Frankish Empire Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most popul ...
; the first Carolingian count of Genoa was Ademarus, who was given the title ''praefectus civitatis Genuensis''. During this time and in the following century Genoa was little more than a small centre, slowly building its merchant fleet, which was to become the leading commercial carrier of the Western Mediterranean. In 934–35 the town was thoroughly sacked and burned by a Fatimid fleet under
Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-TamimiYa'qub ibn Ishaq al-Tamimi () was a naval commander in Fatimid service who led a major raid against the Italian coasts, Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna and , also ''Saldigna'', ''Sardíngia'', ''Sardinna'', ''Sardinza''; ...
. This has led to discussion about whether early tenth-century Genoa was "hardly more than a fishing village" or a vibrant trading town worth attacking. In the year 958, a diploma granted by
Berengar II of Italy Berengar II (c. 9004 August 966) was the King of Italy from 950 until his deposition in 961. He was a scion of the Anscarids, Anscarid and Unruochings, Unruoching dynasties, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Berengar I of Italy, Bereng ...
gave full legal freedom to the city of Genoa, guaranteeing the possession of its lands in the form of landed lordships. At the end of the 11th century the municipality adopted a constitution, at a meeting consisting of the city's
trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry Industry may refer to: Economics * I ...
s (''compagnie'') and of the lords of the surrounding valleys and coasts. The new city-state was termed a ''Compagna Communis.'' The local organization remained politically and socially significant for centuries. As late as 1382, the members of the Grand Council were classified by both the companion to which they belonged as well as by their political faction ("noble" versus "popular").


Rise

Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
, one of a number of
Italian city-states The Italian city-states were numerous political and independent territorial entities that existed in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of ...
during this period, nominally, the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
was overlord and the
Bishop of Genoa The Archdiocese of Genoa ( la, Archidioecesis Ianuensis) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy. Erected in the 3rd century, it was elevated to an archdiocese on 20 March 1133. The archdiocese of Genoa was, in 1986, united with the d ...
was president of the city; however, actual power was wielded by a number of "
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

consul
s" annually elected by
popular assembly A popular assembly (or people's assembly) is a gathering called to address issues of importance to participants. Assemblies tend to be freely open to participation and operate by direct democracy upright=1.5, A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, o ...
. At that time Muslim raiders were attacking coastal cities on the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean ...
. The Muslims raided
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
in 1004 and in 1015 they escalated their attacks, raiding Luni, with Mujahid al-Siqlabi,
Emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

Emir
of the
Taifa of Denia The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic ...
attacking
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
with a fleet of 125 ships. In 1016 the allied troops of Genoa and
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...
defended Sardinia. In 1066, war erupted between Genoa and Pisa – possibly over control of Sardinia. The republic was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics" (''''), along with
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...
,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...
,
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...
,
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...
,
Ancona Ancona (, also , ; ) is a city and a seaport in the Marche Marche ( , ) is one of the Regions of Italy, twenty regions of Italy. In English, the region is referred to as The Marches ( ). The region is located in the Central Italy, central ar ...
and
RagusaRagusa is the historical name of Dubrovnik. It may also refer to: Places Croatia * the Republic of Ragusa (or Republic of Dubrovnik), the maritime city-state of Ragusa * Cavtat (historically ' in Italian), a town in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croa ...

Ragusa
.G. Benvenuti - Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova, Venezia - Newton & Compton editori, Roma 1989; Armando Lodolini, ''Le repubbliche del mare'', Biblioteca di storia patria, 1967, Roma. In 1087, Genoese and Pisan fleets led by
Hugh of Pisa Huguccio (died 1210) was an Italian canon lawyer. He studied at Bologna, probably under Gandolphus, and taught canon law in the same city, perhaps in the school connected with the monastery of SS. Nabore e Felice. He is believed to have become Bi ...
and accompanied by troops from Pantaleone of
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
,
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
and
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Gaeta
, attacked the
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
n city of
Mahdia Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = Tunis , largest_city = capital , coordinates = ...

Mahdia
, the capital of the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it rang ...

Fatimid Caliphate
. The attack, supported by
Pope Victor III Pope Victor III ( 1026 – 16 September 1087), born Dauferio, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 May 1086 to his death. He was the successor of Pope Gregory VII, yet his pontificate is far less notable than ...

Pope Victor III
, became known as the Mahdia campaign. The attackers captured the city, but could not hold it against Arab forces. After the burning of the Arab fleet in the city's harbor, the Genoese and Pisan troops retreated. The destruction of the Arab fleet gave control of the Western Mediterranean to Genoa,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...
, and Pisa. This enabled Western Europe to supply the troops of the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conque ...
of 1096–1099 by sea. In 1092, Genoa and Pisa, in collaboration with
Alfonso VI of León and Castile Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was king of León (10651072) and of Galicia (10711109), and then king of the reunited Castile and León (10721109). After the conquest of Toledo, Spain, Toledo in 1085, Alfons ...
attacked the Muslim
Taifa of Valencia The Taifa of Valencia () was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally c ...
. They also unsuccessfully besieged
Tortosa Tortosa (; ) is the capital of the ''comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnationa ...

Tortosa
with support from troops of
Sancho Ramírez Sancho Ramírez ( 1042 – 4 June 1094) was Kingdom of Aragón, King of Aragon from 1063 until 1094 and Kingdom of Pamplona, King of Pamplona from 1076 under the name of Sancho V ( eu, Antso V.a Ramirez). He was the eldest son of Ramiro I of Arag ...
,
King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between 950 and 1035 when the County of Aragon, which had been acquired by the Kingdom of Navarre in the tenth century, was separated from Navarre in ...
. Genoa started expanding during the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conque ...
. In 1097
Hugh of Châteauneuf Hugh of Châteauneuf (, 1053 – 1 April 1132), also called Hugh of Grenoble, was the Bishop of Grenoble The Roman Catholic Diocese of Grenoble–Vienne-les-Allobroges (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic langu ...
,
Bishop of Grenoble The Roman Catholic Diocese of Grenoble–Vienne-les-Allobroges (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
and
William William is a male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...
,
Bishop of OrangeImage:Nef ND de Nazareth.JPG, 250px, Interior of Orange Cathedral The ancient residential diocese of Orange in the Comtat Venaissin in Provence, a fief belonging to the Papacy, was suppressed by the French government during the French Revolution. ...
, went to Genoa and preached in the church of San Siro in order to gather troops for the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conque ...
. At the time the city had a population of about 10,000. Twelve
galley A galley is a type of that is propelled mainly by . The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow , and low (clearance between sea and railing). Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, b ...

galley
s, one ship and 1,200 soldiers from Genoa joined the crusade. The Genoese troops, led by noblemen de Insula and Avvocato, set sail in July 1097. The Genoese fleet transported and provided naval support to the crusaders, mainly during the
siege of Antioch The siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098, on the crusaders' way to Jerusalem through Syria (region), Syria. Two sieges took place in succession. The first siege, by the crusaders against the city held by the Se ...

siege of Antioch
in 1098, when the Genoese fleet blockaded the city while the troops provided support during the siege. In the siege of Jerusalem in 1099
Genoese crossbowmen The Genoese crossbowmen ( it, Balestrieri genovesi) was a famous military corps of the Middle Ages, which acted both in defence of the Republic of Genoa and as a mercenary force for other Italian city-states, Italian or European powers. Armed wi ...
led by
Guglielmo Embriaco Guglielmo Embriaco (Latin ''Guillermus Embriacus'', Genoese ''Ghigærmo de ri Embrieghi'', English ''William the Drunkard''; born c. 1040), was a Genoa, Genoese merchant and military leader who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the a ...
acted as support units against the defenders of the city. After the capture of Antioch on May 3, 1098, Genoa forged an alliance with
Bohemond of Taranto Bohemond I (3 March 1111) was the Prince of Taranto The Principality of Taranto was a state in southern Italy created in 1088 for Bohemond I, eldest son of Robert Guiscard, as part of the peace between him and his younger brother Roger Borsa af ...
, who became the ruler of the
Principality of Antioch The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wa ...
. As a result, he granted them a headquarters, the church of San Giovanni, and 30 houses in Antioch. On May 6, 1098 a part of the Genoese army returned to Genoa with the relics of
Saint John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history'' ...

Saint John the Baptist
, granted to the Republic of Genoa as part of their reward for providing military support to the First Crusade. Many settlements in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
were given to Genoa as well as favorable commercial treaties. Genoa later forged an alliance with King
Baldwin I of Jerusalem Baldwin I also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2April 1118), was the first from 1098 to 1100, and the first from 1100 to his death. Being the youngest son of , and , he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a ...

Baldwin I of Jerusalem
(reigned 1100–1118). In order to secure the alliance Baldwin gave Genoa one-third of the Lordship of Arsuf, one-third of
Caesarea Caesarea () (, he, קֵיסָרְיָה), ''Keysariya'' or ''Qesarya'', often simplified to Keisarya, and Qaysaria, is a town in north-central Israel, which inherits its name and much of its territory from the ancient city of Caesarea Maritima ...

Caesarea
, and one-third of
Acre The acre is a of land area used in the and systems. It is traditionally defined as the area of one by one (66 by 660 feet), which is exactly equal to 10 square chains, of a square mile, or 43,560 square feet, and approximately 4,047 m ...
and its port's income. Additionally the Republic of Genoa would receive 300
bezant In the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe ...
s every year, and one-third of Baldwin's conquest every time 50 or more Genoese soldiers joined his troops. The Republic's role as a maritime power in the region secured many favorable commercial treaties for Genoese merchants. They came to control a large portion of the trade of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
,
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
(Libya), the
Principality of Antioch The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wa ...
,
Cilician Armenia The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia ( Middle Armenian: , '), also known as Cilician Armenia ( hy, Կիլիկեան Հայաստան, '), Lesser Armenia, Little Armenia, or New Armenia and formerly known as the Armenian Principality of Cilicia ( hy, ...
, and Egypt. Although Genoa maintained free-trading rights in Egypt and Syria, it lost some of its territorial possessions after Saladin's campaigns in those areas in the late 12th century. In 1147, Genoa took part in the Siege of
Almería Almería (, also , ) is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of Almería, province of the same name. Abd al-Rahman III founded the Alcazaba of Almería, Alcazaba ...

Almería
, helping Alfonso VII of León and Castile reconquer that city from the Muslims. After the conquest the republic leased out its third of the city to one of its own citizens, Otto de Bonvillano, who swore fealty to the republic and promised to guard the city with three hundred men at all times. This demonstrates how Genoa's early efforts at expanding her influence involved Feoffment, enfeoffing private citizens to the commune and controlling overseas territories indirectly, rather than through the republican administration. In 1148, it joined the Siege of Tortosa (1148), Siege of Tortosa and helped Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona take that city, for which it also received a third. Over the course of the 11th and particularly the 12th centuries, Genoa became the dominant naval force in the Western Mediterranean, as its erstwhile rivals Pisa and Amalfi declined in importance. Genoa (along with Venice) succeeded in gaining a central position in the Mediterranean slave trade at this time. This left the Republic with only one major rival in the Mediterranean: Venice. Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant, which Genoese long regarded as the Holy Grail. Not all of Genoa's merchandise was so innocuous, however, as medieval Genoa became a major player in the slave trade.


Thirteenth and fourteenth century

The commercial and cultural rivalry of Genoa and Venice was played out through the thirteenth century. The Republic of Venice played a significant role in the Fourth Crusade, diverting "Latin" energies to the ruin of its former patron and present trading rival, Constantinople. As a result, Venetian support of the newly established Latin Empire meant that Venetian trading rights were enforced, and Venice gained control of a large portion of the commerce of the eastern Mediterranean. In order to regain control of the commerce, the Republic of Genoa allied with Michael VIII Palaiologos, emperor of Empire of Nicaea, Nicaea, who wanted to restore the Byzantine Empire by recapturing Constantinople. In March 1261 the treaty of the alliance was signed in Kemalpaşa, Nymphaeum. On July 25, 1261, Nicaean troops under Alexios Strategopoulos recaptured Constantinople. As a result, the balance of favour tipped toward Genoa, which was granted free trade rights in the Nicene Empire. Besides the control of commerce in the hands of Genoese merchants, Genoa received ports and way stations in many islands and settlements in the Aegean Sea. The islands of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Masti ...

Chios
and
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly conn ...
became commercial stations of Genoa as well as the city of Smyrna (Izmir). Genoa and Pisa became the only states with trading rights in the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. In the same century the Republic conquered many settlements in Crimea, where the Genoese colony of Feodosiya, Caffa was established. The alliance with the restored Byzantine Empire increased the wealth and power of Genoa, and simultaneously decreased Venetian and Pisan commerce. The Byzantine Empire had granted the majority of free trading rights to Genoa. In 1282
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...
tried to gain control of the commerce and administration of
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the Regions of France, 18 regions of France. It is the fourth-largest island in the Mediterranean and lies southea ...

Corsica
, after being called for support by the judge Sinucello who revolted against Genoa. In August 1282, part of the Genoese fleet blockaded Pisan commerce near the river Arno. During 1283 both Genoa and Pisa made war preparations. Genoa built 120 galleys, 60 of which belonged to the Republic, while the other 60 galleys were rented to individuals. More than 15,000 mercenaries were hired as rowmen and soldiers. The Pisan fleet avoided combat, and tried to wear out the Genoese fleet during 1283. On August 5, 1284, in the naval Battle of Meloria the Genoese fleet, consisting of 93 ships led by Oberto Doria and Benedetto I Zaccaria, defeated the Pisan fleet, which consisted of 72 ships and was led by Albertino Morosini and Ugolino della Gherardesca. Genoa captured 30 Pisan ships, and sank seven. About 8,000 Pisans were killed during the battle, more than half of the Pisan troops, which were about 14,000. The defeat of Pisa, which never fully recovered as a maritime competitor, resulted in gain of control of the commerce of Corsica by Genoa. The Sardinian town of Sassari, which was under Pisan control, became a Medieval commune, commune or self-styled Republic of Sassari, "free municipality" which was controlled by Genoa. Control of Sardinia, however, did not pass permanently to Genoa: the Aragonese kings of Naples disputed control and did not secure it until the fifteenth century. Genoese merchants pressed south, to the island of Sicily, and into Muslim North Africas, where Genoese established trading posts, pursuing the gold that traveled up through the Sahara and establishing Atlantic depots as far afield as Salé and Safi, Morocco, Safi. In 1283 the population of the Kingdom of Sicily revolted against the Capetian House of Anjou, Angevin rule. The revolt became known as the Sicilian Vespers. As a result, the Kingdom of Aragon, Aragonese rule was established on the Kingdom. Genoa, which had supported the Aragonese, was granted free trading and export rights in the Kingdom of Sicily. Genoese bankers also profited from loans to the new nobility of Sicily. Corsica was formally annexed in 1347. Genoa was far more than a depot of drugs and spices from the East: an essential engine of its economy was the weaving of silk textiles, from imported thread, following the symmetrical styles of Byzantine silk, Byzantine and Sassanian silks. As a result of the economic retrenchment in Europe in the late fourteenth century, as well as its long Venetian-Genoese War, war with Venice, which culminated in its War of Chioggia, defeat at Chioggia (1380), Genoa went into decline. This pivotal war with Venice has come to be called the War of Chioggia because of this decisive battle which resulted in the defeat of Genoa at the hands of Venice. Prior to the War of Chioggia, which lasted from 1379 until 1381, the Genoese had enjoyed a naval ascendency that was the source of their power and position within northern Italy. The Genoan defeat deprived Genoa of this naval supremacy, pushed it out of eastern Mediterranean markets and began the decline of the city-state. Rising Ottoman Empire, Ottoman power also cut into the Genoese emporia in the Aegean, and the Black Sea trade was reduced. In 1396, in order to protect the republic from internal unrest and the provocations of the Duke of Orléans and the Gian Galeazzo Visconti, former Duke of Milan, the Doge of Genoa Antoniotto Adorno made Charles VI of France the ''difensor del comune'' ("defender of the municipality") of Genoa. Though the republic had previously been under partial foreign control, this marked the first time Genoa was dominated by a foreign power.


Golden age of Genoese bankers

Though not well-studied, Genoa in the 15th century seems to have been tumultuous. The city had a strong tradition of trading goods from the Levant and its financial expertise was recognised all over Europe. After a brief period of French domination from 1394 to 1409, Genoa came under the rule of the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
to Aragon,
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the Regions of France, 18 regions of France. It is the fourth-largest island in the Mediterranean and lies southea ...

Corsica
to internal revolt, and its
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
ern, Eastern European, and Asia Minor colonies to the Ottoman Empire. In the 15th century two of the earliest banks in the world were founded in Genoa: the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, which was the oldest state deposit bank in the world at its closure in 1805 and the Banca Carige, founded in 1483 as a mount of piety, which still exists. Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa  1451, and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. Threatened by Alfonso V of Aragon, the Doge of Genoa in 1458 handed the Republic over to the French, making it the Duchy of Genoa under the control of John II, Duke of Lorraine, John of Anjou, a French royal governor. However, with support from Milan, Genoa revolted and the Republic was restored in 1461. The Milanese then changed sides, conquering Genoa in 1464 and holding it as a fief of the French crown. Between 1463–1478 and 1488–1499, Genoa was held by the Milanese House of Sforza. From 1499 to 1528, the Republic reached its nadir, being under nearly continual French occupation. The Spanish, with their intramural allies, the "old nobility" entrenched in the mountain fastnesses behind Genoa, captured the city on May 30, 1522, and subjected the city to a merciless pillage. When the great admiral Andrea Doria of the powerful Doria (family), Doria family allied with the Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V to oust the French and restore Genoa's independence, a renewed prospect opened: 1528 marks the first loan from Genoese banks to Charles. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria, Grimaldi, Pallavicini, and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean (such as chattel slavery) were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. At the time of Genoa's peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Peter Paul Rubens, Rubens, Caravaggio and Van Dyck. The architect Galeazzo Alessi (1512–1572) designed many of the city's splendid palazzo, palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco (1590–1657), designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. Thereafter, Genoa underwent something of a revival as a junior associate of the Spanish Empire, with Genoese bankers, in particular, financing many of the Spanish crown's foreign endeavors from their counting houses in Seville. Fernand Braudel has even called the period 1557 to 1627 the "age of the Genoese", "of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it" (Braudel 1984 p. 157), although the modern visitor passing brilliant Mannerist and Baroque palazzo facades along Genoa's ''Strada Nova'' (now Via Garibaldi) or ''via Balbi'' cannot fail to notice that there was conspicuous wealth, which in fact was not Genoese but concentrated in the hands of a tightly knit circle of banker-financiers, true "venture capitalists". Genoa's trade, however, remained closely dependent on control of Mediterranean sealanes, and the loss of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Masti ...

Chios
to the Ottoman Empire (1566), struck a severe blow. The opening for the Genoese banking consortium was the National bankruptcy, state bankruptcy of Philip II of Spain, Philip II in 1557, which threw the German banking houses into chaos and ended the reign of the Fuggers as Spanish financiers. The Genoese bankers provided the unwieldy Habsburg system with fluid credit and a dependably regular income. In return the less dependable shipments of American silver were rapidly transferred from Seville to Genoa, to provide capital for further ventures. From about 1520 the Genoese controlled the port of Panama, the first port on the Pacific founded by the conquest of the Americas; the Genoese obtained a concession to exploit the port mainly for the slave trade of the new world on the Pacific, until the destruction of the primeval city in 1671. The Genoese banker Ambrogio Spinola, marqués de los Balbases, Ambrogio Spinola, Marquess of Los Balbases, for instance, raised and led an army that fought in the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands in the early 17th century. The decline of Spain in the 17th century brought also the renewed decline of Genoa, and the Spanish crown's frequent bankruptcies, in particular, ruined many of Genoa's merchant houses. In 1684 the city was Bombardment of Genoa, heavily bombarded by a French fleet as punishment for its alliance with Spain.


Decline

In May 1625 a French-Savoian army briefly laid siege to Genoa. Though it was eventually Relief of Genoa, lifted with the aid of the Spanish, the French would later Bombardment of Genoa, bombard the city in May 1684 for its support of Spain during the War of the Reunions. In-between, a Naples Plague, plague killed as many as half of the inhabitants of Genoa in 1656–57. Genoa continued its slow decline well into the 18th century, losing its last Mediterranean colony, the island fortress of Tabarka, to the Bey of Tunis in 1742. In a climate of constant economic and power decline, in 1729 the Republic had to face another revolt in Corsica. It is considered the first moment of real rupture between the island and the Genoese Republic: perhaps the most important, because the representatives of the Catholic Church, Church in full harmony with the Roman Curia, “justified” the war. This time the Genoese government requested the help of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, who sent 10,000 German infantry of the Imperial Army (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Army, after the payment by Genoa of 60,000 florin, florins and 100 Italian scudo, scudos for each dead soldier, joining the Republic's soldiers commanded by Camillo Doria. Genoa managed to contain the rebellion, however this did not prove lasting. Another revolt broke out in 1733, causing the Genoese to again appeal to the Emperor, but the Imperial Army was tied up against the French in the ongoing War of the Polish Succession, and thus declined to intervene. Even before the rebellions, Genoa's control of the island had been loose; the Republic had effectively demilitarized itself, with only 2,000 soldiers (all spread throughout fortifications in Liguria) for a mainland population of about half a million, and law and order on Corsica were very weak, with nearly 900 homicides per 100,000 people there annually from 1701 to 1733. The Genoese government tried to ban private firearm ownership on Corsica without success. A guerilla war would continue on the island until it was sold to France in 1768. The Convention of Turin of 1742, in which Austria allied with the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
, caused some consternation in the Republic. However, when this provisional relationship was given a more durable and reliable character in the signing of the Treaty of Worms (1743), Treaty of Worms, in 1743, the fear of diplomatic isolation had caused the Genoese Republic to abandon its neutrality and to ally with the House of Bourbon in the War of the Austrian Succession. Consequently, the Republic of Genoa signed a secret treaty with the Bourbon allies of Kingdom of France, Spanish Empire and Kingdom of Naples. On 26 June 1745, the Republic of Genoa declared war on the Kingdom of Sardinia. This decision would prove disastrous for Genoa, which later surrendered to the Austrians in September 1746 and was briefly occupied before a revolt liberated the city two months later. The Austrians returned in 1747 and, along with a contingent of Sardinian forces, Siege of Genoa (1747), laid siege to Genoa before being driven off by the approach of a Franco-Spanish army. Though Genoa retained its lands in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, it was unable to keep its hold on
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the Regions of France, 18 regions of France. It is the fourth-largest island in the Mediterranean and lies southea ...

Corsica
in its weakened state. After driving out the Genoese, the Corsican Republic was declared in 1755. Eventually relying on French intervention to quash the rebellion, Genoa was forced to cede Corsica to the French in the 1768 Treaty of Versailles (1768), Treaty of Versailles.


The end of the Republic and its brief revival of 1814

Already in 1794 and 1795 the revolutionary echoes from France reached Genoa, thanks to Genoese propagandists and refugees sheltered in the nearby state of the Alps, and in 1794 a conspiracy against the aristocratic and oligarchic ruling class that, in fact, was already waiting for it in the Genoese palaces of power. However, it was in May 1797 that the intent of the Genoese jacobins and French citizens to overthrow the government of the Doge Giacomo Maria Brignole took shape, giving rise to a fratricidal war in the streets between opponents and popular supporters of the current customs system. The direct intervention of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
(during the Campaigns of 1796 in the French Revolutionary Wars, Campaigns of 1796) and his representatives in Genoa was the final act that led to the fall of the Republic in early June, who overthrew the old elites which had ruled the state for all of its history, giving birth to the
Ligurian Republic The Ligurian Republic ( it, Repubblica Ligure) was a French client republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during th ...
on June 14, 1797, under the watchful care of Napoleonic France. After Bonaparte's seizure of power in France, a more conservative constitution was enacted, but the Ligurian Republic's life was short—in 1805 it was annexed by France, becoming the ''département in France, départements'' of Apennins, Gênes, and Montenotte (department), Montenotte. With the fall of Napoleon, and the subsequent Congress of Vienna, Genoa regained an ephemeral independence, with the name of the ''Repubblica genovese'', which lasted less than a year. However, the congress established the annexation of the territories, and therefore of the whole of Liguria with the Oltregiogo area and the island of Capraia to the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
, governed by the House of Savoy, contravening the principle of restoring the legitimate governments and monarchies of the old Republic.


Government

The history of Genoa, of the Genoese and of the republic that held its fate for a long time, but also of the governments that gradually took turns leading the city, to reach the time of the Doges, is traceable through the work of historians who have continued the storytelling work begun at the end of the 11th century by Caffaro Di Caschifellone (historian and himself municipal consul) with the "Annales ianuenses". The Republic of Genoa's governance history is divided into five stages: * Consul: 11th century–1191 * Podestà: 1191–1256 * Capitano del popolo: 1257–1339 *
Doge A doge (; ; plural dogi or doges) was an elected lord and Chief of State in several Italian city-states, notably Venice and Genoa, during the medieval and renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a peri ...
(elected for life): 1339–1528 * Doge (elected for terms of two years): 1528–1797 The republic was substantially democratic in shape, while those of the Podestàs and the Captains of the people strongly restored the often conflicting relationship between the authority and the freedom. The perpetual doges, on the other hand, proclaimed themselves popular, even though sometimes crossing the oligarchy; finally the fifth republic was institutionally aristocratic. By custom, prelates in Genoa were unable to take on public office.


Aristocratic families

In the first two centuries from the institution of the Dogate for life in Genoa, it was above all the Adorno family, Adorno (seven doges elected) and Fregoso (ten doges elected) families who fought the position. After the reform of 1528, among the seventy-nine "biennial Doges" who came to power, many were elected from a small number of noble houses in the city organized into 28 "Albergo (family), Alberghi", in particular: * House of Grimaldi, Grimaldi: eleven doges. * House of Spinola, Spinola: eleven doges. * Durazzo family, Durazzo: eight doges. * De Franchi, Giustiniani and Lomellini families: seven doges each. * Centurione: six doges. * Doria (family), Doria: six doges. * Cattaneo family, Cattaneo: five doges. *Gentile: five doges. * Brignole: four doges. * Imperiali family, Imperiali: four doges. * De Mari, Invrea and Negrone families: four doges each. * Pallavicini family, Pallavicini: three doges. * Sauli: three doges. * Balbi, Cambiaso, Chiavari, Lercari, Pinelli, Promontorio, Veneroso, Viale and Zoagli families: two doges each. * Della Torre: two doges. * Assereto, Ayroli, Canevaro, Chiavica Cibo, Clavarezza, Da Passano, De Ferrari, De Fornari, De Marini, Di Negro, Ferreti, Franzoni, Frugoni, Garbarino, Giudice Calvi, Odone, Saluzzo, Senarega, Vacca and Vivaldi: one doge each * Della Rovere: one doge. Other influential families of the Republic of Genoa were: * Fieschi family, Fieschi: counts of Lavagna, and produced two Popes: Pope Innocent IV and Pope Adrian V * Gattilusi: lords of numerous lands in the Aegean Sea, such as Lemnos,
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly conn ...
, Enez and Samothrace. * Embriaco family, Embriaco: Byblos, Lords of Gibelet for almost 200 years, and important players in the history of the Crusader states.


Territories during the Middle Ages

At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...

Genoa
and the surrounding areas. As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of
Liguria Liguria (, ; lij, Ligûria ) is a Regions of Italy, region of north-western Italy; its Capital city, capital is Genoa. Its territory is crossed by the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, Apennines Mountain chain, mountain range and is roughly coexte ...

Liguria
fell under the Republic of Genoa. After the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conque ...
in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria (region), Syria. (It lost the majority of them during the campaigns of Saladin in the 12th century.) In 1261 the city of Izmir, Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa established the Genoese colonies, colony of Feodosiya, Caffa in Crimea. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Sudak, Soldaia, Kerch, Cherco and Balaklava, Cembalo. In 1275 the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
granted the islands of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Masti ...

Chios
and Samos to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
colonies of Azov, La Tana (present-day Azov) and Samsun in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly conn ...
to Francesco I Gattilusio, a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the colony of Samastri was established in the Black Sea and Cyprus was granted to the Republic. At that period the Republic of Genoa also controlled one quarter of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, and Trabzon, Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond. The Ottoman Empire conquered most of the Genoese overseas territories during the 15th century.


Other territories outside mainland Italy

*Giudicato of Logudoro (island of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
) 1259–1325 *North Aegean Aegean sea, sea possessions, centered at
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Masti ...

Chios
1261–1566 * Southern Crimea possessions of Gazaria (Genoese colonies), Gazaria 1266–1475 (lost to Ottoman Empire, Kefe Eyalet) * Island of
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the Regions of France, 18 regions of France. It is the fourth-largest island in the Mediterranean and lies southea ...

Corsica
1284–1768 * The cities of Byblos, Gibelet (1100–late 13th century) and Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre (present-day Lebanon) * City of Tabarka north west of Tunisia 1540–1742 * The cities of Calafat, Giurgiu and Galați, about the 14th century (present-day Romania)


Economy

Genoese traders bought salt - from Hyères near Toulon in French Provence, from Cagliari in Sardinia, Tortosa in Iberia, and from other areas in the Black Sea, North Africa, Cyprus, Crete, and Ibiza - and made salami. They then sold salami in southern Italy for raw silk, which was sold in Lucca for fabrics, which were then sold to Lyon. Mule caravans from Genoa carried salt directly to Piacenza, where it was transferred to river barges and transported down the Po (river), Po to Parma, and other Po Valley cities such as Reggio Emilia, Reggio and Bologna. Along these trade routes, Genoa competed with
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...
for salt and for other cargoes, such as salami, prosciutto, cheese, textiles and spices.


See also

* Doge of Genoa * Genoese colonies *
Genoese crossbowmen The Genoese crossbowmen ( it, Balestrieri genovesi) was a famous military corps of the Middle Ages, which acted both in defence of the Republic of Genoa and as a mercenary force for other Italian city-states, Italian or European powers. Armed wi ...
* Gazaria (Genoese colonies) *Great Council and Minor Council of Genoa


References


Notes


Citations

{{Coord, 44.4108, N, 8.9322, E, source:wikidata, display=title Republic of Genoa, 11th-century establishments in Italy 2nd millennium in Italy States and territories established in 1005 States and territories disestablished in 1797 States and territories established in 1814 States and territories disestablished in 1815 Maritime republics, Genoa History of the Mediterranean History of the Black Sea Italian Renaissance Former republics States and territories established in the 11th century 1797 disestablishments in Italy Christian states, Genoa Italian city-states Medieval Crimea Italian states Former countries