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Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of
classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ...
, at first in Italy and then spreading across
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. During the period, the term ''humanist'' ( it, umanista) referred to teachers and students of the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
, known as the , which included
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...
,
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
,
history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...

history
,
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre (poetry), metre—to ...

poetry
, and
moral philosophy Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of min ...
. It was not until the 19th century that this began to be called ''humanism'' instead of the original ''humanities'', and later by the
retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between two types, whereas previously (before there were more than one typ ...
''Renaissance humanism'' to distinguish it from later humanist developments. During the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
period most humanists were Christians, so their concern was to "purify and renew Christianity", not to do away with it. Their vision was to return ''
ad fontes ''Ad fontes'' is a Latin expression which means " ackto the sources" (lit. "to the sources"). The phrase epitomizes the renewed study of Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ) ...
'' ("to the sources") to the simplicity of the New Testament, bypassing the complexities of medieval theology. Under the influence and inspiration of the classics, humanists developed a new rhetoric and new learning. Some scholars also argue that humanism articulated new moral and civic perspectives and values offering guidance in life. Renaissance humanism was a response to what came to be depicted by later
whig historians Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular su ...
as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval
scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis predicated upon a Latin Catholic theistic curriculum which dominated teaching in the medieval university, medieval universities in Europe ...
. Humanists sought to create a
citizenry Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. ...

citizenry
able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to
virtuous Virtue ( la, virtus) is a morality, moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is Value (ethics), valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics Va ...

virtuous
and prudent actions. Humanism, whilst set up by a small elite who had access to books and education, was intended as a cultural mode to influence all of society. It was a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of humanism in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
,
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania (man), it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...

Naples
,
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...

Rome
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...

Venice
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italia ...

Genoa
,
Mantua Mantua ( ; it, Mantova ; Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title ...

Mantua
,
Ferrara Ferrara (, ; egl, Fràra ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting o ...

Ferrara
, and
Urbino Urbino ( ; ; Romagnol: ''Urbìn'') is a walled city in the Marche (man) (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demogr ...

Urbino
.


Definition

Very broadly, the project of the Italian Renaissance humanists of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was the ''studia humanitatis'': the study of the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
. This project sought to recover the culture of ancient Greece and Rome through its literature and philosophy and to use this classical revival to imbue the ruling classes with the moral attitudes of said ancients—a project
James Hankins James Hankins (born 1955) is an intellectual historian specializing in the Italian Renaissance. He is the General Editor of the I Tatti Renaissance Library and the Associate Editor of the Catalogus translationum et commentariorum, Catalogus Transl ...
calls one of "virtue politics".Hankins, James (2019). ''Virtue Politics: Soulcraft and Statecraft in Renaissance Italy.'' The Belknap Press of Harvard University. But what this ''studia humanitatis'' actually constituted is a subject of much debate. According to one scholar of the movement,
Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not merely provided the old
Trivium The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The trivium is implicit in ''De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii'' ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury") by Martianus Capella, but the ...

Trivium
with a new and more ambitious name (''Studia humanitatis''), but also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production. The ''studia humanitatis'' excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, and moral philosophy, but also made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group.
However, in investigating this definition in his article "The changing concept of the ''studia humanitatis'' in the early Renaissance," Benjamin G. Kohl provides an account of the various meanings the term took on over the course of the period: Around the middle of the fourteenth century, when the term first came into use among Italian '' literati'', it was used in reference to a very specific text: as praise of the cultural and moral attitudes expressed in
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...

Cicero
’s ''Pro Archia poeta'' (62 BCE). Tuscan humanist
Coluccio Salutati 200px, Coluccio Salutati Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italians, Italian Renaissance humanism, humanist and notary, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence, Italy, Florence; ...
popularized the term in the 1370s, using the phrase to refer to culture and learning as a guide to moral life, with a focus on rhetoric and oration. Over the years, he came to use it specifically in literary praise of his contemporaries, but later viewed the ''studia humanitatis'' as a means of editing and restoring ancient texts and even understanding scripture and other divine literature. But it was not until the beginning of the
quattrocento The cultural and artistic events of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsul ...
(fifteenth century) that the ''studia humanitatis'' began to be associated with particular academic disciplines, when Pier Paolo Vergerio, in his ''De ingenuis moribus'', stressed the importance of rhetoric, history, and moral philosophy as a means of moral improvement. By the middle of the century, the term was adopted more formally, as it started to be used in Bologna and Padua in reference to university courses that taught these disciplines as well as Latin poetry, before then spreading northward throughout Italy. But the first instance of it as encompassing grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy all together only came when
Tommaso Parentucelli
Tommaso Parentucelli
wrote to Cosimo de’ Medici with recommendations regarding his library collection, saying, ''"de studiis autem humanitatis quantum ad grammaticam, rhetoricam, historicam et poeticam spectat ac moralem"'' ("one sees of the study of humanity he humanitiesthat it is so much in grammar, rhetoric, history and poetry, and also in ethics"). And so, the term ''studia humanitatis'' took on a variety of meanings over the centuries, being used differently by humanists across the various Italian city-states as one definition got adopted and spread across the country. Still, it has referred consistently to a mode of learning—formal or not—that results in one's moral edification.


Origin

In the last years of the
13th century The 13th century was the which lasted from January 1, () through December 31, () in accordance with the . The term is often used to refer to the 1200s, the century between 1200 and 1299. The was founded by , which stretched from to . The ...
and in the first decades of the
14th century As a means of recording the passage of time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through th ...
, the cultural climate was changing in some European regions. The rediscovery, study, and renewed interest in authors who had been forgotten, and in the classical world that they represented, inspired a flourishing return to linguistic, stylistic and literary models of antiquity. There emerged a consciousness of the need for a cultural renewal, which sometimes also meant a detachment from contemporary culture. Manuscripts and inscriptions were in high demand and graphic models were also imitated. This “return to the ancients” was the main component of so-called “pre-humanism”, which developed particularly in
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
, in the
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
region, and at the papal court of
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of So ...

Avignon
, through the activity of figures such as Lovato Lovati and Albertino Mussato in Padua,
Landolfo ColonnaLandulf or Landulph, Italian ''Landolfo'' and Latin ''Landolfus'', ''Landulphus'', etc., is a masculine given name of Germanic (possibly Lombardic) origin. It may refer to: *Landulf I of BeneventoLandulf or Landulph, Italian ''Landolfo'' and Latin '' ...
in Avignon, Ferreto Ferretti in Vicenza, Convenevole from Prato in Tuscany and then in
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of So ...

Avignon
, and many others. By the 14th century some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...

manuscript
s, including
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases ...

Petrarch
,
Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angliciza ...

Giovanni Boccaccio
,
Coluccio Salutati 200px, Coluccio Salutati Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italians, Italian Renaissance humanism, humanist and notary, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence, Italy, Florence; ...
, and
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism," as he was the one who first encouraged the study of pagan civilizations and the teaching of classical virtues as a means of preserving Christianity. He also had a very impressive
library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ...
, of which many manuscripts did not survive. Many worked for the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and were in
holy orders In certain Christian churches Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church ...
, like Petrarch, while others were
lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English ...

lawyer
s and
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...

chancellor
s of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple
Salutati Image:Salutati.jpg, 200px, Coluccio Salutati Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italians, Italian Renaissance humanism, humanist and notary, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florenc ...

Salutati
, the
Chancellor of Florence The Chancellor of Florence held the most important position in the bureaucracy of the Florentine Republic The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic ( it, Repubblica Fiorentina, , or ), was a medieval and early modern state th ...
. In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the
upper class Upper class in modern societies is the social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social rel ...
es had received humanist educations, possibly in addition to traditional scholastic ones. Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Such was
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
Basilios Bessarion Bessarion ( el, Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472) was a Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christ ...
, a
convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ''Cyberman'' * Conversion (Stargate Atlantis), "Conversion" (''Stargate Atlantis ...
to the Catholic Church from
Greek Orthodoxy The Greek Orthodox Church (Greek language, Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία, ''Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía'', ) is the body of several Christian denomination, churches within the larger full communion, communion of Eastern Orth ...
, who was considered for the
papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
, and was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several 15th-century and early 16th-century humanist Popes one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II), was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on ''The Education of Boys''. These subjects came to be known as the humanities, and the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the
Crusader Crusader or Crusaders may refer to: Military * Crusader, a participant in one of the Crusades * Convair NB-36H Crusader, an experimental nuclear-powered bomber * Crusader tank, a British cruiser tank of World War II * Crusaders (guerrilla), a Cr ...
sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 was a very welcome addition to the Latin texts scholars like Petrarch had found in monastic libraries for the revival of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient Greek works. They included
Gemistus Pletho Georgius Gemistus Pletho ( el, Γεώργιος Γεμιστός Πλήθων, Georgios Gemistos Plithon; /1360 – 1452/1454) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελ ...
,
George of Trebizond George of Trebizond ( el, Γεώργιος Τραπεζούντιος; 1395–1486) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philos ...

George of Trebizond
,
Theodorus Gaza Theodorus Gaza ( el, Θεόδωρος Γαζῆς, ''Theodoros Gazis''; it, Teodoro Gaza; la, Theodorus Gazes), also called Theodore Gazis or by the epithet Thessalonicensis (in Latin) and Thessalonikeus (in Greek) (c. 1398 – c. 1475), was ...
, and
John Argyropoulos John Argyropoulos ( el, Ἰωάννης Ἀργυρόπουλος ''Ioannis Argyropoulos''; it, Giovanni Argiropulo; surname also spelt ''Argyropulus'', or ''Argyropulos'', or ''Argyropulo''; c. 1415 – 26 June 1487) was a lecturer, philosopher a ...

John Argyropoulos
. The Italian humanism spread northward to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
, Poland-Lithuania, Hungary and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
with the adoption of large-scale printing after 1500, and it became associated with the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
. In France, pre-eminent humanist (1467–1540) applied the
philological Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique
coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

coin
age and to
legal history Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
, composing a detailed commentary on
Justinian's Code The ''Corpus Juris'' (or ''Iuris'') ''Civilis'' ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law L ...
. Budé was a royal absolutist (and not a
republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
like the early Italian ''umanisti'') who was active in civic life, serving as a
diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux (later the Collège de France). Meanwhile,
Marguerite de NavarreMarguerite may refer to: People * Marguerite (given name) Marguerite is the French form of a female given name (''English'' Margaret, ''Spanish'' Margarita) which derives from the Greek Μαργαρίτης meaning "pearl"). See also Peggy (give ...

Marguerite de Navarre
, the sister of François I, was a
poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, soun ...

poet
,
novelist A novelist is an author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question ...
, and religious mystic who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including
Clément Marot Clément Marot (23 November 1496 – 12 September 1544) was a French Renaissance poet. Clément Marot. Biography Youth Marot was born at Cahors Cahors (; oc, Caors ) is a commune in the western part of Southern France. It is the smalle ...

Clément Marot
,
Pierre de Ronsard Pierre de Ronsard (11 September 1524 – 27 December 1585) was a French poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may ...

Pierre de Ronsard
, and
François Rabelais François Rabelais ( , , ; born between 1483 and 1494; died 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholars in the Renaissance, Greek scholar. He is primarily known as a wr ...
.


Paganism and Christianity in the Renaissance

Many humanists were churchmen, most notably Pope Pius II,
Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sisti ...

Sixtus IV
, and
Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, ...

Leo X
, and there was often patronage of humanists by senior church figures. Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Reformation, which was greatly influenced by the work of non-Italian, Northern European figures such as
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
,
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...
,
William Grocyn William Grocyn ( 14461519) was an English scholar, a friend of Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted ad ...

William Grocyn
, and Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile
Olaus Magnus Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer, cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of maki ...
.


Description

''The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy'' describes the
rationalism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, la ...
of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
scholars: In 1417, for example,
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
discovered the manuscript of
Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus ( , ; 99 – c. 55 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Rom ...
, ''
De rerum natura ''De rerum natura'' (; ''On the Nature of Things'') is a first-century BC didactic Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written ...
'', which had been lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine, though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
. Only in 1564 did French commentator Denys Lambin (1519–72) announce in the preface to the work that "he regarded Lucretius's Epicurean ideas as 'fanciful, absurd, and opposed to Christianity'." Lambin's preface remained standard until the nineteenth century. Epicurus's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the highest good "ensured the unpopularity of his philosophy".
Lorenzo Valla Lorenzo Valla Lorenzo Valla (; also Latinized as Laurentius; 14071 August 1457) was an Italian Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreadi ...

Lorenzo Valla
, however, puts a defense of epicureanism in the mouth of one of the interlocutors of one of his dialogues.


Epicureanism

Charles Trinkhaus regards Valla's "epicureanism" as a ploy, not seriously meant by Valla, but designed to refute Stoicism, which he regarded together with epicureanism as equally inferior to Christianity. Valla's defense, or adaptation, of Epicureanism was later taken up in ''The Epicurean'' by
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
, the "Prince of humanists:" This passage exemplifies the way in which the humanists saw
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...

pagan
classical works, such as the philosophy of
Epicurus Epicurus, ''Epíkouros'', "ally, comrade" (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded Epicureanism Epicureanism is a system of founded around 307 BC based upon the teachings of the . Epicureanism was originally ...

Epicurus
, as being in harmony with their interpretation of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
.


Neo-Platonism

Renaissance Neo-Platonists such as
Marsilio Ficino Marsilio Ficino (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

Marsilio Ficino
(whose translations of Plato's works into Latin were still used into the 19th century) attempted to reconcile
Platonism Platonism is the philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of ...
with Christianity, according to the suggestions of early
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
Lactantius Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the ...

Lactantius
and
Saint Augustine In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being ...

Saint Augustine
. In this spirit,
Pico della Mirandola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (, ; ; 24 February 1463 – 17 November 1494) was an Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the M ...

Pico della Mirandola
attempted to construct a
syncretism Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, Li ...
of religions and philosophies with Christianity, but his work did not win favor with the church authorities, who rejected it because of his views on magic.


Evolution and reception


Widespread view

Historian Steven Kreis expresses a widespread view (derived from the 19th-century Swiss historian
Jacob Burckhardt Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (25 May 1818 – 8 August 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields. He is known as one of the major progenitors of cultural history. Sigfrie ...
), when he writes that:
The period from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth worked in favor of the general emancipation of the individual. The city-states of northern Italy had come into contact with the diverse customs of the East, and gradually permitted expression in matters of taste and dress. The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression. In the essays of Montaigne the individualistic view of life received perhaps the most persuasive and eloquent statement in the history of literature and philosophy.
Two noteworthy trends in Renaissance humanism were Renaissance Neo-Platonism and
Hermeticism Hermeticism, or Hermetism, is a label used to designate a philosophical system that is primarily based on the purported teachings of Hermes Trismegistus (a legendary Hellenistic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth). Thes ...
, which through the works of figures like
Nicholas of Kues Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus (), was a Germans, German Philosophy, philosopher, Theology, theologian, jurist, mathematician and Astronomy, astronomer. One of the first Germa ...
,
Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (; ; la, Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, January or February 1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar A friar is a brother and a member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth ...

Giordano Bruno
,
Cornelius Agrippa Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (; ; 14 September 1486 – 18 February 1535) was a German people, German polymath, physician, legal scholar, soldier, theology, theologian, and occult writer. He is considered one of the most influential oc ...
, and Pico della Mirandola sometimes came close to constituting a new religion itself. Of these two, Hermeticism has had great continuing influence in Western thought, while the former mostly dissipated as an intellectual trend, leading to movements in
Western esotericism Western esotericism, also known as esotericism, esoterism, and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, is a term scholars use to categorise a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements that developed within Western society The W ...
such as
Theosophy Theosophy is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is volunt ...
and
New Age New Age is a range of spiritual or religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religi ...
thinking. The "Yates thesis" of
Frances Yates Dame Dame is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of damehood in many Christian chivalric orders, as well as the British honours system and those of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia ...
holds that before falling out of favour, esoteric Renaissance thought introduced several concepts that were useful for the development of scientific method, though this remains a matter of controversy.


Sixteenth century and beyond

Though humanists continued to use their scholarship in the service of the church into the middle of the sixteenth century and beyond, the sharply confrontational religious atmosphere following the Reformation resulted in the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
that sought to silence challenges to
Catholic theology Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on Biblical canon, canonical Catholic Bible, scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by t ...
, with similar efforts among the
Protestant denominations This is a list of the largest Protestant denominations. It aims to include sizable Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criti ...
. However, a number of humanists joined the Reformation movement and took over leadership functions, for example,
Philipp Melanchthon Philip Melanchthon. (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abraham ...
,
Ulrich Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system. He attended th ...

Ulrich Zwingli
,
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...

Henry VIII
,
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
, and
William Tyndale William Tyndale (; sometimes spelled ''Tynsdale'', ''Tindall'', ''Tindill'', ''Tyndall''; – ) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th- ...

William Tyndale
. With the Counter-Reformation initiated by the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
(1545-1563), positions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy based on scholastic philosophy was imposed. Some humanists, even moderate Catholics such as Erasmus, risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the church. In 1514 he left for
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
and worked at the
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
for several years. The historian of the Renaissance Sir John Hale cautions against too direct a linkage between Renaissance humanism and modern uses of the term humanism: "Renaissance humanism must be kept free from any hint of either 'humanitarianism' or 'humanism' in its modern sense of rational, non-religious approach to life ... the word 'humanism' will mislead ... if it is seen in opposition to a Christianity its students in the main wished to supplement, not contradict, through their patient excavation of the sources of ancient God-inspired wisdom."


Historiography


The Baron Thesis

Hans Baron (1900-1988) was the inventor of the now ubiquitous term "civic humanism." First coined in the 1920s and based largely on his studies of Leonardo Bruni, Baron's "thesis" proposed the existence of a central strain of humanism, particularly in Florence and Venice, dedicated to republicanism. As argued in his ''Masterpiece, chef-d'œuvre'', ''The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny'', the German historian thought that civic humanism originated in around 1402, after the great struggles between Florence and Visconti-led Milan in the 1390s. He considered Petrarch's humanism to be a rhetorical, superficial project, and viewed this new strand to be one that abandoned the feudal and supposedly "otherworldly" (i.e., divine) ideology of the Middle Ages in favour of putting the republican state and its freedom at the forefront of the "civic humanist" project. Already controversial at the time of ''The Crisis''' publication, the "Baron Thesis" has been met with even more criticism over the years. Even in the 1960s, historians Philip James Jones, Philip Jones and Peter Herde found Baron's praise of "republican" humanists naive, arguing that republics were far less liberty-driven than Baron had believed, and were practically as undemocratic as monarchies. James Hankins adds that the disparity in political values between the humanists employed by oligarchies and those employed by princes was not particularly notable, as all of Baron's civic ideals were exemplified by humanists serving various types of government. In so arguing, he asserts that a "political reform program is central to the humanist movement founded by Petrarch. But it is not a 'republican' project in Baron's sense of republic; it is not an ideological product associated with a particular regime type."


Garin and Kristeller

Two renowned Renaissance scholars, Eugenio Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller collaborated with one another throughout their careers. But while the two historians were on good terms, they fundamentally disagreed on the nature of Renaissance humanism. Kristeller affirmed that Renaissance humanism used to be viewed just as a project of Classical revival, one that led to great increase in Classical scholarship. But he argued that this theory "fails to explain the ideal of eloquence persistently set forth in the writings of the humanists," asserting that “their classical learning was incidental to” their being “professional rhetoricians." Similarly, he considered their influence on philosophy and particular figures' philosophical output to be incidental to their humanism, viewing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and ethics to be the humanists' main concerns. Garin, on the other hand, viewed philosophy itself as being ever-evolving, each form of philosophy being inextricable from the practices of the thinkers of its period. He thus considered the Italian humanists' break from Scholasticism and newfound freedom to be perfectly in line with this broader sense of philosophy.Hankins, James. 2011. "Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller: Existentialism, Neo-Kantianism, and the Post-war Interpretation of Renaissance Humanism." In ''Eugenio Garin: Dal Rinascimento all'Illuminismo'', ed. Michele Ciliberto, 481-505. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. During the period in which they argued over these differing views, there was a broader cultural conversation happening regarding Humanism: one revolving around Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger. In 1946, Sartre published a work called ''"L'existentialisme est un humanisme''," in which he outlined his conception of existentialism as revolving around the belief that "''existence'' comes before ''essence''"; that man "first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world – and defines himself afterwards," making himself and giving himself purpose. Heidegger, in a response to this work of Sartre's, declared: "For this is humanism: meditating and caring, that human beings be human and not inhumane, “inhuman”, that is, outside their essence." He also discussed a decline in the concept of humanism, pronouncing that it had been dominated by metaphysics and essentially discounting it as philosophy. He also explicitly criticized Italian Renaissance humanism in the letter. While this discourse was taking place outside the realm of Renaissance Studies (for more on the evolution of the term “humanism,” see Humanism), this background debate was not irrelevant to Kristeller and Garin’s ongoing disagreement. Kristeller—who had at one point studied under Heidegger—also discounted (Renaissance) humanism as philosophy, and Garin’s ''Der italienische Humanismus'' was published alongside Heidegger’s response to Sartre—a move that Rubini describes as an attempt “to stage a pre-emptive confrontation between historical humanism and philosophical neo-humanisms.”Rubini, Rocco (2011). "The Last Italian Philosopher: Eugenio Garin (with an Appendix of Documents)." ''Intellectual History Review''. 21 (2): 209-230. DOI: 10.1080/17496977.2011.574348 Garin also conceived of the Renaissance humanists as occupying the same kind of “characteristic angst the existentialists attributed to men who had suddenly become conscious of their radical freedom,” further weaving philosophy with Renaissance humanism. Hankins summarizes the Kristeller v. Garin debate quite well, attesting to Kristeller’s conception of professional philosophers as being very formal and method-focused. Renaissance humanists, on the other hand, he viewed to be professional rhetoricians who, using their classically-inspired ''paideia'' or ''institutio'', did improve fields such as philosophy, but without the practice of philosophy being their main goal or function. Garin, instead, wanted his “humanist-philosophers to be organic intellectuals,” not constituting a rigid school of thought, but having a shared outlook on life and education that broke with the medieval traditions that came before them.


Humanist


See also

* Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe * Christian humanism * Greek scholars in the Renaissance * Renaissance Latin * Legal humanists * New Learning


Notes


Further reading

* Bolgar, R. R. ''The Classical Heritage and Its Beneficiaries: from the Carolingian Age to the End of the Renaissance''. Cambridge, 1954. * Ernst Cassirer, Cassirer, Ernst. ''Individual and Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy''. Harper and Row, 1963. * Cassirer, Ernst (Editor), Paul Oskar Kristeller (Editor), John Herman Randall (Editor). ''The Renaisssance Philosophy of Man''. University of Chicago Press, 1969. * Cassirer, Ernst. ''Platonic Renaissance in England''. Gordian, 1970. * Celenza, Christopher S. ''The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanism, Historians, and Latin's Legacy''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2004 * Celenza, Christopher S. ''Petrarch: Everywhere a Wanderer''. London: Reaktion. 2017 * Celenza, Christopher S. ''The Intellectual World of the Italian Renaissance: Language, Philosophy, and the Search for Meaning''. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2018 * Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus, Desiderius. "The Epicurean". In ''Colloquies''. * Eugenio Garin, Garin, Eugenio. ''Science and Civic Life in the Italian Renaissance''. New York: Doubleday, 1969. * Garin, Eugenio. ''Italian Humanism: Philosophy and Civic Life in the Renaissance.'' Basil Blackwell, 1965. * Garin, Eugenio. ''History of Italian Philosophy.'' (2 vols.) Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2008. * Anthony Grafton, Grafton, Anthony. ''Bring Out Your Dead: The Past as Revelation''. Harvard University Press, 2004 * Grafton, Anthony. ''Worlds Made By Words: Scholarship and Community in the Modern West''. Harvard University Press, 2009 * John Rigby Hale, Hale, John. ''A Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance''. Oxford University Press, 1981, . * Kallendorf, Craig W, editor. ''Humanist Educational Treatises''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 2002. * Kraye, Jill (Editor). ''The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism''. Cambridge University Press, 1996. * Paul Oskar Kristeller, Kristeller, Paul Oskar. ''Renaissance Thought and Its Sources''. Columbia University Press, 1979 * Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni. ''Oration on the Dignity of Man''. In Cassirer, Kristeller, and Randall, eds. ''Renaissance Philosophy of Man''. University of Chicago Press, 1969. * Quentin Skinner, Skinner, Quentin. ''Renaissance Virtues: Visions of Politics: Volume II''. Cambridge University Press, [2002] 2007. * George Makdisi, Makdisi, George. ''The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West: With Special Reference to Scholasticism'', 1990: Edinburgh University Press * Alister McGrath, McGrath, Alister (2011). ''Christian Theology: An Introduction'', 5th edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. * McManus, Stuart M. "Byzantines in the Florentine Polis: Ideology, Statecraft and Ritual during the Council of Florence". ''Journal of the Oxford University History Society'', 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009). * * Nauert, Charles Garfield. ''Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe (New Approaches to European History).'' Cambridge University Press, 2006. * John H. Plumb, Plumb, J. H. ed.: ''The Italian Renaissance'' 1961, American Heritage, New York, (page refs from 1978 UK Penguin edn). * Roberto Rossellini, Rossellini, Roberto. ''The Age of the Medici'': Part 1, ''Cosimo de' Medici''; Part 2, ''Alberti'' 1973. (Film Series). Criterion Collection. * John Addington Symonds, Symonds, John Addington.''The Renaissance in Italy''. Seven Volumes. 1875–1886. * * Trinkaus, Charles. ''The Scope of Renaissance Humanism''. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983. * Edgar Wind, Wind, Edgar. ''Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance''. New York: W.W. Norton, 1969. * Witt, Ronald. "In the footsteps of the ancients: the origins of humanism from Lovato to Bruni." Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2000


External links


Renaissance Humanism - World History Encyclopedia




* [https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9ct Paganism in the Renaissance], BBC Radio 4 discussion with Tom Healy, Charles Hope & Evelyn Welch (''In Our Time'', June 16, 2005) {{Middle Ages Renaissance humanism, Medieval philosophy Philosophical movements Renaissance, Humanism