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A reducing agent (also called a reductant, reducer, or electron donor) is an element or compound that loses or "donates" an
electron The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation (particle physics), generation of the lepton particle family, and are general ...

electron
to an (called the , , or ) in a
redox Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

redox
chemical reaction. The reducer's
oxidation state The oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge Charge or charged may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Charge, Zero Emissions/Maximum Speed'', a 2011 documentary Music * Charge (David Ford album), ''Charge ...
increases while the oxidizer's decreases; this is expressed by saying that reducers "undergo oxidation" and "are oxidized" while oxidizers "undergo reduction" and "are reduced". Thus, reducing agents "reduce" oxidizers by decreasing their oxidation state while oxidizing agents "oxidize" reducers by increasing their oxidation state. To clarify, in a redox reaction, the agent whose oxidation state increases, that "loses/donates electrons", that "is oxidized", and that "reduces" is called the or , while the agent whose oxidation state decreases, that "gains/receives electrons", that "is reduced", and that "oxidizes" is called the or . A reducing agent is thus oxidized by an oxidizer when it loses electrons that are gained by this oxidizing agent, which itself is simultaneously reduced by the reducer. In their pre-reaction states, reducers have extra electrons (that is, they are by themselves reduced) and oxidizers lack electrons (that is, they are by themselves oxidized). A reducing agent typically is in one of its lower possible
oxidation state The oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge Charge or charged may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Charge, Zero Emissions/Maximum Speed'', a 2011 documentary Music * Charge (David Ford album), ''Charge ...
s and is known as the electron donor. Examples of reducing agents include the earth metals,
formic acid Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes ...

formic acid
,
oxalic acid Oxalic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an with ic properties. The most common organic acids are the s, whose acidity is associated with their  –COOH. s, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcoh ...

oxalic acid
, and
sulfite Sulfites or sulphites are compounds Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the ...

sulfite
compounds. For example, consider the overall reaction for aerobic
cellular respiration upright=2.5, Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities ...

cellular respiration
: :C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) The
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
(O2) is being reduced, so it is the oxidizing agent. The
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
(C6H12O6) is being oxidized, so it is the reducing agent. In
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and th ...
, reduction usually refers to the addition of hydrogen to a molecule, though the aforementioned definition still applies. For example, the oxidizing agent
benzene Benzene is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organi ...

benzene
is reduced to
cyclohexane Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. Cyclohexane is non-polar. Cyclohexane is a colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive detergent-like odor, reminiscent of cleaning products (in which it is sometimes used). Cycloh ...

cyclohexane
in the presence of a platinum
catalyst Catalysis () is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In cla ...

catalyst
: :C6H6 + 3 H2 → C6H12 Historically, reduction referred to the removal of oxygen from a compound, hence the name 'reduction'. An important example of this phenomenon was the
Great Oxidation Event The Great Oxidation Event (GOE), also called the Great Oxygenation Event, the Oxygen catastrophe, and the Oxygen Crisis, was a time interval when the Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere ...
, in which biologically−produced molecular oxygen (
dioxygen There are several known allotropy, allotropes of oxygen. The most familiar is oxygen, molecular oxygen (O2), present at significant levels in Atmosphere of Earth, Earth's atmosphere and also known as dioxygen or triplet oxygen. Another is the high ...
(O2), an oxidizer and electron recipient) was added to the early Earth's atmosphere, which was originally a
reducing atmosphere A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet ...
containing reducing gases like
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
() and
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
() (along with other electron donors) and practically no oxygen because any that was produced would
reactREACT or React may refer to: Science and technology *REACT (telescope), a telescope at Fenton Hill Observatory, New Mexico, US Computing * React (JavaScript library) , a JavaScript library for building user interfaces, from Facebook ** React Nativ ...

react
with these or other reducers (particularly with
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
dissolved
dissolved
in
sea water Seawater, or salt water, is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all ...

sea water
), resulting in their . By using water as a reducing agent,
aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
photosynthesizing
photosynthesizing
cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (), also known as Cyanophyta, are a of that obtain energy via . The name ''cyanobacteria'' refers to their color (), giving them their other name, "blue-green algae", though modern botanists restrict the term ' to s and do not ...

cyanobacteria
produced this molecular oxygen as a waste product. This O2 initially oxidized the ocean's dissolved
ferrous In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, mo ...
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
(Fe(II) − meaning iron in its +2 oxidation state) to form
insoluble In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atom ...
ferric In chemistry, iron(III) refers to the chemical element, element iron in its +3 oxidation number, oxidation state. In salt (chemistry), ionic compounds (salts), such an atom may occur as a separate cation (positive ion) denoted by Fe3+. The adject ...

ferric
iron oxide Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, ...

iron oxide
s (Fe(III) − meaning iron in its +3 oxidation state) that precipitated down to the ocean floor to form
banded iron formation Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock consisting of alternating layers of iron oxides and iron-poor chert. They can be up to several hundred meters in thickness a ...

banded iron formation
s, thereby removing the oxygen (and the iron). The rate of production of oxygen eventually exceeded the availability of reducing materials that removed oxygen, which ultimately led
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
to gain a strongly oxidizing atmosphere containing abundant oxygen (like the modern atmosphere). The modern sense of donating electrons is a generalization of this idea, acknowledging that other components can play a similar chemical role to oxygen.


Characteristics

Consider the following reaction: :2 + → 2 + 2 The reducing agent in this reaction is
ferrocyanide Ferrocyanide is the name of the anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All e ...

ferrocyanide
(). It donates an electron, becoming oxidized to
ferricyanide Ferricyanide is the anion An ion () is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of the electron is considered negative by convention. The negative charge of an ion is equal and opposite to ch ...

ferricyanide
(). Simultaneously, that electron is received by the oxidizer
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
(), which is reduced to
chloride The chloride ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects th ...

chloride
(). Strong reducing agents easily lose (or donate) electrons. An atom with a relatively large atomic radius tends to be a better reductant. In such species, the distance from the nucleus to the
valence electron In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s is so long that these electrons are not strongly attracted. These elements tend to be strong reducing agents. Good reducing agents tend to consist of atoms with a low
electronegativity Electronegativity, symbolized as '' χ'', is the tendency for an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume ...

electronegativity
, which is the ability of an atom or molecule to attract bonding electrons, and species with relatively small ionization energies serve as good reducing agents too. The measure of a material's ability to reduce is known as its
reduction potential Redox potential (also known as oxidation / reduction potential, ''ORP'', ''pe'', ''E_'', or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species A chemical species is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In class ...
. The table below shows a few reduction potentials, which can be changed to oxidation potentials by reversing the sign. Reducing agents can be ranked by increasing strength by ranking their reduction potentials. Reducers donate electrons to (that is, "reduce")
oxidizing agent An oxidizing agent, also known as an oxidant or oxidizer, is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to electron acceptor, accept their electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxi ...

oxidizing agent
s, which are said to "be reduced by" the reducer. The reducing agent is stronger when it has a more negative reduction potential and weaker when it has a more positive reduction potential. The more positive the reduction potential the greater the species' affinity for electrons and tendency to be reduced (that is, to receive electrons). The following table provides the reduction potentials of the indicated reducing agent at 25 °C. For example, among
sodium Sodium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical eleme ...

sodium
(Na),
chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science tha ...

chromium
(Cr),
cuprous Copper is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...
(Cu+) and
chloride The chloride ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects th ...

chloride
(Cl), it is Na that is the strongest reducing agent while Cl is the weakest; said differently, Na+ is the weakest oxidizing agent in this list while Cl is the strongest.
Common reducing agents include metals potassium, calcium, barium, sodium and magnesium, and also compounds that contain the H ion, those being
NaH
NaH
, LiH,
LiAlH4
LiAlH<sub>4</sub>
and CaH2. Some elements and compounds can be both reducing or
oxidizing agent An oxidizing agent, also known as an oxidant or oxidizer, is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to electron acceptor, accept their electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxi ...

oxidizing agent
s. Hydrogen gas is a reducing agent when it reacts with non-metals and an oxidizing agent when it reacts with metals. :2 Li(s) + H2(g) → 2 LiH(s) Hydrogen (whose reduction potential is 0.0) acts as an oxidizing agent because it accepts an electron donation from the reducing agent
lithium Lithium (from el, λίθος, lithos, lit=stone) is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: the ...

lithium
(whose reduction potential is -3.04), which causes Li to be oxidized and Hydrogen to be reduced. :H2(g) + F2(g) → 2 HF(g) Hydrogen acts as a reducing agent because it donates its electrons to fluorine, which allows fluorine to be reduced.


Importance

Reducing agents and oxidizing agents are the ones responsible for
corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecu ...

corrosion
, which is the "degradation of metals as a result of electrochemical activity". Corrosion requires an
anode An anode is an electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductiv ...

anode
and
cathode A cathode is the from which a leaves a polarized electrical device. This definition can be recalled by using the ''CCD'' for ''Cathode Current Departs''. A conventional current describes the direction in which positive charges move. Electrons ha ...
to take place. The anode is an element that loses electrons (reducing agent), thus oxidation always occurs in the anode, and the cathode is an element that gains electrons (oxidizing agent), thus reduction always occurs in the cathode. Corrosion occurs whenever there's a difference in oxidation potential. When this is present, the anode metal begins deteriorating, given there is an electrical connection and the presence of an
electrolyte An electrolyte is a medium containing ions that is electrically conducting Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resist ...

electrolyte
.


Example of redox reaction

The formation of
iron(III) oxide Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, the distinction is ...
; :4Fe + 3O2 → 4Fe3+ + 6O2− → 2Fe2O3 In the above equation, the
Iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

Iron
(Fe) has an oxidation number of 0 before and 3+ after the reaction. For
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
(O) the oxidation number began as 0 and decreased to 2−. These changes can be viewed as two "
half-reaction A half reaction (or half-cell reaction) is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical ...
s" that occur concurrently: #Oxidation half reaction: Fe0 → Fe3+ + 3e #Reduction half reaction: O2 + 4e → 2 O2− Iron (Fe) has been oxidized because the oxidation number increased. Iron is the reducing agent because it gave electrons to the oxygen (O2). Oxygen (O2) has been reduced because the oxidation number has decreased and is the oxidizing agent because it took electrons from iron (Fe).


Common reducing agents

*
Lithium aluminium hydride Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, ...

Lithium aluminium hydride
(LiAlH4), a very strong reducing agent * (NaAlH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2), a safer and more stable alternative to lithium aluminum hydride * Nascent (atomic) hydrogen *
Hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

Hydrogen
without or with a suitable
catalyst Catalysis () is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In cla ...

catalyst
e.g. a Lindlar catalyst *
Sodium amalgamSodium amalgam, commonly denoted Na(Hg), is an alloy of mercury (element), mercury and sodium. The term amalgam (chemistry), amalgam is used for alloys, intermetallic compounds, and solutions (both solid solutions and liquid solutions) involving merc ...
(Na(Hg)) *Sodium-lead alloy (Na + Pb) * Zinc amalgam (Zn(Hg)) (reagent for
Clemmensen reduction Clemmensen reduction is a chemical reaction described as a redox, reduction of ketones (or aldehydes) to alkanes using zinc amalgam (chemistry), amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. This reaction is named after Erik Christian Clemmensen, a D ...
) *
Diborane Diborane(6), generally known as diborane, is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6. It is a colorless, pyrophoric gas with a repulsively sweet odor. Synonyms include boroethane, boron hydride, and diboron he ...
*
Sodium borohydride Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is ...

Sodium borohydride
(NaBH4) *Compounds containing the Fe2+ ion, such as
iron(II) sulfate Iron(II) sulfate (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engla ...
*Compounds containing the Sn2+ ion, such as
tin(II) chloride Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a ...

tin(II) chloride
*
Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
(sometimes also used as an
oxidizing agent An oxidizing agent, also known as an oxidant or oxidizer, is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to electron acceptor, accept their electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxi ...

oxidizing agent
),
Sulfite Sulfites or sulphites are compounds Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the ...

Sulfite
compounds * Dithionates, e.g. Na2S2O6 *
Thiosulfate Thiosulfate () (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an Sulfur oxoacid, oxyanion of sulfur. The prefix thio- indicates that the thiosulfate ion is a sulfate ion with one oxygen replaced by sulfur. Thiosulfate h ...
s, e.g. Na2S2O3 (mainly in analytical chemistry) *
Iodide An iodide ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that c ...

Iodide
s, e.g. KI (mainly in analytical chemistry) *
Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by hav ...

Hydrogen peroxide
()mostly an oxidant but can occasionally act as a reducing agent (typically in analytical chemistry.) *
Hydrazine Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula . It is a simple pnictogen hydride, and is a colourless flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odour. Hydrazine is highly toxic unless handled in solution as, for example, hydrazine h ...

Hydrazine
() *
Diisobutylaluminium hydride Diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBALH, DIBAL, DIBAL-H or DIBAH) is a reducing agent A reducing agent (also called a reductant, reducer, or electron donor) is an element or compound that loses or "donates" an electron The electron is a subatomi ...
(DIBAL-H) *
Oxalic acid Oxalic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an with ic properties. The most common organic acids are the s, whose acidity is associated with their  –COOH. s, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcoh ...

Oxalic acid
() *
Formic acid Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid A carboxylic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acid ...

Formic acid
(HCOOH) *
Ascorbic acid Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carb ...

Ascorbic acid
(C6H8O6) * Reducing sugars *
Phosphite The general structure of a phosphite ester showing the lone pairs on the P In chemistry a phosphite ester or organophosphite usually refers to an organophosphorous compound with the formula P(OR)3. They can be considered as esters of an unobserve ...

Phosphite
s,
hypophosphite Phosphinates or hypophosphites are a class of phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol P and atomic number 15. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but becaus ...
s, and
phosphorous acid Phosphorous acid is the Compound (chemistry), compound described by the chemical formula, formula H3PO3. This acid is diprotic (readily ionizes two protons), not triprotic as might be suggested by this formula. Phosphorous acid is an intermediate ...

phosphorous acid
*
Dithiothreitol Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the common name for a small-molecule redox (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KMnO4 and composed of potassium ion ...

Dithiothreitol
(DTT) – used in biochemistry labs to avoid S-S bonds *
Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

Carbon monoxide
(CO) *
Cyanide A cyanide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...

Cyanide
s in hydrochemical metallurgical processes *
Carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

Carbon
(C) * Tris-2-carboxyethylphosphine hydrochloride (TCEP)


See also

*
Corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecu ...

Corrosion
*
Electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying ...

Electrochemistry
*
Electrolyte An electrolyte is a medium containing ions that is electrically conducting Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resis ...

Electrolyte
*
Electron acceptor An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electron The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation (particle phy ...
*
Electron donorAn electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electron The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an el ...
* Electrosynthesis *
Redox Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

Redox
*
Reducing equivalentIn biochemistry, the term reducing equivalent refers to any of a number of chemical species which transfer the equivalent of one electron in redox reactions. A redox reaction (oxidation-reduction reaction) results in a change of oxidation state of at ...
*
Organic reductionImage:BirchReductionScheme.svg, frame, Organic redox reactions: the Birch reduction Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. In organic chemistry oxidations and r ...
*
Oxidizing agent An oxidizing agent, also known as an oxidant or oxidizer, is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to electron acceptor, accept their electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxi ...

Oxidizing agent


Notes


References


Further reading

*"Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight", Third Edition. Peter Atkins and Loretta Jones p. F76


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Reducing Agent Chemical reactions