HOME

TheInfoList




, type = islam , longtype =
Religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
, image = Ramadan montage.jpg , caption=From top, left to right: A crescent moon over
Sarıçam Sarıçam is a district-municipality in the Adana Province of Turkey. Southern section of the district is part of the city of Adana, incorporated as a lower-tier municipality. The district is located north of the Yüreğir district, east of the Sey ...
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan. Ramadan Quran reading in
Bandar Torkaman Bandar Torkaman ( fa, بندرتركمن), formerly known as Bandar Shah ( fa, بَندَرِ شاه), is a city and capital of Torkaman County, Golestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census its population was 45,045, in 9,755 families. Bandar Tor ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
. Community
Iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

Iftar
meal in
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
,
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
, Tarawah prayers in a mosque in
West Sumatra West Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Barat) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-leve ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
. Foods served at a traditional
Iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

Iftar
meal. Ramadan decorations in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
.
Zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (''salat ...

Zakat
donation boxes in
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. , official_name = , observedby =
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s , begins = At the last night of the month of Sha'ban , ends = At the last night of the month of Ramadan , date = Variable (follows the
Islamic lunar calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar A cale ...
) , date2021 = 13 April – 12 May , celebrations = Community
iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

iftar
s and Community prayers , observances = *
Sawm Fasting in Islam (known as ''Sawm'', ar, صوم; . Or ''Siyam'', ar, صيام; , also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah, fa, روزه in non-Arab Muslim countries) is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual ...
(fasting) *
Zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (''salat ...

Zakat
and
sadaqah or Sadqah ( ar, صدقة, ur, صدقہ, , "charity", "benevolence", plural ' ) in the modern context has come to signify "voluntary charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose pri ...
(alms giving) * Commemorating Nights of al-Qadr * Reading the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
* Abstaining from all bad deeds and staying humble *
Taraweeh ''Tarawih'' ( ar, تراويح, Tarāwīḥ, literally "rest and relaxation") Taraweeh is derived from the Arabic word meaning “to rest and relax”, as it is seen as a special form of Islamic meditation. These special prayers involve readin ...
prayer (Sunni Muslims) , relatedto =
Eid al-Fitr , nickname = Festival of Breaking the Fast, Lesser Eid, Sweet Eid, Sugar Feast , observedby = Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission ...
,
Laylat al-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr ( ar, لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is, in Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Isl ...
, frequency=Annual (lunar calendar) Ramadan ( ar, رَمَضَان, Ramaḍān ), also spelled Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan or Ramathan, is the ninth month of the
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
, observed by
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s worldwide as a month of
fasting Fasting is the willful refrainment from eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ...

fasting
(''
sawm Fasting in Islam (known as ''Sawm'', ar, صوم; . Or ''Siyam'', ar, صيام; , also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah, fa, روزه in non-Arab Muslim countries) is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual ...
''), prayer, reflection and community. A commemoration of
Muhammad's first revelation Muhammad's first revelation was an event described in Islamic tradition as taking place in AD 610, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Pro ...
, the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the
Five Pillars of Islam 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era * 5 BC, the fifth year before the AD era Literature * 5 (visual novel), ''5'' (visual novel), a 2008 visual novel by Ram * 5 (comics ...

Five Pillars of Islam
and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next. Fasting from dawn to sunset is ''
fard ' ( ar, فرض) or ' () or fardh in Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; s ...
'' (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill,
travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical Location (geography), locations. Travel can be done by Pedestrian, foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship or other means, with or without luggage, and can be ...

travel
ling,
elderly Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and other demographic ...
,
breastfeeding Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the process of feeding a mother's breast milk to her infant, either directly from the breast or by expressing (pumping out) the milk from the breast and bottle-feeding it to the infant. The World Healt ...

breastfeeding
,
diabetic Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appeti ...
, or
menstruating The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes in hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic ...
. The predawn meal is referred to as ''
suhur ''Sahūr'' or ''Suhūr'' (; ar, سحور, suḥūr, lit=of the dawn', 'pre-dawn meal), also called Sahari, Sahrī or Sehri (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** ...

suhur
'', and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called ''
iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

iftar
''. Although ''
fatwa A fatwā (, also ; ar, فتوىٰ; plural ''fatāwā'' ) is a nonbinding legal opinion In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a ...

fatwa
s'' have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a
midnight sun The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon Types of natural phenomena include: Weather, fog, thunder, tornadoes; biological processes, decomposition, germination seedlings, three days after germination. Germination is the process by wh ...

midnight sun
or
polar night The polar night is a phenomenon where the night Night (also described as night time, night-time, or nighttime, unconventionally spelled as ''nite'') is the period of :wikt:ambient, ambient darkness from sunset to sunrise during each 24-h ...

polar night
should follow the timetable of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
, it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day. The spiritual rewards (''
thawab ''Sawāb'' or ''Thawāb'' ( ar, ثواب) is an Arabic term meaning "reward". Specifically, in the context of an Islamic worldview, ''thawāb'' refers to spiritual merit or reward that accrues from the performance of good deeds and piety. Pronu ...
'') of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan. Accordingly, Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also
tobacco product The following is an incomplete list of tobacco products. Tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification ...
s,
sexual relations Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves Human sexual activity, sexual ...
, and sinful behavior, devoting themselves instead to ''
salat Salah (Arabic: , pl salawat, romanized: , ( in construct state) 'prayer'), also known as ''namāz'' ( fa, نماز) and also spelled ''salat'', are prayers performed by Muslims. Facing the qibla, the direction of the Kaaba with respect to t ...

salat
'' (
prayer Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity or a deified an ...

prayer
) and recitation of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
.


Etymology

The word ''Ramadan'' derives from the Arabic root ''R-M-Ḍ'' () "scorching heat", which is the
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
verb "''ramiḍa'' (رَمِضَ)" meaning "become intensely hot – become burning; become scorching; be blazing; be glowing". Ramadan is thought as one of the
names of God in Islam Names of God in Islam ( ar, أَسْمَاءُ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ , "''Allah's Beautiful Names''") are names attributed to God in Islam God in Islam ( ar, ٱللَّٰه, Allāh Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Al ...
by some, and as such it is reported in many
hadiths Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...
that it is prohibited to say only "Ramadan" in reference to the calendar month and that it is necessary to say "month of Ramadan", as reported in
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
,
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
and
Zaydi Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi), occasionally known as Fiver Shias, is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emer ...
sources. In the
Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europ ...
, the Arabic letter (''
Ḍād (), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
'') is pronounced as /z/. The Muslim communities in some countries with historical Persian influence, such as
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, use the word ''Ramazan'' or ''Ramzan''. The word ''Romzan'' is used in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
.


History

Muslims hold that all
scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of ...
was
revealed Reveal or Revealed may refer to: People * Reveal (rapper) (born 1983), member of the British hip hop group Poisonous Poets * James L. Reveal (1941–2015), American botanist Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * House of Night#Revealed, ''R ...

revealed
during Ramadan, the
scrolls of Abraham The Scrolls of Abraham ( ar, صحف إبراهيم, ''Ṣuḥuf ʾIbrāhīm'') are one part of the Islamic holy books, religious scriptures of Islam. These scriptures are believed to have contained the revelations Abraham received from God, which ...
,
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Heb ...
,
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...
,
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
, and
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth) and twenty-fourth Ramadans, respectively. Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on ''
Laylat al-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr ( ar, لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is, in Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Isl ...
'', one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan. Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of ''
Hijra Hijra, Hijrah, Hegira, Hejira, Hijrat or Hijri may refer to: Islam * Hijrah (often written as ''Hejira'' in older texts), the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE * Migration to Abyssinia or First Hegira, of Muhammad's followers ...
'' (624 CE), they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of
monotheism Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciou ...
but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain ''
taqwa ''Taqwa'' ( ar, تقوى '' / '') is an Islamic term for being conscious and cognizant of God, of truth, "piety Piety is a virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of va ...
'' (the
fear of God Fear of God may refer to fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation ...
). They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of
Muharram Muḥarram ( ar, ٱلْمُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or ...

Muharram
to expiate sin and avoid
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorolog ...

drought
.
Philip Jenkins Philip Jenkins (born April 3, 1952) is a professor of history at Baylor University in the United States, and co-director for Baylor's Program on Historical Studies of Religion in the Institute for Studies of Religion. He is also the Edwin Erle Sp ...
argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of "the strict
Lenten Lent (Latin: ''Quadragesima'', 'Fortieth') is a solemn religious moveable feast#Lent, observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later; depending on the Christian denomination a ...
discipline of the ," a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian
Paul-Gordon Chandler Paul-Gordon Chandler (born 1964) is the Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Wyoming in the USA. An author, art curator, peacemaker, and social entrepreneur, his previous roles have included serving as both a non-profit executive and US Episcopal pri ...
, but disputed by some Muslim academics.


Important dates

The first and last dates of Ramadan are determined by the lunar
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
.


Beginning

Because the '' Hilāl'', or crescent moon, typically occurs approximately one day after the
new moon In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

new moon
, Muslims can usually estimate the beginning of Ramadan; however, many prefer to confirm the opening of Ramadan by direct visual observation of the crescent.


Night of Destiny

''
Laylat al-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr ( ar, لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is, in Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Isl ...
'' is considered the holiest night of the year. It is generally believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan; the
Dawoodi Bohra The Dawoodi Bohras are a religious denomination within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam. Their largest numbers reside in India, Pakistan, Yemen, East Africa, and the Middle East, with a growing presence across Europe, North America, South ...
believe that ''Laylat al-Qadr'' was the twenty-third night of Ramadan.


''Eid''

The holiday of ''Eid al-Fitr'' (Arabic:عيد الفطر), which marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of ''
Shawwal Shawwal ( ar, شَوَّال, ') is the tenth month of the lunar based Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Musl ...
'', the next lunar month, is declared after a crescent
new moon In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

new moon
has been sighted or after completion of thirty days of fasting if no sighting of the moon is possible. ''Eid'' celebrates of the return to a more natural disposition (''fitra'') of eating, drinking, and marital intimacy.


Religious practices

The common practice is to fast from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the ''
suhur ''Sahūr'' or ''Suhūr'' (; ar, سحور, suḥūr, lit=of the dawn', 'pre-dawn meal), also called Sahari, Sahrī or Sehri (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** ...

suhur
'', while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is called ''
iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

iftar
''. Muslims devote more time to prayer and acts of charity, striving to improve their
self-discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ) in the south and in the north. The service was first known a ...
, motivated by hadith: "When Ramadan arrives, the gates of
Paradise In religion, paradise is a place of exceptional happiness and delight. Paradisiacal notions are often laden with pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herd A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species ...

Paradise
are opened and the
gates of hell The gates of hell are various places on the surface of the world In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been concept ...

gates of hell
are locked up and devils are put in chains."


Fasting

Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection, self-improvement, and heightened devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. The fast (''sawm'') begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking during this time, Muslims abstain from sexual relations and sinful speech and behaviour during Ramadan fasting or month. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Muslims believe that Ramadan teaches them to practice self-discipline, self-control, sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate, thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (''
zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (''salat ...

zakat
'').Help for the Heavy at Ramadan
, ''
Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most-widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area, and has a large nat ...
'', 27 September 2008
Muslims also believe fasting helps instill compassion for the food-insecure poor. Allah Kabir met Prophet Moohamd and showed him Jannat. And there is no evidence of fasting giving spiritual benefits in the scripture of any religion. Exemptions to fasting include travel, menstruation, severe illness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, many Muslims with medical conditions insist on fasting to satisfy their spiritual needs, although it is not recommended by hadith. Those unable to fast are obligated to make up the missed days later.


''Suhoor''

Each day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the ''
suhoor ''Sahūr'' or ''Suhūr'' (; ar, سحور, suḥūr, lit=of the dawn', 'pre-dawn meal), also called Sahari, Sahrī or Sehri (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** ...
''. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, '' Fajr''.


''Iftar''

At sunset, families break the fast with the ''
iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

iftar
'', traditionally opening the meal by eating
dates Date or dates may refer to: *Date (fruit) ''Phoenix dactylifera'', commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, , cultivated for its edible sweet fruit called dates. The species is widely cultivated ac ...

dates
to commemorate Muhammad's practice of breaking the fast with three dates. They then adjourn for ''
Maghrib The Maghrib prayer ( ar, صلاة المغرب ', "sunset prayer") is one of the five mandatory salah Salah (Arabic: , pl salawat, romanized: , ( in construct state) 'prayer'), also known as ''namāz'' ( fa, نماز) and also spelle ...

Maghrib
'', the fourth of the five required daily
prayers Prayer is an invocation An invocation (from the Latin verb ''invocare'' "to call on, invoke, to give") may take the form of: * Supplication, prayer Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of w ...

prayers
, after which the main meal is served. Social gatherings, many times in
buffet A buffet can be either a sideboard (a flat-topped piece of furniture with cupboards and drawers, used for storing crockery, glasses, and table linen) or a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diners serve ...

buffet
style, are frequent at ''iftar''. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, particularly those made only during Ramadan. Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages. In the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, ''iftar'' consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers; one or more main dishes; and rich desserts, with dessert considered the most important aspect of the meal. Typical main dishes include lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, and roasted chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf. Desserts may include '''',
baklava Baklava (, or ; ota, باقلوا) is a layered pastry dessert made of filo Filo or phyllo is a very thin unleavened dough Image:Dough.jpg, Freshly mixed dough in the bowl of a Mixer (cooking), stand mixer Dough is a thick, malleable, so ...

baklava
or ''''. Over time, the practice of ''iftar'' has involved into banquets that may accommodate hundreds or even thousands of diners. The
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque ( ar, جَامِع ٱلشَّيْخ زَايِد ٱلْكَبِيْر, Jāmiʿ Ash-Shaykh Zāyid Al-Kabīr) is located in Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital mos ...
in
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
, the largest mosque in the
UAE The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoff ...

UAE
, feeds up to thirty thousand people every night. Some twelve thousand people attend ''iftar'' at the in
Mashhad Mashhad ( fa, مشهد, Mašhad ), also spelled Mashad is the List of Iranian cities by population, second-most-populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country. It has a populati ...

Mashhad
.


Charity

''
Zakāt Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (''salat ...
'', often translated as "the poor-rate", is the fixed percentage of income a believer is required to give to the poor; the practice is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam. Muslims believe that good deeds are rewarded more handsomely during Ramadan than at any other time of the year; consequently, many Muslims donate a larger portionor even allof their yearly ''zakāt'' during this month.


Nightly prayers

''
Tarawih ''Tarawih'' ( ar, تراويح, Tarāwīḥ, literally "rest and relaxation") Taraweeh is derived from the Arabic word meaning “to rest and relax”, as it is seen as a special form of Islamic meditation. These special prayers involve readin ...
'' ( ar, تراويح) are extra nightly prayers performed during the month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory.


Recitation of the Quran

Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran, which comprises thirty ''
juz' A ''juzʼ'' (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, t ...
'' (sections), over the thirty days of Ramadan. Some Muslims incorporate a recitation of one ''juz into each of the thirty ''
tarawih ''Tarawih'' ( ar, تراويح, Tarāwīḥ, literally "rest and relaxation") Taraweeh is derived from the Arabic word meaning “to rest and relax”, as it is seen as a special form of Islamic meditation. These special prayers involve readin ...
'' sessions observed during the month.


Cultural practices

In some Islamic countries, lights are strung up in public squares and across city streets, a tradition believed to have originated during the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid Caliphate
, where the rule of
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah was acclaimed by people holding lanterns. On the island of Java, many believers bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as ''Padusan''. The city of Semarang marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq. In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, firecrackers are widely used to celebrate Ramadan, although they are officially illegal. Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as ''Tunjangan Hari Raya''. Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as large beef or buffalo in Aceh and snails in Central Java. The
iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

iftar
meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque. Common greetings during Ramadan include ''Ramadan mubarak'' and ''Ramadan kareem'', which mean (have a) "blessed Ramadan" and "generous Ramadan" respectively. During Ramadan in the Middle East, a ''mesaharati'' beats a drum across a neighbourhood to wake people up to eat the suhoor meal. Similarly in Southeast Asia, the ''kentongan'' slit drum is used for the same purpose.


Observance rates

According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre study, there was widespread Ramadan observance, with a median of 93 percent across the thirty-nine countries and territories studied. Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa, Horn of Africa and most of Sub-Saharan Africa. Percentages are lower in Central Asia and Southeast Europe.


Laws

In some List of Muslim majority countries, Muslim countries, eating in public during daylight hours in Ramadan is a crime. The sale of alcohol becomes prohibited during Ramadan in Egypt. The penalty for publicly eating, drinking or smoking during Ramadan can result in fines or incarceration in the countries of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Malaysia. In the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
, the punishment is community service. In some countries, the observance of Ramadan has been restricted. In the USSR, the practice of Ramadan was suppressed by officials. In Albania, Ramadan festivities were banned during the communist period. However, many Albanians continued to fast secretly during this period. China is widely reported to have banned Ramadan fasting since 2012 in Xinjiang. Those caught fasting by the government could be sent to a "Xinjiang re-education camps, re-education camp". Some countries impose modified work schedules. In the UAE, employees may work no more than six hours per day and thirty-six hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have similar laws.


Health effects

There are various health effects of fasting in Ramadan. Ramadan fasting is considered safe for healthy individuals; it may pose risks for individuals with certain pre-existing conditions. Most Islamic scholars hold that fasting is not required for those who are ill. Additionally, the elderly and pre-pubertal children are exempt from fasting. Pregnant or lactating women are exempt from fasting during Ramadan according to some authorities, while according to other authorities they are exempt only if they fear fasting may harm them or their babies. There are some health benefits of Ramadan including increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing insulin resistance. It has also been shown that there is a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile, systolic blood pressure, weight, BMI and waist circumference in subjects with a previous history of cardiovascular disease. The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but weight can return afterwards. Ramadan fasting, as a time-restricted eating habit that inverts the normal human day-night-routine for the observants, can have deleterious health effects on sleep patterns and the general health. Fasting in Ramadan has been shown to alter the sleep patterns and the associated hormone production. In Islam, pregnant women and those who are breastfeeding are exempt from fasting. Fasting can be hazardous for pregnant women as it is associated with risks of induced labour, inducing labour and causing gestational diabetes, although it does not appear to affect the child's weight. It is permissible to not fast if it threatens the woman's or the child's lives, however, in many instances pregnant women are normal before development of complications. If a mother fasts during pregnancy, the resulting child may have significantly lower intelligence, lower cognitive capability and be at increased risk for several chronic diseases, e.g. Type 2 diabetes. Many Islamic scholars argue it is obligatory on a pregnant woman ''not'' to fast if a doctor recommends against it. In many cultures, it is associated with heavy food and water intake during Suhur and
Iftar Iftar, also known as (from , , 'breakfast'), is the evening meal with which Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer ...

Iftar
times, which may do more harm than good. Ramadan fasting is safe for healthy people provided that overall food and water intake is adequate but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice if they encounter health problems before or during fasting. The education departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have tried to discourage students from fasting during Ramadan, as they claim that not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades. A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (Glomerular filtration rate, GFR <60 ml/min) or severe kidney disease but was not injurious to renal transplant patients with good function or most Kidney stone disease, stone-forming patients.


Crime rates

The correlation of Ramadan with crime rates is mixed: some statistics show that crime rates drop during Ramadan, while others show that it increases. Decreases in crime rates have been reported by the police in some cities in Turkey (Istanbul and Konya) and the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A 2005 study found that there was a decrease in assault, robbery and alcohol-related crimes during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia, but only the decrease in alcohol-related crimes was statistically significant. Increases in crime rates during Ramadan have been reported in Turkey, Jakarta, parts of Algeria, Yemen and Egypt. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of Ramadan on crime: * An Iranian cleric argues that sawm, fasting during Ramadan makes people less likely to commit crimes due to spiritual reasons. Gamal al-Banna argues that fasting can stress people out, which can make them more likely to commit crimes. He criticized Muslims who commit crimes while fasting during Ramadan as "fake and superficial". * Police in Saudi Arabia attributed a drop in crime rates to the "spiritual mood prevalent in the country". * In Jakarta,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, Indonesian National Police, police say that the traffic due to 7 million people leaving the city to celebrate
Eid al-Fitr , nickname = Festival of Breaking the Fast, Lesser Eid, Sweet Eid, Sugar Feast , observedby = Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission ...
results in an increase in street crime. As a result, police deploy an additional 7,500 personnel. * During Ramadan, millions of pilgrims enter Saudi Arabia to visit Mecca. According to the ''Yemen Times'', such pilgrims are usually charitable, and consequently smugglers Trafficking of children, traffic children in from Yemen to beg on the streets of Saudi Arabia.


Ramadan in polar regions

The length of the dawn to sunset time varies in different parts of the world according to summer or winter solstices of the Sun. Most Muslims fast for eleven to sixteen hours during Ramadan. However, in polar regions, the period between dawn and sunset may exceed twenty-two hours in summer. For example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost twenty-two hours, while Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for only about eleven hours. In areas characterized by continuous night or day, some Muslims follow the fasting schedule observed in the nearest city that experiences sunrise and sunset, while others follow Mecca time.See articl
"How Long Muslims Fast For Ramadan Around The World"
-Huffpost.com /31 July 2014 and article "Fasting Hours of Ramadan 2014" -Onislam.net / 29 June 2014 and article "The true spirit of Ramadan" -Gulfnews.com /31 July 2014
See article by Imam Mohamad Jebara "The fasting of Ramadan is not meant to punish" https://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/jebara-the-fasting-of-ramadan-is-not-meant-to-punish


Ramadan in Earth orbit

List of Muslim astronauts, Muslim astronauts in space schedule religious practices around the time zone of their last location on Earth. For example, this means an astronaut from Malaysia launching from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida would center their fast according to sunrise and sunset in Florida's Eastern Time Zone, Eastern Time. This includes times for daily prayers, as well as sunset and sunrise for Ramadan.


Employment during Ramadan

Muslims continue to work during Ramadan; however, in some Islamic countries, such as Oman and Lebanon, working hours are shortened. It is often recommended that working Muslims inform their employers if they are fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact performance at work. The extent to which Ramadan observers are protected by reasonable accommodation, religious accommodation varies by country. Policies putting them at a disadvantage compared to other employees have been met with discrimination claims in the United Kingdom and the United States. An Arab News article reported that Saudi Arabian businesses were unhappy with shorter working hours during Ramadan, some reporting a decline in productivity of 35 to 50%. The Saudi businesses proposed awarding salary bonuses in order to incentivize longer hours. Despite the reduction in productivity, merchants can enjoy higher profit margins in Ramadan due to increase in demand.


See also

* Lent * Fasting and abstinence of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria * Karva Chauth * 19 Ramadan * 21 Ramadan


Notes


References


External links


Complete Guide to Ramadhan including Rules, Duas, Itikaaf, Laylatul Qadr, Sadaqatul Fitr etc.

Articles on Ramadan

Ramadan news and articles
{{Authority control Ramadan, Islamic holy days Islamic terminology Fasting in Islam Shia days of remembrance