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Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in
northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on ...
. It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable
Thar Desert The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Thar Desert
(also known as the Great Indian Desert) and shares a border with the
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
i provinces of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
to the northwest and
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
to the west, along the
Sutlej The Satluj River (alternatively spelled as ''Sutlej'' River; ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is ...

Sutlej
-
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
River valley. It is bordered by five other Indian states:
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
to the north;
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
and
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
to the northeast;
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
to the southeast; and
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
to the southwest. Its geographical location is 23.3 to 30.12 North latitude and 69.30 to 78.17 East longitude, with the Tropic of Cancer passing through its southernmost tip. Its major features include the ruins of the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
at
Kalibangan Kalibangān is a town located at on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. The river is known as Ghaggar ...

Kalibangan
and
Balathal Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India. It is one of the ninety Ahar-Banas culture sites located in the Basins of the Banas river and its tributaries. The excavatio ...
, the
Dilwara Temples The Dilwara Temples or Delvada Temples are a group of svetambara Jain temples located about kilometres from the Mount Abu settlement, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state ...
, a
Jain Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religion ...

Jain
pilgrimage site at Rajasthan's only
hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit rarely), for towns founded by Euro ...

hill station
,
Mount Abu Mount Abu () is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit ...

Mount Abu
, in the ancient
Aravalli mountain range
Aravalli mountain range
and in eastern Rajasthan, the
Keoladeo National Park Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. Th ...

Keoladeo National Park
of Bharatpur, a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to three national
tiger The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is ...

tiger
reserves, the
Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, with an area of . It is bounded to the north by the Banas River The Banas is a river which lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is a trib ...

Ranthambore National Park
in
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Council (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers ...

Sawai Madhopur
,
Sariska Tiger Reserve Sariska Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in Alwar district, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the tota ...

Sariska Tiger Reserve
in
Alwar Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the States and territories of Indi ...

Alwar
and the Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve in Kota. The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputanathe name adopted by the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
for its dependencies in the regionwas merged into the
Dominion of India The Dominion of India, officially the Union of India,* Quote: “The first collective use (of the word "dominion") occurred at the Colonial Conference (April to May 1907) when the title was conferred upon Canada and Australia. New Zealand and N ...
. Its
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city is
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
. Other important cities are
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
, Kota,
Bikaner Bikaner () is a city in the northwest of the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Bikaner
,
Ajmer Ajmer is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan, and is home to the Ajmer Sharif shrine. The city was established as "''Ajay ...

Ajmer
, Bharatpur and
Udaipur Udaipur () (ISO 15919: ''Udayapura''), is a city in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1559 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he ...

Udaipur
. The
economy of Rajasthan Rajasthan is a mineral-rich state and has a diversified economy having agriculture, mining and tourism as its main engines of growth. The state mines produce gold, silver, sandstone, limestone, marble, rock phosphate, copper and lignite. It is th ...
is the seventh-largest state economy in India with in
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
and a per capita
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
of . Rajasthan ranks 29th among
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...

Indian
states in
human development index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
.


Etymology

Rajasthan literally means "The Land of Kings".'''' The oldest reference to ''Rajasthan'' is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 CE. The first printed mention of the name ''Rajasthan'' appears in the 1829 publication ''Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India'', while the earliest known record of ''Rajputana'' as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir ''Military Memories''.
John Keay John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is a learned society and professional body for geography based in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences, the Society has 16,00 ...
, in his book ''India: A History'', stated that ''Rajputana'' was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating
Ferishta Firishta or Ferešte ( fa, ), full name Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah ( fa, ), was a Persian historian, who later settled in India and served the Deccan Sultans as their court historian. He was born in 1560 and died in 1620. The name ''Firishta'' m ...
's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase " princes" rather than "Indian princes".


History


Ancient

Parts of what is now Rajasthan were partly part of the Vedic Civilisation and the
Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is ...

Indus Valley Civilization
.
Kalibangan Kalibangān is a town located at on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. The river is known as Ghaggar ...

Kalibangan
, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Another
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...
excavation at the
Balathal Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India. It is one of the ninety Ahar-Banas culture sites located in the Basins of the Banas river and its tributaries. The excavatio ...
site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilisation dating back to 3000–1500 BCE. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in
Bundi Bundi is a Town in the of in northwest India. Demographics In the 2011 Indian , Bundi had a population of 103,286. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Bundi has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national ...
and
Bhilwara Bhilwara is a city in the Mewar list of regions in India, region of Rajasthan, India. It is famous for Textile in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It has been termed as 'textile city'. History Stone Age tools dating from 5,012 to 200,000 ye ...
districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom Matsya Kingdom (700–300 BCE) was one of the ''solasa'' (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) during the Vedic era as described in the Hindu epic ''Mahabharta'' and 6th BCE Buddhist text ''Anguttara Nikaya''. Viratnagar in the northern p ...
of the Vedic civilisation of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
is said to roughly corresponded to the former state of
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar (modern Bairat), which is said to have been named after its founder king
Virata Virata ( sa, विराट, IAST ''virāṭa''), was the king of Matsya Kingdom Matsya Kingdom (700–300 BCE) was one of the ''solasa'' (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) during the Vedic era as described in the Hindu epic '' ...
. Bhargava identifies the two districts of
Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu is a city and headquarters of Jhunjhunu district in the state of Rajasthan. Jhunjhunu is the major textile producing and copper providing district of India. This city is in the northern state of Rajasthan, India and the administrati ...
and
Sikar Sikar is a city located midway between Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi. With a population of roughly 1.6 million, Agra i ...

Sikar
and parts of
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
district along with Haryana districts of
Mahendragarh Mahendragarh is a city and a municipal committee in Mahendragarh district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is from Gurgaon and comes under National Capital Region (India). Etymology Earlier named ''kanaud'', ...

Mahendragarh
and
Rewari Rewari is a city and a Municipal Council in Rewari district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana. 82 km from Delhi
as part of
Vedic upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the ol ...
state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava also locates the present day
Sahibi River The Sahibi river, also called the Sabi River, is an ephemeral Ephemerality (from the Greek language, Greek word , meaning 'lasting only one day') is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly. Typically the term ephemeral ...
as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with
Saraswati River The Sarasvati River (''IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic language ...

Saraswati River
formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and
Bhrigu Bhrigu (( sa, भृगु, ) was a rishi ''Rishi'' () is a term for an accomplished and enlightened person. They find mentions in various Hindu Vedic texts. Rishis are believed to have composed hymns of the Vedas upright=1.2, The V ...
narrated the
Manusmriti The ''Manusmṛiti'' ( sa, मनुस्मृति), also known as the ''Mānava-Dharmaśāstra'' or Laws of Manu, is believed to be the first ancient legal text and constitution among the many ' of Hinduism Hinduism () is an India ...

Manusmriti
to a congregation of seers in this area only. The ashrams of Vedic seers
Bhrigu Bhrigu (( sa, भृगु, ) was a rishi ''Rishi'' () is a term for an accomplished and enlightened person. They find mentions in various Hindu Vedic texts. Rishis are believed to have composed hymns of the Vedas upright=1.2, The V ...
and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom
Chyawanprash Chyavanprash (also spelled chyavanaprasha, chyavanaprash, chyavanaprasam, chamanprash and chyawanaprash) is a cooked mixture of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food ...

Chyawanprash
was formulated, were near
Dhosi Hill Dhosi Hill is an extinct volcano A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. ...

Dhosi Hill
, part of which lies in Dhosi village of
Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu is a city and headquarters of Jhunjhunu district in the state of Rajasthan. Jhunjhunu is the major textile producing and copper providing district of India. This city is in the northern state of Rajasthan, India and the administrati ...
district of Rajasthan and part of which lies in
Mahendragarh Mahendragarh is a city and a municipal committee in Mahendragarh district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is from Gurgaon and comes under National Capital Region (India). Etymology Earlier named ''kanaud'', ...

Mahendragarh
district of
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
. The
Western Kshatrapas The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:, ''Mahakṣatrapa'', "Great Satrap Satraps () were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasania ...
(405–35 BCE), the
Saka The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae ( ; Kharosthi: ; Brahmi script, Brahmi: , ; sa, wiktionary:शक#Sanskrit, शक , ; grc, Σάκαι ; la, Sacae; , Old Chinese, old , Pinyin, mod. , ; egy, wiktionary:sk#Etymology 2, 𓋴𓎝 ...

Saka
rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the
Indo-Scythians Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group who are identified by their use of the Iranian ...
and were contemporaneous with the
Kushans The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia b ...
, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of
Ujjain Ujjain (, Hindustani language, Hindustani pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, d͡ːʒɛːn is a city in Ujjain district of the States and territories of India, Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth-largest city in Madhya Prad ...

Ujjain
and established the
Saka era 250px, Mohar of Gorkhali king Prithvi Narayan Shah dated Shaka era 1685 (AD 1763) The Shaka era (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic ...
(with their
calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also ...
), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka
Western Satraps The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:, ''Mahakṣatrapa'', "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra (region), Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajastha ...
state.


Classical


Gurjara-Pratihara

The Gurjaras ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country; the region was known as ''
Gurjaratra Gurjaradesa(Gurjara country) or Gurjaratra is a historical region in India comprising the eastern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat during the period of 6th -12th century CE. Its name is believed to derive from the dominance of the Gurjar, Gurjar ...
''. Up to the 10th century CE, almost all of
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjaras, with their seat of power at
Kannauj Kannauj ( Hindustani pronunciation: ənːɔːd͡ʒ is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's nam ...

Kannauj
. The Gurjara Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the
Gurjara-Pratihara Empire The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India In ...
lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of . Historian says that this was openly acknowledged by the Arab writers. He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.


Medieval and Early Modern

Prithviraj Chauhan Prithviraja III (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, sci ...
defeated the invading
Muhammad Ghori Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori ( fa, معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical mea ...
in the
First Battle of Tarain The First Battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 between the Ghurids The Ghurid dynasty (also spelled Ghorids; fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī''), was a Persianate Muslim dynasty which ruled from the 10th-century ...
in 1191. In 1192 CE, Muhammad Ghori decisively defeated Prithviraj at the
Second Battle of Tarain The Second Battle of Tarain was fought in 1192 by the Ghurids against the Chahamanas and their allies, near Tarain (modern Taraori in Haryana, India). The Ghurid king Mu'izz al-Din defeated the Chahamana king Prithiviraj Chauhan thus avengin ...
. After the defeat of Chauhan in 1192 CE, a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were
Nagaur Nagaur (Nāgaur) is a city in the state of Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, where it compris ...

Nagaur
and Ajmer. Ranthambhore was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see int ...
. The Rajputs put up resistance to the Islamic invasions with their warfare and chivalry for centuries. The Rana's of
Mewar Mewar or Mewad is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, wh ...

Mewar
led other kingdoms in its resistance to outside rule. Rana
Hammir Singh Rana Hammir (1314–78), or Hammir, was a 14th-century ruler of Mewar in present-day Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or ...
, defeated the
Tughlaq dynasty The Tughlaq dynasty (Ṭughlāq or Arabic script: ) also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "subm ...
and recovered a large portion of Rajasthan. The indomitable Kumbha of Mewar, Rana Kumbha defeated the Sultans of Malwa Sultanate, Malwa, Nagaur and Gujarat Sultanate, Gujarat and made Mewar the most powerful Rajput Kingdom in India. The ambitious Rana Sanga united the various Rajput clans and fought against the foreign powers in India. Rana Sanga defeated the Afghan Lodi Empire of Delhi and crushed the Turkic Sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat. Rana Sanga then tried to create an Indian empire but was defeated by the first Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Babur at Khanua. The defeat was due to betrayal by the Tomar king Silhadi of Raisen. After Rana Sangas death there was no one who could check the rapid expansion of the Mughal Empire. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501. He won 22 battles against Afghans, from
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
to Bengal including states of
Ajmer Ajmer is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan, and is home to the Ajmer Sharif shrine. The city was established as "''Ajay ...

Ajmer
and
Alwar Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the States and territories of Indi ...

Alwar
in Rajasthan, and defeated Akbar's forces twice, first at Agra and then at Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi (1556), Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
, albeit for a short duration, from Purana Quila in Delhi. Hem Chandra was killed in the battlefield at Second Battle of Panipat fighting against Mughals on 5 November 1556. During Akbar's reign most of the Rajput kings accepted Mughal suzerainty, but the rulers of Mewar (Rana Udai Singh II) and Marwar (Rao Chandrasen Rathore) refused to have any form of alliance with the Mughals. To teach the Rajputs a lesson Akbar attacked Udai Singh and killed Rajput commander Jaimal of Chitor and the citizens of Mewar in large numbers. Akbar killed 20,000 – 25,000 unarmed citizens in Chittor on the grounds that they had actively helped in the resistance. Maharana Pratap took an oath to avenge the citizens of Chittor, he fought the Mughal empire till his death and liberated most of Mewar apart from Chittor itself. Maharana Pratap soon became the most celebrated warrior of Rajasthan and became famous all over India for his sporadic warfare and noble actions. According to Satish Chandra, "Rana Pratap's defiance of the mighty Mughal empire, almost alone and unaided by the other Rajput states, constitutes a glorious saga of Rajput valor and the spirit of self-sacrifice for cherished principles. Rana Pratap's methods of sporadic warfare was later elaborated further by Malik Ambar, the Deccani general, and by Shivaji". Rana Amar Singh I continued his ancestor's war against the Mughals under Jehangir, he repelled the Mughal armies at Dewar. Later an expedition was again sent under leadership of Prince Shah Jahan, Khurram, which caused much damage to life and property of Mewar. Many temples were destroyed, several villages were put on fire and women and children were captured and tortured to make Amar Singh accept surrender. During Aurangzeb's rule Rana Raj Singh I and Veer Durgadas Rathore were chief among those who defied the intolerant emperor of Delhi. They took advantage of the Aravalli hills and caused heavy damage to the Mughal armies that were trying to occupy Rajasthan. After Aurangzeb's death Bahadur Shah I tried to subjugate Rajasthan like his ancestors but his plan backfired when the three Rajput Raja's of Jaipur State, Amber, Udaipur State, Udaipur, and Jodhpur State, Jodhpur made a joint resistance to the Mughal Empire, Mughals. The Rajputs first expelled the commandants of
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
and Bayana and recovered Amer, India, Amer by a night attack. They next killed Sayyid Hussain Khan Barha, the commandant of Mewat and many other Mughal officers. Bahadur Shah I, then in the Deccan Plateau, Deccan was forced to patch up a truce with the Rajput Rajas. The Jat people, Jats, under Suraj Mal, overran the Mughal garrison at Agra and plundered the city taking with them the two great silver doors of the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal which were then melted down by Suraj Mal in 1763. Over the years, the Mughals began to have internal disputes which greatly distracted them at times. The Mughal Empire continued to weaken, and with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the late 18th century, Rajputana came under the influence of the Maratha Empire, Marathas. The Maratha Empire, which had replaced the Mughal Empire as the overlord of the subcontinent, was finally replaced by the British Empire in 1818. In the 19th century, the Rajput kingdoms were exhausted, they had been drained financially and in manpower after continuous wars and due to heavy tributes exacted by the Maratha Empire. To save their kingdoms from instability, rebellions and banditry the Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British in the early 19th century, accepting British suzerainty and control over their external affairs in return for internal autonomy. File:Maharana Kumbhakarna of Mewar.jpg, Rana Kumbha was the vanguard of the fifteenth century Rajput resurgence. File:Maharaja Hemu Bhargava - Victor of Twenty Two Pitched Battles, 1910s.jpg, The emperor Hemu, who rose from obscurity and briefly established himself as ruler in northern India, from Punjab to Bengal, in defiance of the warring Sur Empire, Sur and Mughal Empires. File:Rana-udai-singh-ii.jpg, Maharana Udai Singh II founded
Udaipur Udaipur () (ISO 15919: ''Udayapura''), is a city in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1559 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he ...

Udaipur
, which became the new capital of the Udaipur State, Mewar kingdom after Chittor Fort was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. File:RajaRaviVarma MaharanaPratap.jpg, Maharana Pratap, Maharana Pratap Singh, sixteenth-century Rajput ruler of
Mewar Mewar or Mewad is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, wh ...

Mewar
, known for his defense of his realm against Mughal invasion. File:Maharaja Suraj Mal.jpg, Suraj Mal was ruler of Bharatpur State, Bharatpur, some contemporary historians described him as "the Plato of the Jat people" and by a modern writer as the "Jat Odysseus", because of his political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision.


Modern

Modern Rajasthan includes most of Rajputana, which comprises the erstwhile nineteen princely states, two chiefships, and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara. Jaisalmer State, Jaisalmer, Marwar (Jodhpur),
Bikaner Bikaner () is a city in the northwest of the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Bikaner
,
Mewar Mewar or Mewad is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, wh ...

Mewar
(Chittorgarh),
Alwar Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the States and territories of Indi ...

Alwar
and Dhundhar (Jaipur) were some of the main Rajput princely states. Bharatpur and Dholpur were Jat princely states whereas Tonk (princely state), Tonk was a princely state under Pathans.


Geography

The geographic features of Rajasthan are the
Thar Desert The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Thar Desert
and the Aravalli Range, which runs through the state from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to the other, for more than .
Mount Abu Mount Abu () is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit ...

Mount Abu
lies at the southwestern end of the range, separated from the main ranges by the West Banas River, although a series of broken ridges continues into
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
in the direction of Delhi where it can be seen as outcrops in the form of the Raisina Hill and the ridges farther north. About three-fifths of Rajasthan lies northwest of the Aravallis, leaving two-fifths on the east and south direction. The Aravalli Range runs across the state from the southwest peak Guru Shikhar (Mount Abu), which is in height, to Khetri in the northeast. This range divides the state into 60% in the northwest of the range and 40% in the southeast. The northwest tract is sandy and unproductive with little water but improves gradually from desert land in the far west and northwest to comparatively fertile and habitable land towards the east. The area includes the Thar Desert. The south-eastern area, higher in elevation (100 to 350 m above sea level) and more fertile, has a very diversified topography. in the south lies the hilly tract of Mewar. In the southeast, a large area within the districts of Kota and Bundi forms a tableland. To the northeast of these districts is a rugged region (badlands) following the line of the Chambal River. Farther north the country levels out; the flat plains of the northeastern Bharatpur district are part of an alluvial basin. Merta City lies in the geographical center of Rajasthan. The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, ''Acacia'', and other trees. The hilly Vagad region, home to the cities of Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Rajasthan, Pratapgarh, and Banswara lies in southernmost Rajasthan, on the border with Gujarat and
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most ...

Madhya Pradesh
. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan, and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lies the
Mewar Mewar or Mewad is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a in . It covers or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the and the . It is on India's northwestern side, wh ...

Mewar
region, home to the cities of
Udaipur Udaipur () (ISO 15919: ''Udayapura''), is a city in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1559 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he ...

Udaipur
and Chittaurgarh. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast, on the border with Madhya Pradesh. North of Hadoti and Mewar lies the Dhundhar region, home to the state capital of
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan, borders
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
and
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a States and union territories of India, state in North India, northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the List of states and union territories of India by population, most popu ...

Uttar Pradesh
. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas River, Banas and Chambal River, Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges. The northwestern portion of Rajasthan is generally sandy and dry. Most of this region is covered by the
Thar Desert The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Thar Desert
which extends into adjoining portions of Pakistan. The Aravalli Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea, as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow. The Thar Desert is thinly populated; the City of
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
is the largest city in the desert and a major metropolitan area of India which is known as the gateway of the Thar desert. The desert has some major districts like Jodhpur district, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer,
Bikaner Bikaner () is a city in the northwest of the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Bikaner
, and Nagaur district, Nagour. This area is also important from a defence point of view. Jodhpur airbase is one of the largest airbases in India, BSF and Military bases are also situated here. Currently four civil airports are located here: Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Nagaur, of which Jodhpur is the major civil airport, being the 44th busiest airport in India and one of the oldest air strips of India, being built in the 1920s. The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. This region receives less than 400  mm of rain annually. Temperatures can sometimes exceed 45 °C in the summer months and drop below freezing point in the winter. The Godwar, Marwar, and Shekhawati List of regions in India, regions lie in the thorn scrub forest zone, along with the city of Jodhpur. The Luni River and its tributaries are the major river system of Godwar and Marwar regions, draining the western slopes of the Aravallis and emptying southwest into the great Rann of Kutch wetland in neighboring
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
. This river is saline in the lower reaches and remains potable only up to Balotara in Barmer district. The Ghaggar River, which originates in
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
, is an intermittent stream that disappears into the sands of the Thar Desert in the northern corner of the state and is seen as a remnant of the primitive Sarasvati river. File:Mt. Abu.jpg,
Mount Abu Mount Abu () is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit ...

Mount Abu
is a popular hill station in Rajasthan. File: A sunset on the dunes of the Great Indian Thar Desert Rajasthan India.jpg, The
Thar Desert The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Thar Desert
near Jaisalmer. File: An aerial view of Udaipur and Aravali hills Rajasthan India 2012.jpg, Aerial view Udaipur and Aravali hills.


Flora and fauna

The Desert National Park in Jaisalmer is spread over an area of , is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert and its diverse fauna (animals), fauna. Seashells and massive fossilised tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert. The region is a haven for bird migration, migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many eagles, harrier (bird), harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrels and vultures. Short-toed snake eagles ''(Circaetus gallicus)'', tawny eagles ''(Aquila rapax)'', spotted eagles ''(Aquila clanga)'', laggar falcons ''(Falco jugger)'' and kestrels are the commonest of these. The
Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, with an area of . It is bounded to the north by the Banas River The Banas is a river which lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is a trib ...

Ranthambore National Park
located in
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Council (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers ...

Sawai Madhopur
, one of the well known tiger reserves in the country, became a part of Project Tiger in 1973. Tal Chhapar Sanctuary is a very small sanctuary in Sujangarh, Churu District, from
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of blackbuck. Red fox, Desert foxes and the caracal, an apex predator, also known as the ''desert lynx'', can also be spotted, along with birds such as the partridge, harrier (bird), harriers, Eastern Imperial Eagle, eastern imperial eagle, Pale Harrier, pale harrier, Marsh Harrier, marsh harrier, Short-toed Eagle, short-toed eagle, Tawny Eagle, tawny eagle, Sparrow Hawk, sparrow hawk, Crested Lark, crested lark, Demoiselle Crane, demoiselle crane, Oriental skylark, skylarks, Green Bee-eater, green bee-eater, Brown Dove, brown dove, Black Ibis, black ibis and sand grouse. The great Indian bustard, known locally as the ''godavan'', and which is a state bird, has been classed as critically endangered since 2011.


Wildlife protection

Rajasthan is also noted for its national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. There are four national parks and wildlife sanctuaries:
Keoladeo National Park Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. Th ...

Keoladeo National Park
of Bharatpur,
Sariska Tiger Reserve Sariska Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in Alwar district, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the tota ...

Sariska Tiger Reserve
of Alwar,
Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, with an area of . It is bounded to the north by the Banas River The Banas is a river which lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is a trib ...

Ranthambore National Park
of
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Council (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers ...

Sawai Madhopur
, and Desert National Park of Jaisalmer. A national-level institute, Arid Forest Research Institute (AFRI) an autonomous institute of the ministry of forestry is situated in Jodhpur and continuously works on desert flora and their conservation.
Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, with an area of . It is bounded to the north by the Banas River The Banas is a river which lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is a trib ...

Ranthambore National Park
is 7 km from
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Council (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers ...

Sawai Madhopur
Railway Station. It is known worldwide for its tiger population and is considered by both wilderness lovers and photographers as one of the best places in India to spot tigers. At one point, due to poaching and negligence, tigers became extinct at Sariska, but five tigers have been relocated there. Prominent among the wildlife sanctuaries are
Mount Abu Mount Abu () is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit ...

Mount Abu
Sanctuary, Bhensrod Garh Sanctuary, Darrah National Park, Darrah Sanctuary, Jaisamand Sanctuary, Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary, and Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary.


Communication

Major internet service provider (ISP) and telecom companies are present in Rajasthan including Airtel, Data Infosys Limited, Reliance Group, Reliance Limited, Idea, Jio, RailTel Corporation of India, Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), Tata Teleservices, Tata Telecom and Vodafone. Data Infosys was the first ISP to bring the internet to Rajasthan in April 1999 and Airtel India, OASIS was the first private mobile telephone company. Today the largest coverage area and the clientele are with BSNL.


Government and politics

The politics of Rajasthan are dominated mainly by the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress.


Administrative divisions

Rajasthan is divided into 33 districts within Divisions of Rajasthan, seven divisions:


Economy

Rajasthan's economy is primarily agricultural and pastoral. Wheat and barley are cultivated over large areas, as are pulse (legume), pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Cotton and tobacco are the state's cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second-largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India and the main opium producer and consumer. There are mainly two crop seasons. The water for irrigation comes from wells and tanks. The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates northwestern Rajasthan. The main industries are mineral based, agriculture-based, and textiles, textile based. Rajasthan is the second-largest producer of polyester fiber in India. Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the city of Kota, in southern Rajasthan. Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The Taj Mahal was built from the white marble which was mined from a town called Makrana. The state is the second-largest source of cement in India. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar, Rajasthan, Sambhar, copper mines at Khetri,
Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu is a city and headquarters of Jhunjhunu district in the state of Rajasthan. Jhunjhunu is the major textile producing and copper providing district of India. This city is in the northern state of Rajasthan, India and the administrati ...
, and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines and Rampura Agucha (opencast) near Bhilwara. Dimensional stone mining is also undertaken in Rajasthan. Jodhpur sandstone is mostly used in monuments, important buildings, and residential buildings. This stone is termed as ''Chittar Patthar''. Jodhpur leads in the handicraft and Guar Gum, guar gum industries. Rajasthan is also a part of the Mumbai-Delhi Industrial corridor set to benefit economically. The state gets 39% of the DMIC, with major districts of Jaipur, Alwar, Kota and Bhilwara benefiting. Rajasthan also has reserves of low-silica limestone. Rajasthan connected 100% of its population to electricity power in 2019 (raising the rate of electricity access from 71% of the population in 2015). The renewable energy sector plays the most important role in the increase of generation capacities, with the main focus on solar energy. In 2020, Bhadla Solar Park was recognized as the largest cluster of Photovoltaic power station, photovoltaic power plants in a single region in the world, with the installed power exceeding the 2.2 gigawatt peak.


Transport

Rajasthan is connected by many national highways, the most renowned being NH 8, which is India's first 4–8 lane highway. Rajasthan also has an inter-city surface transport system both in terms of railways and bus network. All chief cities are connected by air, rail, and road.


Air

There are six main airports at Rajasthan – Jaipur International Airport, Jodhpur Airport, Udaipur Airport and the recently started Kishangarh Airport, Ajmer Airport, Nal Airport, Bikaner Airport and Jaisalmer Airport. These airports connect Rajasthan with the major cities of India such as Delhi and Mumbai. There is another airport in Kota but it is not open for commercial/civilian flights yet.


Rail

Rajasthan is connected with the main cities of India by rail. Jaipur, Kota, Ajmer, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Bikaner, Alwar, Abu Road, and Udaipur are the principal railway stations in Rajasthan. Kota City is the only electrified section served by three Rajdhani Expresses and trains to all major cities of India. There is also an international railway, the Thar Express from
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
(India) to Karachi (Pakistan). However, this is not open to foreign nationals.


Road

Rajasthan is well-connected to the main cities of the country including Delhi, Ahmedabad and Indore by state and national highways and served by Rajasthan State Road Transport Corporation (RSRTC) and private operators. Now in March 2017, 75 percent of all national highways being built in Rajasthan according to the public works minister of Rajasthan. File:Jaipur Airport.JPG, Jaipur International Airport File:Maharajas' Express - Mayur Mahal, dining (4809207224).jpg, Maharajah's Express dining saloon File:Jaipur 03-2016 34 Jaipur Metro.jpg, The Jaipur Metro is an important urban transportation link File:National highway 841.jpg, NH 8 between
Udaipur Udaipur () (ISO 15919: ''Udayapura''), is a city in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1559 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he ...

Udaipur
and Ahmedabad


Demographics

According to the 2011 Census of India, Rajasthan has a total population of 68,548,437. The native Rajasthani people make up the majority of the state's population. The state of Rajasthan is also populated by Sindhi people, Sindhis, who came to Rajasthan from Sindh province (now in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
) during the India-Pakistan separation in 1947. As for religion, Rajasthan's residents are mainly Hindus, who account for 88.49% of the population. Rajasthani Muslims, Muslims make up 9.07%, Sikhs 1.27% and Jainism, Jains 0.91% of the population. According to a report by ''Moneycontrol.com'' at the time of 2018 Rajasthan Legislative Assembly election, the Scheduled Caste (SC) population was 18%, Scheduled Tribe (ST) was 13%, Jats 12%, Gujjars and Rajputs 9% each, Brahmins and Meenas 7% each. Brahmins, according to ''Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook'' constituted 8% to 10% of the population of Rajasthan as per a 2003 report, but only 7% in a 2007 report. According to a 2007 ''DNA India'' report, 12.5% of the state are Brahmins.


Language

Hindi language (Hindi belt), Hindi is the official and the most widely spoken language in the state (90.97% of the population as per the 2001 Census of India, 2001 census), followed by Bhili (4.60%), Punjabi language, Punjabi (2.01%), and Urdu (1.17%). Rajasthani language, Rajasthani is one of the main spoken languages in the state. Rajasthani and various Rajasthani dialects are counted under Hindi in the national census. In the 2001 census, standard Rajasthani had over 18 million speakers, as well as millions of other speakers of Rajasthani dialects, such as Marwari language, Marwari. The languages taught under the three-language formula are: First language: Hindi
Second language: English
Third language: Gujarati, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi or Urdu


Culture


Food

Rajasthani cuisine, Rajasthani cooking was influenced by both the war-like lifestyles of its inhabitants and the availability of ingredients in this arid region. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred. Thus, pickles of Rajasthan are quite famous for their tangy and spicy flavour. The ''Panchkuta'' delicacy is also a famous one - meaning 5 vegetables - a dish that lasts for several days, and is made out certain weed plants that only grow in the wild desert. The scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. It is known for its snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia. Other famous dishes include ''bajre ki roti'' (millet bread) and ''lahsun ki chutney'' (hot garlic paste), ''mawa kachori'' Mirchi Bada, Pyaaj Kachori and ghevar from Jodhpur,
Alwar Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the States and territories of Indi ...

Alwar
ka Mawa (milk cake), ''Kadhi kachori'' from Ajmer, ''Malpua'' from Pushkar, Daal kachori (Kota kachori) from Kota and rassgullas from Bikaner. Originating from the Marwar region of the state is the concept of Marwari Bhojnalaya, or vegetarian restaurants, today found in many parts of India, which offer vegetarian food popular among Marwari people. Ghee is an essential ingredient in most Rajasthani cuisines, and dollops of ghee are poured over food as a welcoming gesture for guests. Dal baati, Dal-bati-churma is very popular in Rajasthan. The traditional way to serve it is to first coarsely mash the baati, and then pour pure ghee on top of it. It is served with daal (lentils) and spicy garlic chutney; it is also served with besan (gram flour) ki kadi. It is commonly served at all festivities, including religious occasions, wedding ceremonies, and birthday parties in Rajasthan.


Music and Dance

The Ghoomar dance from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Kalbelia of the Kalbelia tribe have gained international recognition. Folk music is a large part of the Rajasthani culture. The Manganiyar and Langha (tribe), Langa communities from Rajasthan are notable for their folk music. Kathputli (puppetry), Kathputli, Bhopa, Chang, Teratali, Ghindr, Gair dance, Kachchhi Ghori, and Tejaji are examples of traditional Rajasthani culture. Folk songs are commonly ballads that relate heroic deeds and love stories; and religious or devotional songs known as ''bhajans'' and ''banis'' which are often accompanied by musical instruments like dholak, sitar, and sarangi are also sung.


Art

Rajasthan is known for its traditional, colorful art. The block prints, tie and dye prints, Gota (embroidery), gota patti (main), Bagaru prints, Sanganer prints, and Zari embroidery are major export products from Rajasthan. Handicraft items like wooden furniture and crafts, carpets, and blue pottery are commonly found here. Shopping reflects the colorful culture, Rajasthani clothes have a lot of mirror work and embroidery. A Rajasthani traditional dress for females comprises an ankle-length skirt and a short top, known as ''chaniya choli'' Mainly pure owned by traditional people. A piece of cloth is used to cover the head, both for protection from heat and maintenance of modesty. Rajasthani dresses are usually designed in bright colors like blue, yellow, and orange.


Education

During recent years, Rajasthan has worked on improving education. The state government has been making sustained efforts to raise the education standard.


Literacy

In recent decades the literacy rate of Rajasthan has increased significantly. In 1991, the state's literacy rate was only 38.55% (54.99% male and 20.44% female). In 2001, the literacy rate increased to 60.41% (75.70% male and 43.85% female). This was the highest leap in the percentage of literacy recorded in India (the rise in female literacy being 23%). At the Census 2011, Rajasthan had a literacy rate of 67.06% (80.51% male and 52.66% female). Although Rajasthan's literacy rate is below the national average of 74.04% and although its female literacy rate is the lowest in the country, the state has been praised for its efforts and achievements in raising literacy rates. In rural areas of Rajasthan, the literacy rate is 76.16% for males and 45.8% for females. This has been debated across all the party level, when the governor of Rajasthan set a minimum educational qualification for the village panchayat elections.


Tourism

Rajasthan attracted a total of 45.9 million domestic and 1.6 million foreign tourists in 2017, which is the tenth highest in terms of domestic visitors and fifth highest in foreign tourists. The tourism industry in Rajasthan is growing effectively each year and is becoming one of the major income sources for the state government. Rajasthan is home to many attractions for domestic and foreign travellers, including the forts and palaces of
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...

Jaipur
, the lakes of
Udaipur Udaipur () (ISO 15919: ''Udayapura''), is a city in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1559 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he ...

Udaipur
, the temples of Rajsamand and Pali, Rajasthan, Pali, sand dunes of Jaisalmer and
Bikaner Bikaner () is a city in the northwest of the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Bikaner
, Havelis of Mandawa and Fatehpur, Rajasthan, Fatehpur, the wildlife of
Sawai Madhopur Sawai Madhopur is a city and Municipal Council (Nagar Parishad) in the Sawai Madhopur District in Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers ...

Sawai Madhopur
, the scenic beauty of
Mount Abu Mount Abu () is a hill station A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in Western imperialism in Asia, colonial Asia (particularly in India), but also in Africa (albeit ...

Mount Abu
, the tribes of Dungarpur and Banswara, and the cattle fair of Pushkar. Rajasthan is known for its custom culture colors, majestic forts, and palaces, folk dances and music, local festivals, local food, sand dunes, carved temples and beautiful havelis. Rajasthan's Jaipur Jantar Mantar, Mehrangarh Fort and Stepwell of
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
,
Dilwara Temples The Dilwara Temples or Delvada Temples are a group of svetambara Jain temples located about kilometres from the Mount Abu settlement, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state ...
, Chittor Fort, Lake Palace, miniature paintings in Bundi, and numerous city palaces and Havelis are part of the architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the ''Pink City'', is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sandstone dominated by a pink hue. In Jodhpur, most houses are painted blue. At
Ajmer Ajmer is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan, and is home to the Ajmer Sharif shrine. The city was established as "''Ajay ...

Ajmer
, there is white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar lake and Soniji Ki Nasiyan. Jain Temples dot Rajasthan from north to south and east to west.
Dilwara Temples The Dilwara Temples or Delvada Temples are a group of svetambara Jain temples located about kilometres from the Mount Abu settlement, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state ...
of Mount Abu, Shrinathji Temple of Nathdwara, Ranakpur Jain temple dedicated to Lord Rishabhanatha, Adinath in Pali District, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodhruva, Lodurva Jain temples, Mirpur Jain Temple of Sirohi, Sarun Mata Temple at Kotputli, Bhandasar and Karni Mata Temple of
Bikaner Bikaner () is a city in the northwest of the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Bikaner
and Mandore of
Jodhpur Jodhpur (; ) is the second-largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state. It was formerly the seat of the princely state of Jodhpur State. Jodhpur was historically the capital of the Ma ...

Jodhpur
are some of the best examples.
Keoladeo National Park Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. Th ...

Keoladeo National Park
,
Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, with an area of . It is bounded to the north by the Banas River The Banas is a river which lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is a trib ...

Ranthambore National Park
,
Sariska Tiger Reserve Sariska Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in Alwar district, Rajasthan Rajasthan ( ; literally, "Land of Kings") is a States and union territories of India, state in northern India. The state covers an area of or 10.4 percent of the tota ...

Sariska Tiger Reserve
, Tal Chhapar Sanctuary, are wildlife attractions of Rajasthan. Mewar festival of Udaipur, Teej festival and Gangaur festival in Jaipur, Rajasthan desert festival, Desert festival of Jodhpur, Brij Holi of Bharatpur, Matsya festival of Alwar, Kite festival of Jodhpur, Kolayat fair in Bikaner are some of the most popular fairs and festivals of Rajasthan. File:Camel rides in Thar desert.jpg, Camel rides in Thar desert File:Temples at Pushkar Lake.jpg, Pushkar Lake and Ghat File:Bhavai is a genre of folk dance popular in Rajasthan. The male or female performers balance a number of earthen pots while dancing.jpg, Folk dance popular in Rajasthan File:Demoiselle cranes in Khichan near Bikaner (Rajasthan).jpg, Demoiselle cranes in Khichan near Bikaner File:Hawa Mahal 2011.jpg, Hawa Mahal File:20191219 Fort Amber, Amer, Jaipur 0955 9481.jpg, Amber Fort has seen from the bank of Maotha Lake, Jaigarh Fort on the hills in the background File:Nakki Lake - panoramio.jpg, Nakki Lake, Mount Abu File:Mehrangarh Fort.jpg, Mehrangarh Fort File:Kalpavruksha page.jpg, Dilwara Temples File:Lake Pichola (1580558921).jpg, Lake Palace File:Kirti Stambha of Fort of Chittaur -Chittaurgarh -Rajasthan -IMG 8307.jpg, Kirti Stambha of Fort of Chittaur File:A Walk to remember.jpg, Tiger at Ranthambore National Park File:Jaipur 03-2016 39 Jal Mahal - Water Palace.jpg, Jal Mahal, Jaipur


See also

* Outline of Rajasthan * List of people from Rajasthan


References


Further reading

* Bhattacharya, Manoshi. 2008. ''The Royal Rajputs: Strange Tales and Stranger Truths''. Rupa & Co, New Delhi. * Gahlot, Sukhvirsingh. 1992. ''RAJASTHAN: Historical & Cultural''. J. S. Gahlot Research Institute, Jodhpur. * Somani, Ram Vallabh. 1993. ''History of Rajasthan''. Jain Pustak Mandir, Jaipur. * Tod, James & Crooke, William. 1829. ''Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India,''. Numerous reprints, including 3 Vols. Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi. 1990. (set of 3 vols.) * Mathur, P.C., 1995. ''Social and Economic Dynamics of Rajasthan Politics'' (Jaipur, Aaalekh)


External links


Government


Official Site of the Government of Rajasthan, India

Official Tourism Site of Rajasthan, India


General information

* * {{Authority control Rajasthan, North India, * States and union territories of India States and territories established in 1950 1950 establishments in India