HOME

TheInfoList



The provinces and territories of Canada () are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
under the jurisdiction of the
Canadian Constitution The Constitution of Canada (french: Constitution du Canada) is the supreme law in Canada. It outlines Canada's system of government and the civil and human rights of those who are citizens of Canada and non-citizens in Canada. Its contents ar ...
. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire's colonial territories in North America from 1783 to 1907, not including the Caribbean. The Atlantic island of Bermuda (originally part of Virginia and, with the Bahamas, grouped with North Am ...
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = ...

New Brunswick
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French , capital = Hali ...

Nova Scotia
, and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, ...
(which upon Confederation was divided into
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , larges ...

Ontario
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
)—united to form a federation, becoming a fully independent country over the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make Canada up the world's second-largest country and North America's largest country. The major difference between a Canadian
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...

province
and a
territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

territory
is that provinces receive their power and authority from the ''
Constitution Act, 1867 The ''Constitution Act, 1867'The Constitution Act, 1867'', 30 & 31 Victoria (U.K.), c. 3, http://canlii.ca/t/ldsw retrieved on 2019-03-14. (french: Loi constitutionnelle de 1867, originally enacted as ''The British North America Act, 1867' ...
'' (formerly called the ''
British North America Act, 1867 The ''Constitution Act, 1867'The Constitution Act, 1867'', 30 & 31 Victoria (U.K.), c. 3, http://canlii.ca/t/ldsw retrieved on 2019-03-14. (french: Loi constitutionnelle de 1867, originally enacted as ''The British North America Act, 1867' ...
''), whereas territorial governments are creatures of statute with powers delegated to them by the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of Co ...

Parliament of Canada
. The powers flowing from the ''Constitution Act'' are divided between the
Government of Canada The government of Canada (french: Gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federation, federal administration of Canada. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, assuming distinct ro ...
(the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a
constitutional amendment A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or r ...
, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the ''Constitution Act, 1867'', and each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian
Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
, the
lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. It is often a lieutenant governor is the deputy or lieutenant to or ranked under a governor — a " second-in ...
. The territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities are
devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), st ...
directly from the federal level, and as a result, have a
commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...
that represents the federal government.


Provinces

Notes:


Territories

There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate au ...
and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of salt ...
and all islands north of the Canadian mainland (from those in
James Bay James Bay (french: Baie James, cr, Wînipekw) is a large body of water located on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. Both bodies of water extend from the Arctic Ocean, of which James Bay is the southernmost part. It borders the Canadian p ...
to the
Queen Elizabeth Islands The Queen Elizabeth Islands (french: Îles de la Reine-Élisabeth; formerly Parry Islands or Parry Archipelago) are the northernmost cluster of islands in Canada's Arctic Archipelago, split between Nunavut and the Northwest Territories in Northern ...
). The following table lists the territories in order of precedence (each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was created). Another territory, the
District of Keewatin Extent of the District of Keewatin before its reorganization in 1905. The District of Keewatin was a territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and ...
existed from October 7, 1876, until September 1, 1905, when it rejoined the Northwest Territories and became the Keewatin Region. It was east of the North-West Territories, occupying the area that is now the
Kenora District Kenora District is a district and Census divisions of Canada, census division in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. The district seat is the City of Kenora. It is geographically the largest division in Ontario: at , it covers 38 percent of the provinc ...
of Ontario, northern Manitoba, and the eastern half of Nunavut. Government of Keewatin was based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The territory did not have any representation in federal parliament.


Population

The vast majority of Canada's population is concentrated in areas close to the Canada–US border. Its four largest provinces by area (
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
,
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , larges ...

Ontario
,
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British Co ...
and
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton () is the capital ci ...
) are also (with Quebec and Ontario switched in order) its most populous; together they account for 86% of the country's population. The territories (the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2016 census population of 41,790, it ...

Northwest Territories
,
Nunavut Nunavut ( ) ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories exten ...
and
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Cana ...

Yukon
) account for over a third of Canada's area but are only home to 0.3% of its population, which skews the national
population density upright=2.05, Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 2005 Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the ri ...

population density
value.Series A2-14. Population of Canada
by province, census dates, 1851 to 1976
Canada's population grew by 5.0% between the
2006 2006 was designated as the International Year of Deserts and Desertification and the International Asperger's Year. Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are ...
and
2011 A series of protests and government overthrows, known as the Arab Spring, swept through the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Wester ...
censuses. Except for
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = ...

New Brunswick
, all territories and provinces increased in population during this time. In terms of percent change, the fastest-growing province or territory was
Nunavut Nunavut ( ) ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories exten ...
with an increase of 12.7% between 2011 and 2016, followed by
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton () is the capital ci ...
with 11.6% growth, while New Brunswick's population decreased by 0.5%. Generally, Canadian provinces have steadily grown in population along with Canada. However, some provinces such as Saskatchewan, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador have experienced long periods of stagnation or population decline. Ontario and Quebec have always been the two biggest provinces in Canada, with together over 60% of the population at any given time. The population of the West relative to Canada as a whole has steadily grown over time, while that of
Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, i ...
has declined.


Territorial evolution

upright=1.15, " O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada featuring arms of the Canadian provinces and territories as of 1965 Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this, Ontario and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, Manitoba (1870), British Columbia (1871), and Prince Edward Island (1873) were added as provinces. The British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 ...
and the
North-Western Territory The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America extant until 1870 and named for where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. Due to the lack of development, exploration, and cartographic limits of the time, the exact boundarie ...
, and assigned them to the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson ''CBH'') is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trade, fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada and the United St ...
. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000 ( $1.5 million), assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia; the Territories also included the northern two-thirds of Ontario and Quebec, and almost all of present Manitoba, with the 1870 province of Manitoba originally being confined to a small area in the south of today's province. The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. 1898 saw the Yukon Territory, later renamed simply as Yukon in 2003, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the
District of Ungava The District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, ...
. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a
British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, and that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the
Great Depression in Canada The worldwide Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most cou ...
with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of
economic crisis An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exc ...
, the legislature turned over political control to the
Newfoundland Commission of Government The Commission of Government was a non-elected body that governed the Dominion of Newfoundland The Dominion of Newfoundland was a country in eastern North America, today the modern Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Newfou ...
in 1933. Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, and on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, resolution of the fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary. This was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a
boundary dispute A territorial dispute or boundary dispute is a disagreement over the possession (law), possession or control of land between two or more polity, political entities. Context and definitions Territorial disputes are often related to the possessio ...
between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador enlarged at Quebec's expense; this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering in land area. They are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes. For much of the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately and a 2016 census population of 41,790, it ...

Northwest Territories
' early history it was divided into several districts for ease of administration. The
District of Keewatin Extent of the District of Keewatin before its reorganization in 1905. The District of Keewatin was a territory of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and ...
was created as a separate territory from 1876 to 1905, after which, as the Keewatin Region, it became an administrative district of the Northwest Territories. In 1999, it was dissolved when it became part of Nunavut.


Government

Theoretically, provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, with jurisdiction over many public goods such as health care, education, welfare, and intra-provincial transportation. They receive "
transfer paymentIn macroeconomics Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (eco ...
s" from the federal government to pay for these, as well as exacting their own taxes. In practice, however, the federal government can use these transfer payments to influence these provincial areas. For instance, in order to receive healthcare funding under Medicare, provinces must agree to meet certain federal mandates, such as universal access to required medical treatment. Provincial and territorial legislatures have no second chamber like the
Canadian Senate The Senate of Canada (french: region=CA, Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada. The Senate is modelled after the British House of Lords and consists of 105 members appointed by the Governor General of Canada, governor ...

Canadian Senate
. Originally, most provinces had such bodies, known as legislative councils, with members titled councillors. These upper houses were abolished one by one, Quebec's being the last in 1968. In most provinces, the single house of the legislature is known as the Legislative Assembly; the exceptions are Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, where the chamber is called the
House of Assembly House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameralism, bicameral parliament. In some countries this may be at a administrative division, subnational level. Historically, in Kingdom of Great Britain, British Crown c ...
, and Quebec where it is called the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative defin ...
. Ontario has a Legislative Assembly but its members are called Members of the Provincial Parliament or MPPs. The legislative assemblies use a procedure similar to that of the
House of Commons of Canada The House of Commons of Canada (french: Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, which also comprises the Monarchy of Canada, sovereign (represented by the Governor General of Canada, governor g ...
. The head of government of each province, called the
premier Premier is a title for the head of government in central governments, state governments and local governments of some countries. A second in command to a premier is designated as a deputy premier. Examples by country The word comes from frenc ...
, is generally the head of the party with the most seats. This is also the case in Yukon, but the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no political parties at the territorial level. The Queen's representative in each province is the
Lieutenant Governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lie ...
. In each of the territories there is an analogous
Commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...
, but they represent the federal government rather than the monarch.


Provincial legislature buildings

File:British Columbia Parliament Buildings - panoramio.jpg,
British Columbia Parliament Buildings The British Columbia Parliament Buildings are located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and are home to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Speaker and the Serjeant-at-Ar ...
File:2011 Alberta Legislature Building 03.jpg,
Alberta Legislature Building The Alberta Legislature Building is located in Edmonton and is the meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, Legislative Assembly and the Executive Council of Alberta, Executive Council. It has occasionally been shortened to "the Ledge ...

Alberta Legislature Building
File:Saskatchewan legislative building.jpg,
Saskatchewan Legislative Building The Saskatchewan Legislative Building is located in Regina, Saskatchewan ("Strength from Many Peoples") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang ...

Saskatchewan Legislative Building
File:Parliamentwinnipeg manitoba.jpg,
Manitoba Legislative BuildingThe Manitoba Legislative Building (french: Palais législatif du Manitoba), originally named the Manitoba Parliament Building, is the meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, located in central Winnipeg, as well as being the twelfth pro ...

Manitoba Legislative Building
File:Ontario Legislative Building, Toronto, South view 20170417 1.jpg,
Ontario Legislative Building The Ontario Legislative Building (french: L'édifice de l'Assemblée législative de l'Ontario) is a structure in central Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a r ...

Ontario Legislative Building
File:Quebec City (14765614666).jpg, Quebec Parliament Building File:Confederation Building (front), St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.jpg,
Confederation Building (Newfoundland and Labrador) The Confederation Building serves as the home of the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly. It is located on Confederation Hill overlooking Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost province A provi ...
File:New Brunswick Legislature.png,
New Brunswick Legislative Building The New Brunswick Legislative Building (french: Édifice de l'Assemblée législative du Nouveau-Brunswick) is the home to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, and is located in Fredericton, New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map ...
File:Province House (Nova Scotia).jpg,
Province House (Nova Scotia) Province House in Halifax is where the Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang ...

Province House (Nova Scotia)
File:282 - Birthplace of Canada Charlottetown PEI.JPG, Province House (Prince Edward Island)


Territorial legislature buildings

File:Yukon Legislature main entrance.jpg, Yukon Legislative Building File:Territorial Legislature Yellowknife Northwest Territories Canada 03.jpg, File:Leg Building Iqaluit 2000-08-27.jpg, Legislative Building of Nunavut


Provincial political parties

Most provinces have rough provincial counterparts to major federal parties. However, these provincial parties are not usually formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name. For example, no provincial Conservative or Progressive Conservative Party shares an organizational link to the federal
Conservative Party of Canada The Conservative Party of Canada (french: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ...
, and neither do provincial Green Parties to the
Green Party of Canada The Green Party of Canada (french: Parti vert du Canada) is a federal political party in Canada, founded in 1983 with a focus on green politics. The Green Party is currently the fifth party in the House of Commons The House of Commons is t ...
. Provincial New Democratic Parties, on the other hand, are fully integrated with the federal
New Democratic Party The New Democratic Party (NDP; french: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a Social democracy, social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic: * * * * * * * * * Canadian federalism, federal political party in Can ...

New Democratic Party
—meaning that provincial parties effectively operate as sections, with common membership, of the federal party. The
Liberal Party of Canada The Liberal Party of Canada (french: Parti libéral du Canada, region=CA) is the longest-serving and oldest active federal political party in Canada. The party has dominated federal politics of Canada for much of its history, holding power for al ...
shares such an organizational integration with
Atlantic Canada Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, i ...
provincial Liberals in
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...
,
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British North America, British colony in North America f ...
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...
, and
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''de ...
. Other provincial Liberal Parties are unaffiliated with their federal counterpart. Some provinces have provincial political parties with no clear federal equivalent, such as the
Alberta Party The Alberta Party (french: Parti de l'Alberta, Parti albertain), formally the Alberta Party Political Association (french: L'Association politique du Parti albertain), is a political party in the province of Alberta ("Strong and free") , imag ...

Alberta Party
and
Saskatchewan Party The Saskatchewan Party is a centre-right political party in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Since 2007, it has been the province's governing party; both the party and the province are currently led by Pr ...
. The provincial political climate of Quebec is different: the main split is between
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate au ...
, represented by the
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democracy, social democratic provincial list of political parties in Quebec, political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates Quebec sovereignty movement, national sovereignty for Qu ...
and
Québec solidaire Québec solidaire (QS; ) is a democratic socialist, social-democratic and sovereigntist political party in Quebec, Canada. The party and media outlets in Canada usually use the name "Québec solidaire" in both French and English, but the party ...
, and
federalism Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government nor ...
, represented primarily by the
Quebec Liberal Party The Quebec Liberal Party (QLP; french: Parti libéral du Québec, PLQ) is a centrist provincial political party in Quebec. It has been independent of the federal Liberal Party of Canada since 1955. The QLP has always been associated with the colour ...
. The
Coalition Avenir Québec The Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ; , "Coalition for Quebec's Future") is a Quebec nationalism, Quebec nationalist and Autonomism in Quebec, autonomist provincial List of political parties in Quebec, political party in Quebec. Although it is often ...
, meanwhile, takes an abstentionist position on the question and does not support or oppose sovereignty. Currently, the one minority provincial/territorial government is held by the
Liberals Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...

Liberals
in
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Cana ...
.


Ceremonial territory

The
Canadian National Vimy Memorial french: À la vaillance de ses fils pendant la Grande Guerre et en mémoire de ses soixante mille morts, le peuple canadien a élevé ce monument. , source = , embedded = The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is a war memorial site in ...
, near
Vimy Vimy ( or ; ; Dutch: "Wimi") is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is ...

Vimy
, Pas-de-Calais, and the
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial is a memorial site in France dedicated to the commemoration of Dominion of Newfoundland forces members who were killed during World War I. The preserved battlefield park encompasses the grounds over which t ...

Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
, near
Beaumont-Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a Communes of France, commune in the Somme (department), Somme Departments of France, department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. During the World War I, First World War, Beaumont-Hamel was close to the front line, near ma ...
, both in France, are ceremonially considered Canadian territory. In 1922, the French government donated the land used for the Vimy Memorial "freely, and for all time, to the Government of Canada the free use of the land exempt from all taxes". The site of the Somme battlefield near Beaumont-Hamel site was purchased in 1921 by the people of the
Dominion of Newfoundland The Dominion of Newfoundland was a country in eastern North America, today the modern Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It was established on 26 September 1907, and confirmed by the Balfour Decl ...
. These sites do not, however, enjoy extraterritorial status and are thus subject to French law.


Proposed provinces and territories

Since Confederation in 1867, there have been several proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. The Constitution of Canada requires an
amendmentAn amendment is a formal or official change made to a law, contract A contract is a legally binding document between at least two parties that defines and governs the rights and duties of the parties to an agreement. A contract is legally enforc ...
for the creation of a new provinceAn amendment to the Constitution of Canada in relation to the following matters may be made only in accordance with subsection 38(1)...notwithstanding any other law or practice, the establishment of new provinces. but the creation of a new territory requires only an
act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most countries, acts of parliament begin as a Bill (law), bill, whi ...

act of Parliament
, a legislatively simpler process. In late 2004, Prime Minister
Paul Martin Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), also known as Paul Martin Jr., is a Canadian politician and author who served as the 21st prime minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, lin ...

Paul Martin
surprised some observers by expressing his personal support for all three territories gaining provincial status "eventually". He cited their importance to the country as a whole and the ongoing need to assert sovereignty in the Arctic, particularly as
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...

global warming
could make that region more open to exploitation leading to more complex international waters disputes.


See also

* Canadian provincial and territorial name etymologies ** Canadian adjectival and demonymic forms of place names * Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories * List of areas disputed by Canada and the United States * List of regions of Canada *List of governments in Canada by annual expenditures * Commonwealth Local Government Forum, Commonwealth Local Government Forum-Americas * Provincial museums of Canada * List of Canada-related topics by provinces and territories **List of Canadian provinces and territories by area **List of Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product **List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols **List of Canadian provinces by unemployment rate **Population of Canada by province and territory **Flags of provinces and territories of Canada


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links


Provincial and territorial government web sites
– Service Canada
Provincial and territorial legislature web sites
– Parliament of Canada

– Intergovernmental Affairs
Provincial and territorial statistics
– Statistics Canada
Provincial and territorial immigration information
– Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Canadian governments compared
– University of Public Administration {{DEFAULTSORT:Provinces And Territories Of Canada Provinces and territories of Canada, Administrative divisions in North America, Canada 1 First-level administrative divisions by country, Provinces, Canada Lists of provinces and territories of Canada, Subdivisions of Canada