HOME

TheInfoList




Three
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
schemes of
geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as an indication of the product's source, ...
s and
traditional A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...

traditional
specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products. The schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation applies within the EU as well as in Northern Ireland. Protection of the registered products is gradually expanded internationally via bilateral agreements between the EU and non-EU countries. It ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce. The legislation first came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods, promote rural and agricultural activity, help producers obtain a premium price for their authentic products, and eliminate the
unfair competition Unfair may refer to: * The negative form of the adjective ''fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with ...
and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavour. Critics argue that many of the names, sought for protection by the EU, have become commonplace in trade and should not be protected. These regulations protect the names of wines, cheeses, hams,
sausages File:Grinners breakfast.jpg, Full Scottish breakfast: Black pudding, Lorne sausage, toast, fried mushrooms and baked beans. A sausage is a type of meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or poultry, along with salt, sp ...

sausages
, seafood,
olives The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...

olives
, , beers,
balsamic vinegar Balsamic vinegar ( it, aceto balsamico) is a very dark, concentrated, and intensely flavoured vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–8% acetic acid ...

balsamic vinegar
, regional breads, fruits, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as
gorgonzola Gorgonzola (; ) is a veined blue cheese, originally from Italy, made from unskimmed cow's milk. It can be buttery or firm, crumbly and quite salty, with a "bite" from its blue veining. History Historically, gorgonzola has been produced for ce ...
,
Parmigiano-Reggiano Parmigiano Reggiano (, ) is an , produced from cow's milk and aged at least 12 months. It is named after the producing areas, the of , , the part of west of the , and (all in ); and the part of () on the right/south bank of the . ''Parm ...

Parmigiano-Reggiano
,
feta Feta ( el, φέτα, ) is a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximate ...

feta
, the Waterford blaas,
Herve cheese Herve is a Belgian Rind-washed_cheese#Washed-rind, rind washed soft cheese made from raw cow's milk. The aging process takes place in ripening cellars of the Land of Herve, Herve countryside, sometimes cut into its chalky rock. Herve comes f ...
, , Piave cheese,
Asiago cheese Asiago ( or ; ) is a cow's milk cheese, first produced in Italy, that can assume different Food texture, textures according to its Cheese ripening, aging, from smooth for the fresh Asiago (called , which means 'Pressed Asiago') to a crumbly textu ...

Asiago cheese
,
camembert Camembert (, also , , ) is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century at Camembert, Orne, Camembert, Normandy, in northwest France. Production The first camembert was made from raw milk ...

camembert
, Herefordshire
cider Cider ( ) is an alcoholic beverage made from the Fermentation (food), fermented juice of apples. Cider is widely available in the United Kingdom (particularly in the West Country) and the Republic of Ireland. The UK has the world's highest per c ...

cider
,
cognac Cognac ( , also , ) is a variety of brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through al ...

cognac
,
armagnac Armagnac (, ) is a distinctive kind of brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alc ...
, and
champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

champagne
can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. To qualify as
roquefort Roquefort is a sheep milk , France. Sheep's milk (or ewes' milk) is the milk of domestic sheep. It is commonly used to make cultured Dairy Products, dairy products such as cheese. Some of the most popular sheep cheeses include feta (Greece), ri ...
, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, and matured in the natural caves near the town of in the
Aveyron Aveyron (; oc, Avairon; ) is a Departments of France, department located in the Occitanie Regions of France, region of Southern France. Named after the Aveyron (river), Aveyron River, it had a population of 278,697 in 2016. Its inhabitants are ...
region of France, where it is colonised by the fungus ''
Penicillium roqueforti ''Penicillium roqueforti'' is a common saprotrophic Mycelial cord made up of a collection of hyphae; an essential part in the process of saprotrophic nutrition, it is used for the intake of organic matter through its cell wall. The network of hyp ...
'' that grows in these caves. This system is similar to national
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The ...
systems used throughout Europe, such as the ''
appellation d'origine contrôlée The ''appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC; ; "controlled designation of origin") is a French certification granted to certain French geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corre ...
'' (AOC) used in France, the ''
denominazione di origine controllata The following four classifications of wine constitute the Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian langu ...
'' (DOC) used in Italy, the '' denominação de origem controlada'' (DOC) used in
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, the '' denumire de origine controlată'' (DOC) system used in Romania and the '' denominación de origen'' (DO) system used in Spain. In many cases, the EU PDO/PGI system works parallel with the system used in the specified country. In some cases it is subordinated to the appellation system that was previously instituted, particularly with wine, for example, and in France (in particular) with cheese, where for example has both PDO (''appellation d'origine protégée'' (AOP) in French) and AOC classifications, but generally only the AOC classification will be shown.


Protection and enforcement

In countries where laws on protected geographical status are enforced, only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication. It is also prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation", or "method" in connection with the protected indications or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications, such as using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product. Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003 (Regulation concerning customs action against goods suspected of infringing certain intellectual property rights and the measures to be taken against goods found to have infringed such rights), and infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Within the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as
counterfeit To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than ...
, misleading advertising,
passing off In common law countries such as the United Kingdom, the Philippines and New Zealand, passing off is a common law tort which can be used to enforce unregistered trade mark rights. The tort of passing off protects the Goodwill (accounting), goodw ...
or even as a question of
public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a s ...

public health
. Outside Europe, the protection of PGS products usually require bilateral agreements between the EU and the importing countries, while protected indications may not always supersede other intellectual property rights such as trademarks. On 15 November 2011, the European Court of Auditors presented its report ''Do the design and management of the geographical indications scheme allow it to be effective?'' to the European Parliament.


Objectives of the protection

The preambles to the regulations cite consumer demand for quality foodstuffs, and identify a number of goals for the protection regimes: * the promotion of products with specific characteristics, particularly those coming from less-favoured or rural areas; * the improvement of the income of farmers, in return for a "genuine effort to improve quality"; * the retention of population in rural areas; * the provision of clear and succinct information to consumers regarding product origin. The provision of a recompense for efforts to improve quality and the need for
consumer protection Consumer protection is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and the public, against unfair practices in the marketplace fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the pu ...
are often cited as justifications for
trade mark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-markThe styling of ''trademark'' as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling ''trade mark'' is used in many other countries around ...
protection in other domains, and geographical indications operate in a similar manner to trademarks.


General regime

The general regime governs the use of protected designations of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indications (PGI) for food and certain other agricultural products. There are separate regimes for spirits and for aromatised drinks (geographical designations) as well as for wines (geographical indications, often referred to as
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The ...
s). The origin of the product is only one of the criteria for use of the protected terms: the product must also meet various quality criteria. The label "
Traditional Specialities Guaranteed Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and Traditional food, traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promot ...
" (TSG) is a similar protected term which does not impose any restrictions on the geographical origin of the product. The protection of geographical indications was extended to foodstuffs and other agricultural products in 1992. Given the widely different national provisions, this "general regime" gives much more power to the
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
(compared to the special regimes) to ensure a harmonised protection across the European Union. It is currently governed by the Regulation on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs (No 510/2006). To qualify for a PDO, the product must have qualities and characteristics which are essentially due to its region of production: it must also be produced, processed and prepared exclusively within that region. The requirement for a PGI are slightly less strict; a good reputation of a product from a given region is sufficient (rather than objectively different characteristics) if any of the steps of production, processing and preparation may take place within the region. Otherwise the protection afforded by the two terms is equivalent. An application for a PDO or a PGI is first made to the authorities of the relevant Member State. It is judged by the Member State against the criteria in the Regulation and, if found to be acceptable, forwarded to the European Commission for final approval. Applications are published at both the national and Community stages of examination, and third parties can object to proposed PDOs or PGIs which they feel would harm their business. A recurrent objection is that the proposed denomination is a generic term for the product in question: generic names cannot be registered but, once registered, the denominations are protected from genericisation. Hence
Cheddar cheese Cheddar cheese, commonly known as just cheddar, is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if colourings such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ...
was deemed to be a generic name, but the PDO "West Country farmhouse Cheddar cheese" was allowed.
Feta Feta ( el, φέτα, ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Feta
was deemed not to have become generic, and was registered as a PDO to the disappointment of cheesemakers outside of Greece.


Description of the regimes


Protected designation of origin (PDO)

The Protected designation of origin is the name of an area, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, the name of a country, used as a designation for an agricultural product or a foodstuff, * which comes from such an area, place or country, * whose quality or properties are significantly or exclusively determined by the geographical environment, including natural and human factors, * whose production, processing and preparation takes place within the determined geographical area. In other words, to receive the PDO status, the entire product must be traditionally and entirely manufactured (prepared, processed ''and'' produced) within the specific region and thus acquire unique properties.


Protected geographical indication (PGI)

The protected geographical indication is the name of an area, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, the name of a country, used as a description of an agricultural product or a foodstuff, * which comes from such an area, place or country, * which has a specific quality, goodwill or other characteristic property, attributable to its geographical origin, * at least one of the stages of production, processing or preparation takes place in the area. In other words, to receive the PGI status, the entire product must be traditionally and at least partially manufactured (prepared, processed ''or'' produced) within the specific region and thus acquire unique properties.


Traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG)

The TSG quality scheme aims to provide a protection regime for traditional food products of specific character. Differing from PDO and PGI, this quality scheme does not certify that the protected food product has a link to specific geographical area and a product can thus be produced outside the area or country from which it originates. To qualify for a TSG a food must be of "specific character" and either its raw materials, production method or processing must be "traditional". Under Art. 3 of Regulation 1151/12 "specific character" is defined as "the characteristic production attributes which distinguish a product clearly from other similar products of the same category". Under Art. 3 of Regulation 1151/12 "traditional" is defined as "proven usage on the domestic market for a period that allows transmission between generations; this period is to be at least 30 years". For a food name to be registrable under the TSG scheme it must (a) have been traditionally used to refer to the specific product; or (b) identify the traditional character or specific character of the product. A TSG creates an exclusive right over the registered product name. Accordingly, the registered product name can be used by only those producers who conform to the registered production method and product specifications. "The legal function of the TSG is to certify that a particular agricultural product objectively possesses specific characteristics which differentiate it from all others in its category, and that its raw materials, composition or method of production have been consistent for a minimum of 30 years. Thus, TSG food denominations are registered trade signs with a distinctive function." As of 14 November 2021, 65 TSG have been registered (see
list A ''list'' is any set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname)List or Liste is a European surname. Notable people with the surname include: List * Friedrich List (1789–1846), German economist * Garrett List (194 ...
), all of which originate from the EU or the UK.


Relationship to trademark law

In principle, a similar protection to a geographical indication could be obtained through a collective trademark. Indications which serve exclusively to identify the place of origin of goods are not registrable as trademarks under Art. 6quinquies.B.2 of the
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris, France, on 20 March 1883, was one of the first intellectual property treaty, treaties. It established a Union for the protection of industrial property. The Convent ...

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
(Paris Convention), which has effect in
European Union law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and ...
by Art. 7 of the Regulation on the Community trade mark (No 40/94) and by Art. 3 of the Directive to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trademarks (89/104/EEC); however, marks which also serve to identify the quality of a product originating in a certain region may be registered so long as they have not become generic in the trade concerned. Trademarks which have been registered before the registration of a PDO or a PGI may continue to be used, but the registration of an equivalent trademark after the approval of a PDO or PGI is impossible (Art. 13, Regulation (EC) No 510/2006). The existence of a trademark (registered or unregistered) ''may'' be a reason to refuse the registration of a PDO or a PGI rt. 7(3)(c), Regulation (EC) No 510/2006 Hence the
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...

Polish
geographical designation "Herbal vodka from the North Podlasie Lowland aromatised with an extract of bison grass" ( pl, links=no, Wódka ziołowa z Niziny Północnopodlaskiej aromatyzowana ekstraktem z trawy żubrowej), so phrased as to avoid infringing the trademark "."


Special regimes

The protection of geographical indications for wines and other alcoholic drinks was historically the first to be developed at both national and Community level. It is also the only protection which is recognised by the
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental or ...
(TRIPS), administered by the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
, although the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
is pushing for other geographical indications to be included in the Doha Round of world trade negotiations.


Wines

European Union rules governing the production of wine ("the product obtained exclusively from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not crushed, or of
grape must Image:Mosto.jpg, 300px, Grapes being pressed to create must Must (from the Latin ''vinum mustum'', "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit. The solid portion of the ...
") are considerably longer than EU trade mark law: the main text, the Regulation on the common organisation of the market in wine (No 1493/1999), runs to over 46,000 words. To be considered as a "quality wine", the wine must come from a specified region and be associated with a "geographical indication" or ''
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The ...
'': indeed, the technical term used in the Regulation is quality wine psr, with the "psr" standing for "produced in a specified region". Wines which do not meet this requirement may only be marketed as
table wine Table wine (rarely abbreviated TW) is a wine term The glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many general terms used within the wine industry. For terms specific to viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classic ...
. There has been little harmonisation of national provisions within the European Union. Member States delimit the specified areas of production and determine the rules and appellations which apply: the
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
restricts itself to publishing the information provided by the Member States. Appellations are usually the geographical name of the area in which the wine is produced, although there are some historical exceptions:
muscadet Muscadet ( , , ) is a French white wine White wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

muscadet
and in France, cava and manzanilla in Spain and
vinho verde Vinho Verde () (literally 'green wine') refers to Portuguese wine Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians (wine), Phoenicians, Carthaginians (wine), Carthaginians, Gr ...
in Portugal. The appellations are not necessarily unique: ''Cava'' may refer either to a quality sparkling wine psr produced in Spain or to a Greek table wine which has been aged (as a transliteration of "Κάβα").


Spirits

The Regulation laying down general rules on the definition, description, presentation, labelling and protection of spirit drinks (110/2008) provides for a double system of protection of
spirit Spirit may refer to: *Spirit (animating force) In folk belief, spirit is the vitalism , vital principle or animating force within all life , living things. As recently as 1628 and 1633 respectively, both William Harvey and René Descartes st ...
descriptions. Spirits are divided into 46 categories, which each have rules for fabrication and minimum strength. Within these categories, certain names are reserved for drinks from particular countries, for example
ouzo Ouzo ( el, ούζο, ) is a dry anise Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is d ...

ouzo
, which is aniseed-flavoured spirit drink which must have been produced exclusively in Greece or Cyprus, or
grappa Grappa is an alcoholic beverage: a fragrant, grape-based pomace brandy of Italian origin that contains 35 to 60 percent alcohol by volume (70 to 120 Alcohol proof, US proof). Grappa is traditionally produced in Northern Italy and is also widely ...
, which is a grape marc spirit produced in Italy, or
pálinka Pálinka ( hu, stamesz / stampedli) is a traditional fruit spirit (or fruit brandy) in Eastern and Central Europe with origins in Hungary, more exactly known under several names, and invented in the Middle Ages. Protected as a Geographical indic ...
, which is a purely fruit based spirit produced in Hungary (or parts of Austria for apricot spirits only). The Regulation also defines a number of ''geographical designations'', which are reserved for drinks which "acquired their character and definitive qualities" in the area denominated. The exact
delimitation Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.
of the areas and any other regulations are left to the Member States concerned. By way of derogation, the designations Königsberger and Ostpreußischer are permitted for certain German drinks even though they refer to
Königsberg Königsberg (, , ) was the name for the historic Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-S ...

Königsberg
(
Kaliningrad Kaliningrad ( ; rus, Калининград, p=kəlʲɪnʲɪnˈɡrat, links=y), until 1946 known as Königsberg (, ), is the largest city and the administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local gover ...

Kaliningrad
) and
East Prussia East Prussia (german: Ostpreußen, ; pl, Prusy Wschodnie; lt, Rytų Prūsija; la, Borussia orientalis; russian: Восточная Пруссия, Vostóchnaya Prússiya) was a of the from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom ...
which are no longer part of Germany.


Aromatised drinks

The Regulation laying down general rules on the definition, description and presentation of aromatised wines, aromatised wine-based drinks and aromatised wine-product cocktails (No 251/2014) institutes a system of protected denominations for aromatised drinks which is very similar to that for spirits. The association of general names with specific countries is weaker: a drink labelled simply "
Sangria Sangria (, es, sangría ); is an alcoholic beverage originating in Spain and Portugal. Under European Union, EU regulations only those two Iberian Peninsula, Iberian nations can label their product as Sangria; similar products from different ...

Sangria
" must have been produced in Spain or Portugal, for example, but it is permissible to label a drink "Sangria produced in the United Kingdom: aromatised wine-based drink" if the drink meets the other requirements to be described as sangria. Similarly, the denomination " Clarea" on its own is reserved for drinks produced in Spain. As of January 2020, the protected geographical designations are: * (vermouth original: 1757) (Italy) * Nürnberger Glühwein (Germany) * Thüringer Glühwein * Vermouth de Chambéry (France) *


Within the European Union

Article 13 of this legislation states that registered designations are protected against: This legislation expanded the 1951 Stresa Convention, which was the first international agreement on cheese names. Seven countries participated:
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
,
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
, France, Italy,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, and Switzerland. Selected products include
Prosciutto Prosciutto, in full prosciutto crudo, ( , ) is Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romanc ...

Prosciutto
Toscano (PDO) from Italy, bryndza podhalańska (PDO) and
oscypek Oscypek (pronounced , Polish plural: ''oscypki''), rarely Oszczypek, is a smoked cheese made of salted sheep milk , France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily locate ...
(PDO) from Poland, (PGI) from Austria, Lübecker Marzipan (PGI) from Germany, Scotch Beef and Lamb (PGI) from Scotland,
bryndza Bryndza (from Romanian ''brânză'' - cheese) is a Slovak sheep milk cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk ...

bryndza
(PGI) and Oštiepok (PGI) from Slovakia, Kaszëbskô malëna (
Kashubia pl, Kaszubygerman: Kaschubei, Kaschubien , native_name_lang = csb, de, csb , settlement_type = Historical region , anthem = Zemia rodnô , image_map = Kaszuby wg J.Mordawskiego 1999.png , image_flag = Kashubian flag.svg , ...
n
garden strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus '' Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit In botany, a frui ...
) (PGI) from Poland. In certain cases, the name of widely popular products became generic, and therefore could not be protected afterwards.
Cheddar cheese Cheddar cheese, commonly known as just cheddar, is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if colourings such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ...
, for instance, originating in the English village of
Cheddar Cheddar most often refers to either: *Cheddar cheese *Cheddar, Somerset, the village after which Cheddar cheese is named Cheddar may also refer to: Places * Cheddar, Ontario, Canada * Cheddar Complex, a biological site of special scientific inter ...
, is produced in many countries, including the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Hence the "Cheddar" name is not protected, but the more specific name "West Country Farmhouse Cheddar" is. Other products are protected in Europe but not elsewhere:
Buffalo Mozzarella Buffalo mozzarella ( it, mozzarella di bufala; nap, muzzarella 'e vufera) is a mozzarella Mozzarella (, ; nap, muzzarella ) is a traditionally southern Italian cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ra ...

Buffalo Mozzarella
for instance is protected in Europe, but the name is used without restrictions by US dairy companies. The geographical limitations are strict:
Newcastle Brown Ale#REDIRECT Newcastle Brown Ale Newcastle Brown Ale is a brown ale, originally produced in Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borou ...
was restricted to being brewed in the city of
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne ( , ), often simply Newcastle, is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedi ...

Newcastle upon Tyne
in England. However, having obtained this protection for their product, the brewery decided in 2004 that it would move across the river Tyne to
Gateshead Gateshead () is a large town in North East England and principal settlement of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, situated on the southern bank of the River Tyne. It is connected to Newcastle upon Tyne by seven bridges. The town is known for ...

Gateshead
. As Gateshead is a separate town—albeit only the width of the river apart—it does not fall within the required geographical restriction. The brewery then applied to the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
authorities to have the geographical restriction revoked. If the restriction had not been revoked, the brewery would have been forced either to move back to Newcastle, or stop calling its beer "Newcastle" brown ale. Ultimately, the brewery's application to revoke the geographic restriction was approved. Similarly,
Stilton cheese Stilton is an English cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises Protein, proteins an ...
can only be produced in the three English counties of
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nation ...

Derbyshire
, Leicestershire, and
Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (; abbreviated Notts.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamb ...

Nottinghamshire
. Stilton village is in the traditional county of
Huntingdonshire Huntingdonshire (; abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of Districts of England, local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions ...
, now a district of
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geograp ...

Cambridgeshire
, so Stilton cheese cannot be produced in Stilton (although it is unclear whether the cheese was ever produced there. Quenby Hall in Leicestershire claims to be the first producer). New Season Comber Potatoes or Comber Earlies were awarded PGI status in 2012. Only immature potatoes grown in the restricted geographical area surrounding the town of Comber in Northern Ireland harvested between the start of May and the end of July can be marketed as Comber Earlies.


Outside the European Union

There is no automatic protection for these names on products both made and sold outside the EU, except for Northern Ireland, where the relevant regulation applies. However, there are a number of bilateral agreements with the EU for some level of enforcement. Agreements of this type exist between the EU and Australia (wine, 1994) (but not cheese), Canada (wine and spirits, 2003),
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
,
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
(wine and spirits, 2002),
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
(2007, coffee)
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
(1997, spirit drinks), and South Africa (2002, wine and spirits). Besides dedicated agreements on geographical indications, mutual recognition of geographical indications is part of free trade agreements, such as
Association Agreement A European Union Association Agreement or simply Association Agreement (AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States of the European Union, Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between ...
s (eg with Armenia, Ukraine and Moldova). Geographical indications are (following an objection period where GIs can be refused) furthermore protected in the member states of the 2015 Geneva act to the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration, to which (apart from the EU and some of its member states) also Albania, Cambodia, Samoa, Laos and North Korea are parties. However as of August 2021, the EU has not submitted any Geographical Indications for registration. As the Geographic indication scheme of the EU is not limited to products from EU-locations, also products from outside the EU have received the designation. For example
Colombian coffee Coffee production in Colombia has a reputation for producing mild, well-balanced coffee beans. Colombia's average annual coffee production of 11.5 million bags is the third total highest in the world, after Brazil and Vietnam, though highest ...
was protected by the PDO in August 2007.


Australia

Following an agreement during the 1990s by the
Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation Wine Australia is an Australian Government statutory corporation that promotes and regulates the Australian wine industry. It was created as the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation (AWBC) in 1981 to replace the Australian Wine Board by the ' ...
and the Australian and EU governments, the others' GIs and the nations' traditional terms of winemaking were meant to have been protected by 1997. However, this has been proceeding slowly, and while some GIs have been protected in Australia, others are still available for use (primarily for products that have always been called that). It seems unlikely it will have any effect on colloquial speech in the short term.


China

China recognizes
Geographical Indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as an indication of the product's source, ...
Products. One such product is
Yongfeng chili sauce Yongfeng chili sauce () or Yongfeng hot sauce is a traditional product made at Yongfeng, Shuangfeng County, Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term ...
(), also called Yongfeng hot sauce.


Canada

In Canada, a 2003 agreement made with the EU provides for protection of the names of wine and spirits. Under the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the EU, Canada agrees "to protect 143 geographical indications for high-quality European products, such as Italian balsamic vinegar from Modena, Dutch Gouda cheese or Roquefort cheese and many others."


United Kingdom

After Brexit the UK has its own Protected Geographical Indication scheme, independently of the EU one, but based on the same requirements. All existing EU geographic indications on 31 December 2020 are protected under UK law (as well as EU law), but this is not the case for designations registered after that date.


List of products with PDO/PGI/TSG classifications

A database of agricultural products with a
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), or Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG), is at th
European Agriculture site
Note that the database contains both approved designations (status "Registered") and designations not yet approved (status "Applied" or "Published").


Criticisms of Protected Geographical Status framework

Somewhat paradoxically the PGS framework can be posited as both a protectionist move against global agro-economic policy, and a market-based neoliberal tool of agricultural governance. This makes it an equally important battle-ground for both the anti-globalization movement, and the free-trade proponents of Australia and the United States, and a number of criticisms of each have been put forward:


Issues of governance

* Conceding the market as the locus of regulation.
Common Agricultural Policy The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated total ...
(CAP) reforms have slowly introduced a raft of market-based instruments (MBIs) to regulate the agro-food sector (the PGS framework is one of them). The market is seen as the ideal 'arms-length' mechanism with which to foster growth, re-balance imperfections in the connected industries and add previously uncalculated value to European produce. But their social and ecological protections are perpetually unequal, falling short of providing any instance of a Polanyian 'double-movement'. That is, generating a societal reaction to the 'dehumanizing' effects of the self-regulating market. * Creating markets where none previously existed. By creating so-called 'ethical food markets', food producers have been able to command a greater price for their goods. The PDO/PGI regimes foster the creation of ethical food markets, predicated on 'local' produce. For example,
traditional Grimsby smoked fish Traditional Grimsby smoked fish are regionally processed fish food products from the British fishing town of Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and the administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South ...
producers have seen PGI accreditation 'help keep the margins up', in difficult economic circumstances. In these instances, the 'local' is valorised as inherently 'good' or at least better than produce from an unrestricted, globalised food market. * Providing barriers to entry. The drawing of boundaries around certain food and drink produce prevents other actors entering particular markets. On this point the PGS framework can potentially deny (or make extremely difficult) entry into the agro-food sector. For example, there are stringent geographical, productive, facilitative, planning, temporal and skilled constraints to entry into the Stilton cheese market in the UK. The successful application to protect the
Cornish pasty A pasty () is a British baked pastry Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be Savoriness, savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as ''Flour confections, bakers' confec ...

Cornish pasty
is another recent example; with Ginsters of Cornwall central to the bid (itself owned by the 'extra-local', Leicestershire-based Samworth Brothers – also makers of fellow PGS protected Melton Mowbray Pork Pies). * Narrowing competition in existing markets. Where markets already exist, there is the propensity for the narrowing of competition, if certain PGS applications are accepted. The state – instead of absolving all responsibility (often thought of as occurring in a
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
economy) – is tied with the task of carefully controlling the market. Product price fixing, supermarket consolidation, labour control, and profit-channelling are all potential issues. Within the UK, the
Competition Commission The Competition Commission was a non-departmental public body responsible for investigating mergers, markets and other enquiries related to regulated industries under UK competition law, competition law in the United Kingdom. It was a competition ...
is charged with investigating regulatory powers vis-à-vis markets and company mergers, to prevent (or at least temper) such problems. * Geographically fixing capital. Due to the nature of the PGS framework, capital is concentrated in particular areas. As rights are not directly transferable, PGI/PDO certification is granted to those with landed property rights. Monopolised (and thus higher) land rents can often result; to the detriment of those who rely on such lands. * Devolving power to consumers. Some proponents have suggested that ethical food markets – and the PGS framework directly – has furthered a 'cash till' form of political democracy, whereby consumer spending power can masquerade as a legitimate governance structure and mechanism (i.e. democratically voted, representative, and therefore accountable). This is part of a broader shift from forms of 'government' to 'governance' seen in a world, where a raft of non-state actors, arguably, make informed decisions about where and what to purchase.


Other Criticisms

The U.S. and Australia have disagreed with the EU's characterization of Geographical Indications. They disagree with the idea that Geographical Indications "eliminate the
unfair competition Unfair may refer to: * The negative form of the adjective ''fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with ...
and misleading of consumers," but rather that many of these names have become generic, and do not reflect a reputation of a distinctive product originating in a certain region. They also believe that the EU is monopolizing markets and not allowing for fair competition. As the EU continues to enter trade agreements with third-party countries, often they will force these countries to agree to their list of Geographical Indications as a condition of the trade agreement, eliminating competition by the U.S. or Australia that may already be operating in the country.


See also

*
Appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The ...
*
Country of origin Country of origin (COO) represents the country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some fo ...
* European Union Common Agricultural Policy *
Generic trademark A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of prop ...
*
Geographical indication A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as an indication of the product's source, ...
* List of PDO products by country * List of TSG products by country * List of geographical designations for spirit drinks in the European Union * List of European cheeses with protected geographical status *
List of Italian products with protected designation of origin This is a list of Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
*
List of Portugal food and drink products with protected status A number of food and drink products from Portugal have been granted Protected Geographical Status under Law of the European Union, European Union law through the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) or Tradi ...
*
List of Republic of Ireland food and drink products with protected status A number of Irish food and drink products have been granted Protected Geographical Status Three European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are loca ...
*
List of United Kingdom food and drink products with protected status A number of United Kingdom food and drink products have been granted protected geographical status Three European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states t ...
*
Protectionism Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Proponents argue that protectionist policies sh ...
*
Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions 300px, "Bottled at Origin" printed on a Spanish QWpsr cork Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (often abbreviated to QWpsr or simply "quality wines") is a quality indicator used within European Union wine regulations. The QWpsr category i ...
(QWPSR) *''
Terroir (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and livin ...

Terroir
''


References


External links


EU Food Quality website with access to PDO/PGI/TSG listings
europa.eu
European Court of Auditors, special report 11/2011
eca.europa.eu

– EU Protected Food Names Scheme. defra.gov.uk
Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation
awbc.com.au
Monopolising Names? The Protection of Geographical Indications in the European Community
ethesis.helsinki.fi {{Geographical indications Appellations Food product brands European Union laws Trademark law Country of origin Geographical indications law of the European Union