AppointmentThe president will appoint a member of parliament as Prime Minister, who in the president's opinion, "is most likely to command the confidence of Parliament". The prime minister will continue to hold office throughout the period during which the cabinet of ministers continues to function under the provisions of the constitution unless he/she resigns from the post or ceases to be a member of parliament.The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Powers and roleUnder the Soulbury Constitution the post of Prime Minister was created in 1947 as the in the . In 1978, under the second amendment to the Republican Constitution of 1972 much of the powers of the premiership was transferred to the executive presidency as head of government and head of the cabinet of ministers in addition to being the head of state. As a result, the prime minister became a senior most member cabinet of ministers and successor to the president. The prime minister would serve as the deputy to the president if both are from the same political party. In certain occasions, when the president is not from the majority party in parliament or a national government is formed, the prime minister would be appointed from a party different from the president's. In such a situations the prime minister would serve as the de facto head of government. In 2015, the nineteenth amendment restored certain degree of powers to the premiership. The prime minister is the second in the after the president and head of the cabinet of ministers. The prime minister would be a member of the constitutional council, national security council and the most senior member of the cabinet of ministers.
Head of the cabinet of ministersAs head of the cabinet of ministers, the prime minister has the power to: * Determine the number of Cabinet ministers and ministries and assignment of subjects. * Determine the number of non-cabinet ministers and ministries and assignment of subjects.
Principal adviser to the presidentBy the constitution, the prime minister holds formal power to Advice (constitutional), advise the president on: * Appoint, dismiss, or accept the resignation of cabinet and non-cabinet ministers. * Change of subjects assigned to cabinet ministers.
Presidential successionAs per the constitution, if the office of president becomes vacant, the prime minister would "act in the office of President during the period between the occurrence of such vacancy and the assumption of office by the new president and shall appoint one of the other ministers of the Cabinet to act in the office of Prime Minister". In such as situation, the office of Prime Minister is vacant or the prime minister is unable to act, the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, speaker shall act in the office of President. The president may appoint the prime minister to exercise, perform and discharge the powers, duties and functions of the office of President for a period during the president is unable to exercise, perform and discharge the powers, duties and functions of his office due to illness, absence from Sri Lanka or any other cause.
Privileges of office
SalaryThe prime minister would receive a salary (as of 2016) of LKR 800,000 annually paid from the Prime Minister's Office (Sri Lanka), Prime Minister's Office.
Official residence and officeThe official residence of the prime minister is the Prime Minister's House (Colombo), Prime Minister's House most commonly referred to as Temple Trees. The prime minister has the use of the Prime Minister's Lodge, The Lodge as a vacationing residence in the holiday-town of Nuwara Eliya. The Prime Minister's Office (Sri Lanka), Prime Minister's Office is located in the Sirimathipaya Mansion, Sirimathipaya on Sir Ernest de Silva Mawatha (formerly known as Flower Road) in Colombo. In recent years from time to time, Temple Trees has been by some presidents such as Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Kumaratunga and Mahinda Rajapaksa, Rajapaksa. While certain prime ministers such as Ranil Wickremesinghe, Wickremesinghe have chosen to stay at his personal residence.
TravelFor ground travel, the prime minister uses the Official state car#Sri Lanka, prime ministerial car, which is an armored black Mercedes-Benz S-Class (S600) Pullman Guard. For domestic air travel, helicopters from the No. 4 Squadron SLAF, No. 4 (VVIP/VIP) Helicopter Squadron of the Sri Lanka Air Force are used while for long-distance travel, regular flights of the Sri Lankan Airlines are used.
SecurityTraditionally security for the prime minister has been provided by the Sri Lanka Police. After the establishment of the office of Prime Minister in 1948, a Sub Inspector, sub inspector of the Ceylon Police Force had been assigned for personal protection of the prime minister, until S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike dismissed his personal protection officer. When Bandaranaike was assassinated, only a lone police constable stood guard at the entrance of his residence. Following the Assassination of S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Bandaranaike assassination, the successive prime ministers received a police guard headed by a sub inspector. This was supplemented by the Army's Field Security Detachment following the 1962 Ceylonese coup d'état attempt, 1962 attempted coup d'état and during the 1971 JVP insurrection. At present the Prime Minister's Security Division is in charge of security of the prime minister.
Order of precedenceIn the Sri Lankan order of precedence, the prime minister is placed after the President of Sri Lanka, president, but before the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Speaker of the Parliament.
HistoryThe post of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in 1947 prior to independence from UK, Britain and the formation of the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. United National Party leader D. S. Senanayake became the first Prime Minister, prime minister of then Ceylon in 1947 after independence. In 1972 when Sri Lanka became a republic the name of the post changed to Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. With a Westminster system, Westminster-based political system established the prime minister was the head of government therefore held the most powerful political office of the country at the time. This changed with a constitutional change in 1978, when the executive presidency was created, making the president both head of state and . Until 1978, the prime minister was also the minister of defence and external affairs. The prime minister is appointed by the president as a member of the cabinet of ministers. In the event the post president is vacant, the prime minister becomes the acting president until Parliament convenes to elect a successor or new elections could be held to elect a new president. This was the case with H.E. President Dingiri Banda Wijetunge. United National Party leaders Dudley Senanayake and Ranil Wickramasinghe together with Sri Lanka Freedom Party leader Sirimavo Bandaranaike was appointed three times to the position. With the passing of the 19th amendment to the constitution in 2015, the prime minister was granted more powers when appointing ministers and leading the cabinet.
2018 Sri Lankan constitutional crisisOn 26 October 2018, former president was appointed by Maithripala Sirisena as the prime minister dismissing incumbent prime minister Ranil Wickremasinghe. Wickremasinghe refused to accept the dismissal stating that it was unconstitutional, resulting in a 2018 Sri Lankan constitutional crisis, constitutional crisis. On 3 December 2018, a court issued an interim order preventing Mahinda Rajapaksha from functioning in the position. On December 16, 2018, Ranil Wickramasinghe was re-appointed as Prime Minister ending the crisis.
See also*List of Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka