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The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān), officially the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is the ceremonial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
and the commander in chief of the
Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. It is the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, world's sixth-largest military measured by Active duty, active military personne ...
.Article 41(1)
in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
.
The president is kept informed by the
prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
on all matters of internal and
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...
, as well as all legislative proposals. The Constitution vests the president with the powers of granting pardons, reprieves, and the control of the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
; however, all appointments at higher commands of the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
must be made by the president on a "required and necessary" basis, upon consultation and approval from the prime minister. In addition, the Constitution prohibits the president from exercising the authority of running the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...
. The president of Pakistan is indirectly elected by the
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of Voting, electors who are selected to elect a candidate to particular offices. Often these represent different organizations, political parties or Legal entity, entities, with each organization, political party or e ...
for a five-year term. The Constitution requires the president to be a "
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, ...

Muslim
of not less than forty five (45) years of age". The president resides in an estate in
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the of Pakistan, and is administered by the as part of the . It is the in Pakistan, while the larger is the country's with a population of about 4.1 million people. Built as a in the 1960s ...

Islamabad
known as Aiwan-e-Sadar (President's House). In the absence of the president, the chairman of the Senate exercises the responsibilities of the post, until the actual president resumes office, or the next office holder is elected. There have been a total of 13 presidents of Pakistan. The first president was Iskander Ali Mirza who entered office on 23 March 1956. The current office holder is
Arif Alvi Arif-ur-Rehman Alvi (; born 29 August 1949) is a Pakistani politician serving as the 13th and current president of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South ...
, who took charge on 9 September 2018, following his victory in the
presidential elections President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
.


Powers and authority


Role of the president

The
official residence An official residence is the House, residence of nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure. It may be the same place where they conduct their work ...
and principal workplace of the president is
Aiwan-e-Sadr The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidential Palace ( ur, ) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international org ...
— the
presidential palaceA presidential palace is the official residence of the President (government title), president in some countries. However, some countries do not call the official residence of their head of state a palace or use the building only as a workplace separ ...
located in northeastern
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the of Pakistan, and is administered by the as part of the . It is the in Pakistan, while the larger is the country's with a population of about 4.1 million people. Built as a in the 1960s ...

Islamabad
. The presidency forms the vital institutional organ of
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
and is part of the
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
.
Powers Powers (stylized as POWERS) is a musical duo composed of Mike Del Rio and Crista Ru. Their music has been described as alternative pop, electropop, and Progressive pop, progressive pop. ''Time'' has called their music "groovy and futuristic". ...
to exercise the
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
are limited to the , and required to
address An address is a collection of information, presented in a mostly fixed format, used to give the location of a building, apartment, or other structure or a plot of land, generally using political boundaries Borders are geographic Geogr ...
the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
to give a direction for national policies before being informed of its key decisions. In addition, the president is also a
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...

civil
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Image:CIC-USS-CarlVinson-2001.jpg, A watchstander at her station in the combat information center of USS Carl Vinson, USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the ...
of the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
, with chairman joint chiefs being its chief military adviser to maintain the control of the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
. After a thorough confirmation comes from the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
, the president confirms the judicial appointments in the national
court system The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudication, adjudicates legal disputes/disagreements and interprets, defends, and app ...
. In addition, the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
allows the president to grant pardons, reprieves, and clemency in cases recommended to him by the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
and the
judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ...
. The president himself has absolute constitutional immunity from criminal and civil proceedings, and no proceedings can be initiated or continued against him during the term of his office. From 2000 until 2009, the president was the
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
of the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
who had authority and control over the nuclear and strategic arsenals; however, the chairmanship and the powers transferred back to the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
. Furthermore, the presidential powers have significantly declined with Pakistan's government reversed to a
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
.


Eligibility and selection process

The
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
sets the principle qualifications that the candidate must meet to be eligible to the office of the president.Article 41(2)
in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
.
A
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
has to be: * A
citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...
of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
* A
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
* At least 45 years of age * Qualified to be elected as member of the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
Whenever the ''
Aiwan-e-Sadr The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidential Palace ( ur, ) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of international org ...
'' becomes vacant, the selection of president is done by the
electoral college An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ...
, which consists of both houses of
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
(the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
and
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
) and the four provincial assemblies. The chief election commissioner has to conduct elections to the office of the president in a special session.
Voting Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who are eligible to vote in an Election#Electorate, election, especially their number e.g. the term ''size of (the) electorate'' * The dom ...
takes place in secrecy. Each elector casts a different number of votes. The general principle is that the total number of votes cast by members of Parliament equals the total number of votes cast by provincial legislators. Each of the provincial legislatures has an equal number of votes to each other, based on the number of members of the smallest legislature, which is the Balochistan Assembly (65 seats). The constitution further states that election to the office of president will not be held earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of the president in office.


Election and oath

The president is elected indirectly for a term of five years. The incumbent president is eligible for re-election to that office, but cannot hold that office for more than two consecutive terms. The president is required to make and subscribe in the presence of the
chief justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
—, an oath or affirmation that the president shall protect, preserve and defend the Constitution as follows:


Line of succession and removal

The Constitution discusses the possibility of an acting president. Certain office-holders, however, are permitted to stand as presidential candidates in case of vacancy as the constitution does not include a position of vice president: * The
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
of the
Senate of Pakistan Senate of Pakistan or Aiwān-e-Bālā Pākistān ( ur, , , literally "Pakistan upper house") is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the autho ...
* The
speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسپیکر قومی اسمبلی); informally as Speaker National Assembly, is the Speaker (politics), presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan, National Assembly of Pakistan– a low ...
. The president may be removed before the expiry of the term through
impeachment Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
. The president can be removed for violation of the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
. The
impeachment Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
process may start in either of the two houses of the Parliament. The house initiates the process by leveling the charges against the president.Article 47(3)
in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
.
The charges are contained in a notice that has to be signed by either the
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
or the speaker of the National Assembly through a two-thirds majority. The notice is sent up to the president, and 14 days later it is taken up for consideration. A resolution to impeach the president has to be passed by the two-thirds majority. The speaker of the National Assembly then summons the joint session not earlier than seven days. The president has the right to defend oneself. If the resolution is passed by the two-thirds majority at the joint session declaring that the president is unfit to hold the office due to incapacity or is guilty of violating the Constitution or of gross misconduct, then the president shall cease to hold office immediately on the passing of the resolution. No president has been impeached. However, the proceedings have been used in 2008 in an attempt to impeach former president
Pervez Musharraf Pervez Musharraf ( ur, , Parvez Muśarraf; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, ...

Pervez Musharraf
who tendered the resignation after the proceedings above were used.


List of presidents


Living former presidents

File:State emblem of Pakistan.svg, File:Pride of Performance Award by President of Pakistan (cropped head).jpg, File:Pervez Musharraf 2004 (square).jpg, File:Asif Ali Zardari - 2009.jpg,


Political background


Early origins

From 1947 until 1956, the
governor-general of Pakistan The Governor-General of Pakistan ( ur, ) was the Representation (politics), representative of the Pakistani monarch in the Dominion of Pakistan, established by the Indian Independence Act 1947. The office of Governor-General was abolished when ...
acted for the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
: King
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England an ...

George VI
(until 1952) and Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
(from 1952). With the promulgation of the
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, Pakistan became an
Islamic republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institution ...
in 1956, and the governor-general was replaced with the presidency. The incumbent governor-general,
Iskander Mirza Sahibzada Sahib or Saheb (, traditionally ; Arabic script, Perso-Arab: , Devanagari: साहिब, Gurmukhi: ਸਾਹਿਬ, Bengali alphabet, Bengali: সাহেব) is a word of Arabic origin meaning "companion". As a loanword, it ...

Iskander Mirza
, became Pakistan's first president. He reportedly suspended the first constitution in 1958, and appointed Army commander-in-chief General
Ayub Khan Ayub Khan is a compound masculine name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a n ...
as the first
chief martial law administratorThe office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post with ZMLA as Zonal Martial Law Administrator as deputies created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive aut ...
. Khan subsequently dismissed Mirza in order to become the president. The
second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
constitution introduced by President Ayub Khan turned the country into a
presidential republic A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, ...
without
direct elections Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the persons or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen ...
. Succumbing to internal and international pressure, however, Khan held a nationwide
presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.Fatima Jinnah Fatima Jinnah ( ur, ; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967), widely known as Māder-e Millat ("Mother of the Nation"), was a Pakistani politician, dental surgeon and one of the leading founders of Pakistan. She was the younger sister of Muhammad Al ...

Fatima Jinnah
, for a second term, but some have alleged that elections were rigged in favour of Khan. Controversy regarding the U-2 incident (1960),
privatization Privatization (or privatisation in British English) can mean several different things, most commonly referring to moving something from the public sector into the private sector. It is also sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a heav ...
(1963), and
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
with
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
(1965), fueled a fierce
left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
opposition movement led by
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto ( sd, ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو; ur, ; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister and politician who served as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth Pre ...

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
of the PPP and
Bengali nationalist Bengali nationalism () is a form of nationalism that focuses on Bengalis Bengalis or Bangalis ( bn, বাঙালি ), also rendered as the Bengali people, are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group native to the Be ...
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( bn, শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান; 17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), often shortened as Sheikh Mujib or Mujib, was a Bangladeshi politician, statesman and Founding Father The following li ...

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
who, with the support of demonstrators, aimed to further weaken the presidency. Suffering from
paralysis Paralysis (also known as plegia) is a loss of motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and pe ...
and declining health, Ayub Khan handed over the presidency to army chief General
Yahya Khan Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan ( ur, ; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), commonly known as Yahya Khan, was a Pakistani general who served as the third president of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān) ...
, who imposed martial law and announced that national elections would be held in 1970. Eventually,
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
were held in 1970 which saw the PPP gaining a majority of seats in West Pakistan (current-day Pakistan) and the
Awami League The Bangladesh Awami League ( bn, বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ, translit=Bānglādēsh Awāmī Līg; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the major po ...
gaining a majority in
East Pakistan East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal , common_name = East Bengal , status = Province of the Dominion of Pakistan , p1 ...
(current-day Bangladesh). After he was unable to reach a compromise between the PPP and the Awami League, President Yahya Khan invited
Nurul Amin Nurul Amin ( ur, ; 15 July 1893 – 2 October 1974), referred to as the 'Patriot of Pakistan'','Terrorist of Bangladesh '', was a prominent Pakistani leader, and a jurist who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan The prime minister of Pakist ...

Nurul Amin
of the
Pakistan Muslim League The Pakistan Muslim League ( ur, ; known as PML), is the name of several different Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s. The first "Pakistan" Muslim League was founded by President Ayub Kha ...
to become the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
, and also appointed him as the first
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
. The growing instigated violence against
Pakistanis Pakistanis ( ur, , translit=Pākistānī Qaum, ) are the nationals and citizens of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in ...
in East Pakistan forced President Yahya Khan to use
force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to acce ...
in order to maintain
order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness a ...
there, which further escalated Bengali resistance (1970). Preemptive strikes against
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
led to another
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
in 1971, which freed
East Pakistan East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal , common_name = East Bengal , status = Province of the Dominion of Pakistan , p1 ...
and created
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
. Taking personal responsibility for the political isolation and devastation of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
after the
fall Autumn, also known as fall in American English and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons. Outside the tropics, autumn marks the transition from summer to winter, in September (Northern Hemisphere) or March (Southern Hemisphe ...
of
East Pakistan East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal , common_name = East Bengal , status = Province of the Dominion of Pakistan , p1 ...
, President Yahya Khan stepped down and ceded power to
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto ( sd, ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو; ur, ; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister and politician who served as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth Pre ...

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
. President Bhutto created the current
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
in 1973, transforming
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
into a
parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fr ...
, and reducing presidential powers to that of a ceremonial
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") descri ...

figurehead
.


Past Interventions

The
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
held in 1977 resulted in an atmosphere of civil unrest instigated by the
right-wing Right-wing politics is generally defined by support of the view that certain social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Instit ...
alliance, the
Pakistan National Alliance The Pakistan National Alliance (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cul ...
. The events leading to it resulted in
military intervention An invasion is a military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολιτική ''politikḗ'' "politics") is the study of the effects of Earth's geography ...
by
chief of army staff Chief of Army Staff (COAS) or Chief of Staff of the Army is a title commonly used for the appointment held by the most senior officer in several nations' armies. * Chief of Army (Australia) * Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army * Chief of S ...
General Zia-ul-Haq and Chairman Joint Chiefs Admiral Mohammad Shariff. Suspending the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
in 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq took over the presidency in 1978. Zia's
presidency A presidency is an Administration (government), administration or the Executive (government), executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of President (government title), president of a state or nati ...
oversaw the modern growth of far-right ideas in the country. Succumbing to domestic pressure to restore the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, President Zia-ul-Haq held a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
(1984) and called for
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
in 1985. President Zia-ul-Haq appointed Mohammad Junejo as
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
and assumed more
powers Powers (stylized as POWERS) is a musical duo composed of Mike Del Rio and Crista Ru. Their music has been described as alternative pop, electropop, and Progressive pop, progressive pop. ''Time'' has called their music "groovy and futuristic". ...
through the
constitutional amendment A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ...
. After dismissing
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Junejo, President Zia-ul-Haq announced that new
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
would be held, but President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988. The
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
held in 1988 witnessed the victory of PPP in 1988 and appointed Senate
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Ghulam Ishaq Khan ( ur, ; 20 January 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani Civil Service of Pakistan, bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his name ...
to the presidency. The conflict between
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
and President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Ghulam Ishaq Khan ( ur, ; 20 January 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani Civil Service of Pakistan, bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his name ...
arose in two areas regarding the issues of appointments. President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Ghulam Ishaq Khan ( ur, ; 20 January 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani Civil Service of Pakistan, bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his name ...
repeatedly intervened in government matters and leveled charges against
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
; thus dismissing
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
in 1990. After holding
general elections A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-elections (o ...
in 1990,
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mat ...

Nawaz Sharif
brought up an ideologically conservative government and President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Ghulam Ishaq Khan ( ur, ; 20 January 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani Civil Service of Pakistan, bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his name ...
unsuccessfully tried to dismiss Sharif. After a successful intervention by
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs General , President
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Ghulam Ishaq Khan ( ur, ; 20 January 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani Civil Service of Pakistan, bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his name ...
and Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mat ...

Nawaz Sharif
tendered resignations in 1993. Following the new elections held in 1993,
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
established a strong government after appointing loyalists
Farooq Leghari Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, (English IPA: fɑrukʰ æɦmæd ləɡhərɪ̈) (Baloch language, Balochi, Saraiki language, Saraiki, ur, ; 29 May 194020 October 2010), was a Pakistani polit ...
to the presidency. However, the corruption charges and the controversial death of
Murtaza Bhutto Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto (; 18 September 1954 - 20 September 1996) was a Pakistani politician and leader of al-Zulfiqar, a Pakistani left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or e ...
in 1996 resulted in President
Farooq Leghari Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, (English IPA: fɑrukʰ æɦmæd ləɡhərɪ̈) (Baloch language, Balochi, Saraiki language, Saraiki, ur, ; 29 May 194020 October 2010), was a Pakistani polit ...
dismissing
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product ( ...

Benazir Bhutto
. In 1997, President
Farooq Leghari Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, (English IPA: fɑrukʰ æɦmæd ləɡhərɪ̈) (Baloch language, Balochi, Saraiki language, Saraiki, ur, ; 29 May 194020 October 2010), was a Pakistani polit ...
could not overcome the heavy mandate bestowed on Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mat ...

Nawaz Sharif
by the public in
1997 1997 was designated as: * International Year for the Culture of Peace Events January * January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—th ...
. President Leghari unsuccessfully supported
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
Sajjad Ali Shah— both of them resigned, ending the conflict between the
Judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
, the
Executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government) The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organiz ...
, and the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
. After appointing
Rafiq Tarar Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (; ur, ; born 2 November 1929) is a Pakistani politician and a jurist who served as the ninth President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chief ...
, the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
successfully passed
constitutional amendment A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ...
to decisively limit the presidency. After staging a controversial self coup in 1999, General
Pervez Musharraf Pervez Musharraf ( ur, , Parvez Muśarraf; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, ...

Pervez Musharraf
dismissed Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mat ...

Nawaz Sharif
and President
Rafiq Tarar Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (; ur, ; born 2 November 1929) is a Pakistani politician and a jurist who served as the ninth President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chief ...
in 2001 while assuming more powers to the presidency. In January 2004, the
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of Voting, electors who are selected to elect a candidate to particular offices. Often these represent different organizations, political parties or Legal entity, entities, with each organization, political party or ...
elected Musharraf, and as a result he was, according to the Constitution, "deemed to be elected". President Musharraf's repeated unconstitutional intervention resulted in a standoff with the
Judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
, and declared a
state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
in 2007, after dismissing the senior justices of the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
. Although Musharraf was elected in 2007, the constitutional legality of Musharraf's rule was found dubious. A populist
constitutional movement The Constitutional Movement was a right wing political group in the United Kingdom. It was formed in 1979 by Andrew Fountaine as the National Front Constitutional Movement, a splinter group from the British National Front, National Front. Offering a ...
eventually resulted in Musharraf's departure. On 22 August 2008, the electoral commission called for presidential nominations to be delivered by 26 August 2008 and for elections to be held on 6 September 2008.


Figurehead overview

After the
presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.Asif Ali Zardari Asif Ali Zardari ( ur, ; sd, ; born 26 July 1955) is a Pakistani politician who is the president of Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians The Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) is a Pakistani political party and an electoral ...

Asif Ali Zardari
lobbied for
constitutional amendment A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ...
to restore the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
as it was in 1973.nytimes.com "Zardari is elected Pakistan's president."
''New York Times'' 7 September 2008.
In 2010, the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
unanimously and with a large majority, passed the eighteenth amendment of the constitution. It revoked the presidential powers and changed Pakistan from a semi-presidential system of government to a parliamentary republic, with great hopes of governmental stability in the future.


See also

*
Principal Secretary to the President of Pakistan The Principal Secretary to the President of Pakistan is the administrative head of Aiwan-e-Sadr. The position was considered to be a very important one until 2010 as after the Eighteenth Amendment, the Presidency was reduced to a mere ceremonial ...
*
Air transports of heads of state and government Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often ope ...

Air transports of heads of state and government
*
Official state car An official state car is a vehicle used by a government to transport its head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state ...

Official state car
*
Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city i ...
*
Chief Justice of Pakistan Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
* Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court * Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army *
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
*
Foreign Minister of Pakistan The Minister of Foreign Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Foreign AffairsIn many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy, bilateralism, bilatera ...
*
Finance Minister of Pakistan The Minister of Finance of Pakistan (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system ...
*
Interior Minister of Pakistan Interior may refer to: Arts and media * Interior (Degas), ''Interior'' (Degas) (also known as ''The Rape''), painting by Edgar Degas * Interior (play), ''Interior'' (play), 1895 play by Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck * The Interior (novel) ...
*
Minister of Defence (Pakistan) The Minister of Defence (Urdu: 'Wazīr-ē-Difa') heads the Ministry of Defence (Pakistan), Ministry of Defence. The minister serves in the cabinet of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister, and is required to be a member of Parliament of Pa ...
*
Vice President of Pakistan The vice president of Pakistan ( ur, ) was a political office which existed between 1971 and 1973. In practice, it was the second highest office in the country after the president of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ...


References


External links


President of Pakistan: Official Website
{{DEFAULTSORT:President Of Pakistan Parliament of Pakistan Constitution of Pakistan Ceremonial heads of state, Pakistan 1956 establishments in Pakistan