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Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
. It directly borders the German capital,
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, and is part of the
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region The Berlin/Brandenburg metropolitan region (german: Metropolregion Berlin-Brandenburg) or capital region (german: Hauptstadtregion Berlin-Brandenburg) is one of eleven metropolitan regions of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , ...
. It is situated on the
River Havel The Havel () is a river in northeastern Germany, flowing through the States of Germany, states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt. It is a right tributary of the Elbe and long. However, the direct distance from it ...

River Havel
some southwest of Berlin's city centre. Potsdam was a residence of the
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
n kings and the
German Kaiser The German emperor (german: Deutscher Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor" (female Kaiserin). In general, the German title was only used for rulers above the rank of king (''König''). In English, the (untranslated) word ''K ...
until 1918. Its planning embodied ideas of the
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
: through a careful balance of architecture and landscape, Potsdam was intended as "a picturesque, pastoral dream" which would remind its residents of their relationship with nature and reason. The city which is over 1000 years old is widely known for its palaces, its lakes, and its overall historical and cultural significance. Landmarks include the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, Germany's largest World Heritage Site, as well as other palaces such as the Orangery Palace, the New Palace, the Cecilienhof Palace, or the Charlottenhof Palace. Potsdam was also the location of the significant
Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference (german: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945 to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 191 ...

Potsdam Conference
in 1945, the conference where the three heads of government of the USSR, the US, and the UK decided on the division of Germany following its surrender, a conference which defined Germany's history for the following 45 years.
Babelsberg Babelsberg () is the largest district of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , ...
, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was already by the 1930s the home of a major film production studio and it has enjoyed success as an important center of European film production since the
fall of the Berlin Wall The fall of the Berlin Wall (german: Mauerfall) on 9 November 1989 was a pivotal event in world history which marked the falling of the Iron Curtain and the start of the fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe. The fall of the inner Ger ...
. The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges, the
University of Potsdam The University of Potsdam is a public university, public university in Potsdam, capital of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. It is mainly situated across three campuses in the city. Some faculty buildings are part of the New Palace of Sanssouc ...
, and more than 30
research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization an ...
s in the city.


Geography

The area was formed from a series of large
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and Rock (geology), rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a gla ...

moraine
s left after the last glacial period. Today, only one quarter of the city is built up, the rest remaining as green space. There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the
Havel The Havel () is a river in northeastern Germany, flowing through the States of Germany, states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt. It is a right tributary of the Elbe and long. However, the direct distance from its ...

Havel
, the
Griebnitzsee Griebnitzsee () is a lake at the south-western outskirts of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. At an elevation of 29.4 m, its surface area is ca. 0.592 km². The lake forms the border between the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It i ...

Griebnitzsee
,
Templiner See Templiner See () is a lake in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. It stretches to the south and west from the centre of the city of Potsdam. The lake is some long, with a maximum width of and a surface area is . It lies at an elevation of above s ...

Templiner See
,
Tiefer See Tiefer See is a lake in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte (district), Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. At an elevation of 62.9 m, its surface area is 0.76 km². External links

* Lakes of Mecklenbur ...

Tiefer See
,
Jungfernsee The Jungfernsee (translated "Virgin Lake") is north of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ...

Jungfernsee
, Teltowkanal,
Heiliger See Heiliger See (English: Holy Lake) is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, s ...

Heiliger See
, and
Sacrower See The Sacrower See () is a Germany, German lake in the northern part of Potsdam in the State of Brandenburg. Overview The Sacrower See, with the Groß Glienicker See 0.7 km to the north and the Heiliger See 1.6 km from Potsdam, forms a cha ...

Sacrower See
. The highest point is the high ''Kleiner Ravensberg''.


Subdivisions

Potsdam is divided into seven historic city ''Bezirke'' and nine new ''Stadtteile'' (villages), which joined the city in 2003. The appearance of the city quarters is quite different. Those in the north and in the centre consist mainly of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings. The city of Potsdam is divided into 34 '' Stadtteile'' (or quarters), which are divided further into 84 statistical ''Bezirke''. Today one distinguishes between the older parts of the city (areas of the historic city and places suburbanized at the latest in 1939) - these are the city center, the western and northern suburbs, Bornim, Bornstedt, Nedlitz, Potsdam South, Babelsberg, Drewitz, Stern and Kirchsteigfeld - and those communities incorporated after 1990 which have since 2003 become ''Stadtteile'' - these are Eiche, Fahrland, Golm, Groß Glienicke, Grube, Marquardt, Neu Fahrland, Satzkorn and Uetz-Paaren. The new ''Stadtteile'' are located mainly in the north of the city. For the history of all incorporations, see the relevant section on incorporation and spin-offs. ''Structure with statistical numbering:'' * 1 Potsdam Nord ** 11 Bornim ** 12 Nedlitz ** 13 Bornstedt ** 14 Sacrow ** 15 Eiche ** 16 Grube ** 17 Golm * 2 Nördliche Vorstädte ** 21 Nauener Vorstadt ** 22 Jägervorstadt ** 23 Berliner Vorstadt * 3 Westliche Vorstädte ** 31 Brandenburger Vorstadt ** 32 Potsdam West ** 33 Wildpark * 4 Innenstadt ** 41 Nördliche Innenstadt ** 42 Südliche Innenstadt * 5
Babelsberg Babelsberg () is the largest district of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , ...
** 51 Klein Glienicke ** 52 Babelsberg Nord ** 53 Babelsberg Süd * 6 Potsdam Süd ** 61 Templiner Vorstadt ** 62 Teltower Vorstadt ** 63 Schlaatz ** 64 Waldstadt I ** 65 Waldstadt II ** 66 Industriegelände ** 67 Forst Potsdam Süd * 7 Potsdam Südost ** 71 Stern ** 72 Drewitz ** 73 Kirchsteigfeld * 8 Nördliche Ortsteile ** 81 Uetz-Paaren ** 82
Marquardt Marquardt is a surname of German origin. Notable people with the surname include: *August F. Marquardt (1850–1925), American politician *Bridget Marquardt (born 1973), American television personality, glamour model, and actress *Christel Marquard ...
** 83 Satzkorn ** 84 Fahrland ** 85 Neu Fahrland ** 86
Groß Glienicke Groß Glienicke is a village located both in Berlin and Potsdam, the capital of the Germany, German state of Brandenburg. Until 2003, when it was merged into Potsdam, the Brandenburg—and main—side, was an autonomous municipality. The Berlin s ...


Climate

Officially the climate is
oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...
- more degraded by being far from the coast and to the east (
KöppenKöppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author and radio editor * Friedrich Köppen (1775–1858), German philosopher * Jan ...
: ''Cfb''), but using the 1961-1990 normal and the 0 °C isotherm the city has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
(''Dfb''), which also shows a slight influence of the continent different from the climates predominantly influenced by the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Low averages below freezing for almost all winter causing snows that are frequent and winters are cold, but not as stringent as inland locations or with greater influence from the same. Summer is also relatively warm with temperatures between 23 and 24 °C, the heat waves being influenced by the
UHI
UHI
of Potsdam. The average winter high temperature is , with a low of . Snow is common in the winter. Spring and autumn are short. Summers are mild, with a high of and a low of .


Etymology

The name "Potsdam" originally seems to have been '' Poztupimi''. A common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning "beneath the oaks", i.e., the corrupted ''pod dubmi/dubimi'' (''pod'' "beneath", ''dub'' "oak"). However, some question this explanation.August Kopish, "Die Königlichen Schlösser u. Gärten zu Potsdam", Berlin, 1854
p. 18 (Google Books)
/ref>


History


Pre- and early history

The area around Potsdam shows signs of occupancy since the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
and was part of ''
Magna Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman provinces of the same name, was a large historical region in north-cent ...
'' as described by
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
. After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples,
Slav Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...
s moved in and Potsdam was probably founded after the 7th century as a settlement of the
Hevelli The Hevelli or Hevellians/ Navellasîni, also known as Svatodorans/ Sγatodorans, a name referring to the Golden Arrow, (sometimes ''Havolane''; german: Heveller or ''Stodoranen''; pl, Hawelanie or ''Stodoranie''; cs, Havolané or ''Stodorané'') ...
tribe centred on a castle. It was first mentioned in a document in 993 as ''Poztupimi'', when
Emperor Otto III Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu. Otto III was crowned as King ...
gifted the territory to the
Quedlinburg Abbey Quedlinburg Abbey (german: Stift Quedlinburg or ) was a house of canoness#Secular canoness, secular canonesses ''(Frauenstift)'' in Quedlinburg in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It was founded in 936 on the initiative of Saint Mathilda, the wi ...
, then led by his aunt
Matilda Mesa Associates' Tactical Integrated Light-Force Deployment Assembly (MATILDA) is a remote controlled surveillance and reconnaissance robot created and designed by the Mesa Robotics Corporation. It is available in many different models such as the U ...
. By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town. It gained its
town charter A city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (''charter'') establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Traditionally the granting of a charter g ...
in 1345. In 1573, it was still a small
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
of 2,000 inhabitants.


Early modern era

Potsdam lost nearly half of its population due to the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1618–1648). A continuous possession since 1415, Potsdam became prominent, when it was chosen in 1660 as the hunting residence of , Elector of
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
, the core of the powerful state that later became the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female ...
. It also housed
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
n
barracks Barracks are usually a group of long buildings built to house military personnel or laborers A laborer is a person who works in Manual labour, manual labor types, especially in the construction and factory industries' workforce. Laborers are in ...

barracks
. After the
Edict of Potsdam The Edict of Potsdam (german: Edikt von Potsdam) was a proclamation issued by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, in Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenb ...
in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration. Its religious freedom attracted people from
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
(
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
s),
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
and
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
. The edict accelerated population growth and economic recovery. Later, the city became a full residence of the Prussian royal family. The buildings of the royal residences were built mainly during the reign of
Frederick the Great Frederick II (german: Friedrich II.; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King in Prussia King ''in'' Prussia ( German: ''König in Preußen'') was a title used by the Prussian kings (also in personal union Electors of Brandenburg) from 1701 ...

Frederick the Great
. One of these is the
Sanssouci Palace Sanssouci is a historical building in Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , i ...

Sanssouci Palace
(French: "without cares", by
Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (17 February 1699 – 16 September 1753) was a painter and architect in Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian ...
, 1744), famed for its formal gardens and
Rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, ...
interiors. Other royal residences include the New Palace and the
Orangery An orangery or orangerie was a room or a dedicated building on the grounds of fashionable residences from the 17th to the 19th centuries where Orange (fruit), orange and other fruit trees were protected during the winter, as a very large fo ...
. In 1815, at the formation of the
Province of Brandenburg The Province of Brandenburg (german: Provinz Brandenburg) was a Provinces of Prussia, province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Brandenburg was established in 1815 from the Kingdom of Prussia's core territory, comprised the bulk of the historic Marg ...
, Potsdam became the provincial capital until 1918, except for a period between 1827 and 1843 when Berlin was the provincial capital (as it became once again after 1918). The province comprised two governorates named after their capitals Potsdam and
Frankfurt (Oder) Frankfurt (Oder) (also known as Frankfurt an der Oder, ; abbreviated ', 'Frankfurt on the Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-fo ...
.


Governorate of Potsdam

Between 1815 and 1945, the city of Potsdam served as capital of the governorate of Potsdam (german: Regierungsbezirk Potsdam). The ''
Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are split into '. Beneath these are rural and urban districts. Saxony has ' (directorate districts) with more resp ...
'' encompassed the former districts of
Uckermark The Uckermark () is a historical region in northeastern Germany, straddles the Uckermark (district), Uckermark District of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern-Greifswald District of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Its traditional capital is Prenzlau. Geograp ...
, the Mark of Priegnitz, and the greater part of the Middle March. It was situated between
Mecklenburg Mecklenburg (; nds, label=Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic languages, Germanic , fam3 = West Germanic languages, West Ge ...

Mecklenburg
and the
Province of PomeraniaPomerania Province may refer to one of several provinces established in Pomerania, a region of Europe: *Swedish Pomerania (1630–1815), a historical province of Sweden *Province of Pomerania (1653–1815), a historical province of Brandenburg, late ...
on the north, and the
Province of Saxony The Province of Saxony (german: Provinz Sachsen), also known as Prussian Saxony () was a provinces of Prussia, province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1944. Its capital was Magdeburg. It was formed ...
on the south and west (Berlin, with a small surrounding district, was an urban governorate and enclave within the governorate of Potsdam between 1815 and 1822, then it merged as urban district into the governorate only to be disentangled again from Potsdam governorate in 1875, becoming a distinct province-like entity on 1 April 1881). Towards the north west the governorate was bounded by the rivers
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
and the Havel, and on the north east by the
Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is ...

Oder
. The south eastern boundary was to the neighbouring governorate of Frankfurt (Oder). About 500,000 inhabitants lived in the Potsdam governorate, which covered an area of about , divided into thirteen rural
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
, partially named after their capitals:Thomas Curtis (1839). ''The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana'' Volume XVIII
p. 11
/ref> The traditional towns in the governorate were small, however, in the course of the industrial labour migration some reached the rank of urban districts. The principal towns were Brandenburg upon Havel,
Köpenick Köpenick () is a historic town and locality (''Ortsteil'') situated at the confluence of the rivers Dahme (river), Dahme and Spree in the south-east of the Germany, German capital city of Berlin. It was formerly known as Copanic and then Cöpenick ...
, Potsdam,
Prenzlau Prenzlau (, formerly also Prenzlow) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts ...
,
Spandau Spandau () is the westernmost of the 12 boroughs of Berlin, boroughs () of Berlin, situated at the confluence (geography), confluence of the Havel and Spree (river), Spree rivers and extending along the western bank of the Havel. It is the smalles ...
and
Ruppin Neuruppin () is a town in Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , ...
. Until 1875 Berlin also was a town within the governorate. After its disentanglement a number of its suburbs outside Berlin's municipal borders grew to towns, many forming urban ''Bezirke'' within the governorate of Potsdam such as
Charlottenburg Charlottenburg () is a locality Locality may refer to: * Locality (association), an association of community regeneration organizations in England * Locality (linguistics) * Locality (settlement) * Suburbs and localities (Australia), in which ...

Charlottenburg
,
Lichtenberg Lichtenberg () is the eleventh Boroughs of Berlin, borough of Berlin, Germany. In Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it absorbed the former borough of Hohenschönhausen. Overview The district contains the Tierpark Berlin in Friedrichsfelde, the ...
, Rixdorf (after 1912 Neukölln), and
Schöneberg Schöneberg () is a Boroughs and localities of Berlin, locality of Berlin, Germany. Until Boroughs and localities of Berlin, Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was a separate borough including the locality of Friedenau. Together with the for ...

Schöneberg
(all of which, as well as Köpenick and Spandau, incorporated into
Greater Berlin The Greater Berlin Act (german: Groß-Berlin-Gesetz), officially Law Regarding the Creation of the New Municipality of Berlin (german: Gesetz über die Bildung einer neuen Stadtgemeinde Berlin), was a law passed by the Weimar Republic, Weimar govern ...
in 1920). The urban ''Bezirke'' were (years indicating the elevation to rank of urban ''Bezirk''or affiliation with Potsdam governorate, respectively):


20th century

Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
was the capital of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
and later of the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
, but the court remained in Potsdam, where many government officials settled. In 1914, Emperor
Wilhelm II Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 18594 June 1941), anglicised as William II, was the last German Emperor (german: Kaiser) and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until Abdication of Wilhelm II, his abdication on Nove ...

Wilhelm II
signed the Declaration of War in the ''Neues Palais'' (New Palace). The city lost its status as a "second capital" in 1918, when Wilhelm II abdicated and Germany became a
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
at the end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. At the start of the
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
in 1933 there was a ceremonial handshake between
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Paul von Hindenburg Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (; abbreviated ; 2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German general and statesman who led the Imperial German Army The Imperial German Army (1871–1919), officially referred to ...

Paul von Hindenburg
and the new
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
on 21 March 1933 in Potsdam's Garrison Church in what became known as the " Day of Potsdam". This symbolised a coalition of the military (''
Reichswehr The Reichswehr (‘Reich defense’) was the official name of the German armed forces from 1919 to 1935, during the Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functio ...
'') and
Nazism Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazism
. Potsdam was severely damaged by Allied bombing raids during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The was the scene of the
Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference (german: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945 to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 191 ...

Potsdam Conference
from 17 July to 2 August 1945, at which the victorious
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
leaders
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs th ...

Harry S. Truman
,
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
and
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
met to decide the future of Germany and postwar Europe in general. The conference ended with the
Potsdam Agreement The Potsdam Agreement (german: Potsdamer Abkommen) was the 1 August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II : Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference ...
and the
Potsdam Declaration Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R67561, Potsdamer Konferenz, Konferenztisch.jpg, upright=2.5, 480px, Potsdam Conference session including Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, Joseph Stalin (white uniform), William D. Leahy, J ...
. The government of
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
(formally known as the
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
(German: ''Deutsche Demokratische Republik'', DDR)) tried to remove symbols of "Prussian
militarism Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for w ...
". Many historic buildings, some of them badly damaged in the war, were demolished. When in 1946 the remainder of the Province of Brandenburg west of the Oder-Neiße line was constituted as the state of
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
, Potsdam became its capital. In 1952 the GDR disestablished its states and replaced them by smaller new East German administrative districts known as ''Bezirke''. Potsdam became the capital of the new '' Bezirk Potsdam'' until 1990. Potsdam, south-west of Berlin, lay just outside
West Berlin West Berlin (german: Berlin (West) or ) was a political enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' ...
after the construction of the
Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall (german: Berliner Mauer, ) was a guarded concrete barrier A barrier or barricade is a physical structure which blocks or impedes something. Barrier may also refer to: Places * Barrier, Kentucky, a community in the Unite ...

Berlin Wall
. The walling off of West Berlin not only isolated Potsdam from West Berlin, but also doubled commuting times to
East Berlin East Berlin was the ''de facto'' capital city of the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordi ...
. The Glienicke Bridge across the Havel connected the city to West Berlin and was the scene of some
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
exchanges of . After
German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, peop ...
, Potsdam became the capital of the newly re-established state of
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
. Since then there have been many ideas and efforts to reconstruct the original appearance of the city, including the Potsdam City Palace and the Garrison Church.


Demography

Since 2000 Potsdam has been one of the fastest-growing cities in Germany. Bevölkerungsentwicklung Potsdam.pdf, Development of Population since 1875 within the Current Boundaries (Blue Line: Population; Dotted Line: Comparison to Population Development of Brandenburg state; Grey Background: Time of Nazi rule; Red Background: Time of Communist rule) Bevölkerungsprognosen Potsdam.pdf, Recent Population Development and Projections (Population Development before Census 2011 (blue line); Recent Population Development according to the
Census in Germany A national census in Germany (german: Volkszählung) was held every five years from 1875 to 1910. After the World Wars A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
in 2011 (blue bordered line); Official projections for 2005–2030 (yellow line); for 2017–2030 (scarlet line); for 2020–2030 (green line)


International residents

Largest groups of foreign residents:


Governance


City government

Potsdam has had a
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...

mayor
(''Bürgermeister'') and
city council A municipal council is the legislature, legislative body of a municipality or local government area. Depending on the location and classification of the municipality it may be known as a city council, town council, town board, community council, ...
since the 15th century. From 1809 the city council was elected, with a mayor (''Oberbürgermeister'') at its head. During the
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
the mayor was selected by the
NSDAP The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported th ...

NSDAP
and the city council was dissolved; it was reconstituted in token form after 1945, but free elections did not take place until after
reunification A political union is a type of state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily new ...
. Today, the city council is the city's central administrative authority. Local elections took place on 26 October 2003 and again in 2008. Between 1990 and 1999, the Chairman of the City Council was known as the "Town President" but today the post is the "Chairman of the City Council". The mayor is elected directly by the population.


Brandenburg state government

The , the parliament of the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of Brandenburg is in Potsdam. It has been housed in the Potsdam City Palace since 2014.


Twin towns – sister cities

Potsdam is twinned with: *
Opole Opole (; german: Oppeln ; szl, Ôpole; see #Names and etymology, below) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia. With a population of approximately 128,035 (December 2019), it is the capi ...
, Poland (1973) *
Bobigny Bobigny () is a ''commune'', or town, in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris. Bobigny is the '' préfecture'' (capital) of the Seine-Saint-Denis () is a France, French departments of France, depar ...

Bobigny
, France (1974) *
Jyväskylä Jyväskylä (; la, Granivicus) is a city and municipality in Finland in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland. It is located about 150 km north-east from Tampere, the third largest city in Finland; and about 270 km north from Helsinki ...

Jyväskylä
, Finland (1985) *
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langua ...

Bonn
, Germany (1988) *
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the River Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about north of Rome and southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part o ...

Perugia
, Italy (1990) *
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, United States (1990) *
Lucerne , neighboring_municipalities= Adligenswil Adligenswil is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by na ...

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, Switzerland (2002) *
Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...
, France (2016) *
Zanzibar City Zanzibar City (or Zanzibar Town, often simply referred to as Zanzibar; sw, Jiji la Zanzibar; ar, مدينة زنجبار) is the capital and largest city of Zanzibar, in Tanzania. It is located on the west coast of Unguja, the main island of th ...

Zanzibar City
, Tanzania (2017)


Infrastructure


Transport


Rail transport

Potsdam, included in the fare zone "C" (''Tarifbereich C'') of
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
's public transport area and fare zones A and B of its own public transport area, is served by the S7 ''
S-Bahn The S-train is a type of hybrid urban rail, urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to rapid transit systems, while smaller ones often resemble Commuter rail, commuter or ev ...
'' line. The stations served are
Griebnitzsee Griebnitzsee () is a lake at the south-western outskirts of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. At an elevation of 29.4 m, its surface area is ca. 0.592 km². The lake forms the border between the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It i ...
,
Babelsberg Babelsberg () is the largest district of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , ...
and the
Central Station Central stations or central railway stations emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as railway stations that had initially been built on the edge of city centres were enveloped by urban expansion and became an integral part of the ...

Central Station
(''Hauptbahnhof''), the main and long-distance station of the city. Other stations in Potsdam are Charlottenhof, Park Sanssouci (including the monumental '' Kaiserbahnhof''), Medienstadt Babelsberg, Rehbrücke, Potsdam Pirschheide railway station, Pirschheide and Marquardt station, Marquardt. The city also possesses a 27 km-long Potsdam Tramway, tramway network.


Road transport

Potsdam is served by several German Autobahnen, motorways: the Bundesautobahn 10, A 10, a beltway better known as ''Berliner Ring'', the Bundesautobahn 115, A 115 (using part of the AVUS) and is closely linked to the Bundesautobahn 2, A 2 and Bundesautobahn 9, A 9. The Bundesstraße 1, B 1 and Bundesstraße 2, B 2 List of federal highways in Germany, federal roads cross the city. Potsdam features a network of urban and suburban buses.


Education and research

Potsdam is a College town, university town. The
University of Potsdam The University of Potsdam is a public university, public university in Potsdam, capital of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. It is mainly situated across three campuses in the city. Some faculty buildings are part of the New Palace of Sanssouc ...
was founded in 1991 as a university of the State of Brandenburg. Its predecessor was the ''Akademie für Staats- und Rechtswissenschaften der DDR "Walter Ulbricht"'', a college of education founded in 1948 which was one of the GDR's most important colleges. There are about 20,000 students enrolled at the university. In 1991 the ''Fachhochschule Potsdam'' was founded as the second college. It had 3,518 students as of 2017. Konrad Wolf Film University of Babelsberg (HFF), founded in 1954 in
Babelsberg Babelsberg () is the largest district of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , ...
, is the foremost centre of the German film industry since its birth, with over 600 students. There are also several research foundations, including Fraunhofer Institutes for Applied Polymer Research and Biomedical Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (''Albert Einstein Institute''), Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, and Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, the GFZ – German Research Centre for Geosciences, the Potsdam Astrophysical Institute, the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, The Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, which employs 340 people in researching climate change. As well as universities, Potsdam is home to reputable secondary schools. Montessori Gesamtschule Potsdam, in western Potsdam, attracts 400 students from the Brandenburg and Berlin region.


Culture

Potsdam was historically a centre of European immigration. Its religious tolerance attracted people from France, Russia, the Netherlands and Bohemia. This is still visible in the culture and architecture of the city. The most popular attraction in Potsdam is Sanssouci Park, west of the city centre. In 1744 Frederick II of Prussia, King Frederick the Great ordered the construction of a residence here, where he could live ''sans souci'' ("without worries", in the French spoken at the court). The park hosts a botanical garden (Botanical Garden, Potsdam) and many buildings: * The
Sanssouci Palace Sanssouci is a historical building in Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , i ...

Sanssouci Palace
(''Schloss Sanssouci''), a relatively modest palace of the Prussian royal (and later German imperial) family * The Orangery Palace (''Orangerieschloss''), former palace for foreign royal guests * The New Palace (''Neues Palais''), built between 1763 and 1769 to celebrate the end of the Seven Years' War, in which Prussia held off the combined attacks of Austria and Russia. It is a much larger and grander palace than Sanssouci, having over 200 rooms and 400 statues as decoration. It served as a guest house for numerous royal visitors. Today, it houses parts of
University of Potsdam The University of Potsdam is a public university, public university in Potsdam, capital of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. It is mainly situated across three campuses in the city. Some faculty buildings are part of the New Palace of Sanssouc ...
. * The Charlottenhof Palace (''Schloss Charlottenhof''), a Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical palace by Karl Friedrich Schinkel built in 1826 * The Roman Baths (Potsdam), Roman Baths (''Römische Bäder''), built by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Friedrich Ludwig Persius in 1829–1840. It is a complex of buildings including a tea pavilion, a Renaissance-style villa, and a Roman bathhouse (from which the whole complex takes its name). * The Chinese House (Potsdam), Chinese Tea House (''Chinesisches Teehaus''), an 18th-century pavilion built in a China, Chinese style, the fashion of the time. Three gates from the original city wall remain today. The oldest is the Hunters' Gate (''Jägertor''), built in 1733. The Nauener Tor was built in 1755 and close to the historic Dutch Quarter. The ornate Brandenburg Gate (Potsdam), Brandenburg Gate (built in 1770, not to be confused with the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin) is situated on the Luisenplatz at the western entrance to the old town. The Old Market Square, Potsdam, Old Market Square (''Alter Markt'') is Potsdam's historical city centre. For three centuries this was the site of the Stadtschloss, Potsdam, City Palace (''Stadtschloß''), a royal palace built in 1662. Under
Frederick the Great Frederick II (german: Friedrich II.; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King in Prussia King ''in'' Prussia ( German: ''König in Preußen'') was a title used by the Prussian kings (also in personal union Electors of Brandenburg) from 1701 ...

Frederick the Great
, the palace became the winter residence of the Prussian kings. The palace was severely damaged by Allied bombing in 1945 and demolished in 1961 by the Communist authorities. In 2002 the Fortuna Gate (''Fortunaportal'') was rebuilt in its original historic position which was followed by a complete reconstruction of the palace as the Landtag of Brandenburg, Brandenburg Landtag building inaugurated in 2014. Nearby the square in the Humboldtstraße block, which also was demolished after getting damaged in 1945, reconstructions of several representative residential palaces including Palazzo Pompei and Palazzo Barberini Museum Barberini, housing an arts museum were completed in 2016–2017 alongside buildings with modernized facades to restore the historical proportions of the block. The Old Market Square is dominated today by the dome of St. Nicholas' Church, Potsdam, St. Nicholas' Church, built in 1837 in the Neoclassical style. It was the last work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who designed the building but did not live to see its completion. It was finished by his disciples Friedrich August Stüler and Ludwig Persius. The eastern side of the Market Square is dominated by the Old City Hall, built in 1755 by the Dutch architect Jan Bouman (1706–1776). It has a characteristic circular tower, crowned with a gilded Atlas (mythology), Atlas bearing the world on his shoulders. North of the Old Market Square is the oval French Church (''Französische Kirche''), erected in the 1750s by Boumann for the
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
community. To the south lies the Museum Barberini, a copy of the previous building, the Barberini Palace. The museum was funded by the German billionaire Hasso Plattner. The former Baroque architecture, Baroque building was built by Carl von Gontard in 1771–1772, inspired by the Renaissance palace Palazzo Barberini in Rome. The newly built museum was scheduled to open in spring 2017. Another landmark of Potsdam is the two-street Dutch Quarter (''Holländisches Viertel''), an ensemble of buildings that is unique in Europe, with about 150 houses built of red bricks in the Dutch style. It was built between 1734 and 1742 under the direction of Jan Bouman to be used by Dutch artisans and craftsmen who had been invited to settle here by Frederick Wilhelm I, King Frederick Wilhelm I. Today, this area is one of Potsdam's most visited quarters. North of the city centre is the
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n colony of Alexandrowka, a small enclave of Russian architecture (including an Russian Orthodox, Orthodox chapel) built in 1825 for a group of Russian immigrants. Since 1999, the colony has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin. East of the Alexandrowka colony is a large park, the New Garden (Potsdam), New Garden (''Neuer Garten''), which was laid out from 1786 in the English landscape garden, English style. The site contains two palaces; one of them, the Cecilienhof, was where the
Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference (german: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945 to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 191 ...

Potsdam Conference
was held in July and August 1945. The ''Marmorpalais'' (Marble Palace) was built in 1789 in Neoclassical style. Nearby is the ''Biosphäre Potsdam'', a tropical botanical garden.
Babelsberg Babelsberg () is the largest district of Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , ...
, a quarter south-east of the centre, houses the Universum Film AG, UFA film studios (Babelsberg Studios), and an extensive Babelsberg Park, park with some historical buildings, including the Babelsberg Palace (Schloß Babelsberg, a Gothic revival palace designed by Schinkel). The Einstein Tower is located within the Albert Einstein Science Park, which is on the top of the ''Telegraphenberg'' within an astronomy compound. Potsdam also features a memorial centre in the former KGB prison in Leistikowstraße. In the Volkspark to the north, there is one of the last monuments dedicated to Lenin in Germany. Potsdam joined UNESCO's Creative Cities Network, Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on October 31, 2019 on the occasion of World Cities’ Day.


Parks

There are many parks in Potsdam, most of them UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Among their attractions are: Chinesisches Haus Sanssouci.jpg, The Chinese House (Potsdam), Chinese House in Sanssouci Park Hunting Lodge Glienicke 2.jpg, Jagdschloss Glienicke, Glienicke Hunting Lodge, as seen from Babelsberg Park Marmorpalais Neuer Garten Potsdam.jpg, The Marmorpalais in New Garden, Potsdam, New Garden Orangerie Schloss Spielstätte.JPG, Sanssouci: the Orangery Palace Potsdam BelvedereKlausberg1.jpg, The Belvedere auf dem Klausberg Schloss Babelsberg 3.jpg, Schloss Babelsberg, Babelsberg Palace


Sports

* 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam, one of the most successful German female football clubs (Fußball-Bundesliga (women), Bundesliga (women))
Potsdam Royals
American football team competing in the German Football League. * SV Babelsberg 03, football club Regionalliga Nordost * Olympic Training Centre Potsdam (:de:Olympiastützpunkt Brandenburg, de) * USV Potsdam, rugby union (2nd Rugby-Bundesliga) and Association football, football (Kreisklasse) * List of football clubs in Potsdam * The :de:Potsdamer Schlössermarathon, Potsdamer Schlössermarathon (''Potsdam Palace Marathon'') is a marathon in that is held annually in June. Thousands of runners run the course past the palaces for the half marathon and several hundred repeat the course to complete the full marathon.


Notable people

;18th century *Abraham Abramson (1754–1811), medalist *Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg (1759–1830), Prussian field marshal *Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835), scholar and statesman, founder of the Berlin Humboldt University *Frederick William III of Prussia (1770–1840), King of Prussia 1797–1840 *Wilhelm Ludwig Viktor Henckel von Donnersmarck (1775–1849), Prussian general lieutenant *Eleonore Prochaska (1785–1813), woman soldier during the liberation war, unrecognized as a man disguised as a drummer, later as an infantryman in the Prussian army against Napoléon Bonaparte, Napoleon *Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1790-1850), Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1790–1850), lieutenant general in the Prussian Army *Heinrich Wilhelm Krausnick (1797–1882), lawyer and Governing Mayor of Berlin, Lord Mayor of Berlin ;19th century *Moritz Hermann von Jacobi (1801–1874), physicist and engineer *Ludwig Persius (1803–1845), architect *Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (1804–1851), mathematician *Adolf von Rauch (1805-1877), Adolf von Rauch (1805–1877), Prussian cavalry officer *Philipp Galen (1813–1899), writer and physician *Julius Lange (numismatist) (1815–1905), numismatist *Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894), physiologist and physicist, one of the most important natural scientists of his time *Alfred Bonaventura von Rauch (1824–1900), Prussian general *Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1827–1907), Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1827–1907), Prussian general leutnant *Egmont von Rauch (1829–1875), Prussian cavalry officer and later colonel in the Prussian Army *Frederick III, German Emperor (1831–1888), Emperor of the German Empire and King of Prussia 1888 *Alfred von Waldersee (1832–1904), field marshal *Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919), zoologist, philosopher *Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler (1836–1919), Prussian field marshal *Hermann Schubert (1848–1911), mathematician *Wilhelm II, German Emperor (1859–1941), Emperor of the German Empire and King of Prussia 1888–1918 *Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen (1859−1910), doctor and physiologist *Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1868–1899), Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1868–1899), Prussian officer *Friedrich Ludwig (musicologist), Friedrich Ludwig (1872–1930), music historian and rector of the University of Göttingen *Friedrich Wilhelm von Bissing (1873–1956), egyptologist *Elisabeth von Knobelsdorff (1877–1959), engineer and architect *Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia (1883–1942), second son of King William II of Prussia *Ludowika Jakobsson (1884–1968), German-Finnish figure skater *Leo Geyr von Schweppenburg (1886–1974), general of tank troops and military attachée *Paul Blobel (1894–1951), Nazi war criminal, hanged for war crimes ;20th century *Margarete Buber-Neumann (1901–1989), writer *Egon Eiermann (1904–1970), architect *Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1907–1994), German and Prussian heir to the throne and head of the House of Hohenzollern *Princess Marie Eleonore of Albania, Marie Eleonore of Albania (1909–1957), princess *Adam von Trott zu Solz (1909–1944), lawyer, diplomat and resistance fighter *Carol Victor, Hereditary Prince of Albania, Carol Victor (1913–1973), Hereditary Prince of Albania *Peter Weiss (1916–1982), writer, graphic artist and painter *Hans Richter (actor), Hans Richter (1919–2008), actor *Bernhard Hassenstein (1922–2016), biologist and behaviorist *Burkhard Heim (1925–2001), theoretical physicist *Günther Schramm (b. 1929), actor *Bernd and Hilla Becher, Hilla Becher (1934–2015), photographer *Nicole Heesters (b. 1937), actress *Manfred Wolke (b. 1943), boxer and boxing coach *Klaus Katzur (1943–2016), swimmer and Olympic medalist *Wolfgang Joop (b. 1944), fashion designer *Oliver Bendt (b. 1946), actor, gymnast, singer *Christiane Lanzke (b. 1947), diver and actress *Lothar Doering (b. 1950), handball player and coach *Brigitte Ahrenholz (b. 1952), rower *Matthias Platzeck (b. 1953), politician, Minister President of Brandenburg *Klaus Thiele (b. 1958), athlete *Gabriele Berg (b. 1963), biologist and biotechnologist *Ralf Brudel (b. 1963), rower *Jens-Peter Berndt (b. 1963), swimmer *Birgit Peter (b. 1964), rower *Carsten Wolf (b. 1964), cyclist, world champion *Daniela Neunast (b. 1966), steward in rowing *René Monse (b. 1968), heavyweight boxer *Klara Geywitz (b. 1976), politician *Aleksandr Sayenko (b. 1978), footballer


Honorary citizens

* 1845: Wilhelm Ludwig Viktor Henckel von Donnersmarck, Lieutenant General * 1856: Friedrich von Wrangel, Field Marshal * 1863: Peter Joseph Lenné, gardener and landscape architect * 1891: Hermann von Helmholtz, naturalist * 1905: Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, president of the province of Brandenburg * 1933:
Paul von Hindenburg Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (; abbreviated ; 2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German general and statesman who led the Imperial German Army The Imperial German Army (1871–1919), officially referred to ...

Paul von Hindenburg
, Fieldmarshal and Reichspräsident * 1933: ''
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
'', chancellor (withdrawn 15 August 1990 by decision of the Potsdam City Council) * 1938: Josef Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda * 1955: Max Volmer, physical chemist * 1960: Hans Marchwitza, writer and proletarian poet * 1965: Otto Nagel, painter


References


Sources

* Paul Sigel, Silke Dähmlow, Frank Seehausen und Lucas Elmenhorst, Architekturführer Potsdam Architectural Guide, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2006, .


External links

* an
English
{{Authority control Potsdam, Cities in Brandenburg German state capitals Populated places established in the 7th century Province of Brandenburg Bezirk Potsdam 7th-century establishments in Germany