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Potassium hydroxide is an
inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a ...
with the formula
K
K
OH, and is commonly called caustic potash. Along with
sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching wood ashes, or a strong alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chem ...

sodium hydroxide
(NaOH), KOH is a prototypical
strong base In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases and Lewis bases. All definitions agree that bases are substances which react with acids as originally proposed by Guillaume-Fra ...
. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its
caustic Caustic most commonly refers to: * Causticity, a property of various corrosive substances ** Sodium hydroxide, sometimes called ''caustic soda'' ** Potassium hydroxide, sometimes called ''caustic potash'' ** Calcium oxide, sometimes called ''caustic ...
nature and its reactivity toward
acids An acid is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms ...
. An estimated 700,000 to 800,000
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s were produced in 2005. KOH is noteworthy as the precursor to most soft and liquid
soap Soap is a salt (chemistry), salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are surfactants usually used for washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping. In industrial settings, ...

soap
s, as well as numerous potassium-containing chemicals. It is a white solid that is dangerously corrosive.


Properties and structure

KOH exhibits high
thermal stability Thermal stability describes the stability of a water body and its resistance to mixing.Schmidt, W. 1928. Über Temperatur und Stabilitätsverhältnisse von Seen. Geogr. Ann 10: 145 - 177. It is the amount of work needed to transform the water (e.g ...
. Because of its high stability and relatively low
melting point The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the at which it changes from to . At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in . The melting point of a substance depends on and is usually specified at a such ...

melting point
, it is often melt-cast as pellets or rods, forms that have low surface area and convenient handling properties. These pellets become tacky in air because KOH is
hygroscopic Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption (chemistry), absorption or adsorption from the surrounding Natural environment, environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. If water m ...
. Most commercial samples are ca. 90% pure, the remainder being water and carbonates. Its
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...

dissolution
in water is strongly
exothermic In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these qu ...

exothermic
. Concentrated aqueous solutions are sometimes called potassium
lye A lye is a metal hydroxideMetal hydroxides are hydroxides of metals. They are often strong base (chemistry), bases. They consist of hydroxide anions and metallic cations. Some metal hydroxides, such as alkali metal hydroxides, ionize completel ...
s. Even at high temperatures, solid KOH does not dehydrate readily.


Structure

At higher temperatures, solid KOH
crystallizes Crystallization or crystallisation is the process by which a solid forms, where the Atom, atoms or molecules are highly organized into a Crystal structure, structure known as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are Precipitation ( ...

crystallizes
in the
NaCl Sodium chloride , commonly known as salt (although sea salt Sea salt is salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater. It is used as a seasoning in foods, cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat t ...

NaCl
crystal structure In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek language, Greek words ''crystallon'' "col ...

crystal structure
. The OH group is either rapidly or randomly disordered so that the group is effectively a spherical
anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
of radius 1.53 Å (between and in size). At room temperature, the groups are ordered and the environment about the centers is distorted, with distances ranging from 2.69 to 3.15 Å, depending on the orientation of the OH group. KOH forms a series of crystalline
hydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, m ...
s, namely the monohydrate KOH, the dihydrate KOH and the tetrahydrate KOH.


Reactions


Solubility and desiccating properties

About 121 g of KOH in 100 mL water at room temperature, which contrasts with 100 g/100 mL for NaOH. Thus on a molar basis, NaOH is slightly more soluble than KOH. Lower molecular-weight
alcohol In , alcohol is an that carries at least one (−OH) bound to a atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol (ethyl alcohol), which is and is the main alcohol present in s. An important class of alcohols, of which ...

alcohol
s such as
methanol Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, amongst other names, is a chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be se ...

methanol
,
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
, and
propanol There are two isomer In , isomers are s or s with identical s — that is, same number of of each — but distinct arrangements of atoms in space. Isomerism is existence or possibility of isomers. Isomers do not necessarily share similar ...

propanol
s are also excellent
solvents A solvent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
. They participate in an acid-base equilibrium. In the case of methanol the potassium
methoxide Methoxides are salt (chemistry), organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, and caesium methoxide exist a ...
(methylate) forms: : KOH + CH3OH -> CH3OK + H2O Because of its high affinity for water, KOH serves as a
desiccant A desiccant is a hygroscopic Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption (chemistry), absorption or adsorption from the surrounding Natural environment, environment, which is usually at normal ...
in the laboratory. It is often used to dry basic solvents, especially
amines In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of that studies the structure, properties and reactions of s, which contain in .Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry''. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–15. ...
and
pyridines Pyridine is a basic (chemistry), basic heterocyclic compound, heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula Carbon, C5Hydrogen, H5Nitrogen, N. It is structurally related to benzene, with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitroge ...
.


As a nucleophile in organic chemistry

KOH, like NaOH, serves as a source of , a highly
nucleophilic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...

nucleophilic
anion that attacks polar bonds in both inorganic and organic materials. Aqueous KOH
ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemic ...

ester
s: : KOH + RCOOR' -> RCOOK + R'OH When R is a long chain, the product is called a potassium soap. This reaction is manifested by the "greasy" feel that KOH gives when touched —
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
s on the skin are rapidly converted to soap and
glycerol Glycerol (; also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in lipids known ...
. Molten KOH is used to displace
halides A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen The halogens () are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine Fluorine is a chemical element with the Chemical symbol, symbol F and ato ...
and other
leaving group In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the ...
s. The reaction is especially useful for
aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in ...
reagent A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...
s to give the corresponding
phenol Phenol (also called carbolic acid) is an aromatic forms of benzene (top) combine to produce an average structure (bottom) In chemistry, aromaticity is a property of cyclic compound, cyclic (ring (chemistry), ring-shaped), plane (geometry), p ...

phenol
s.


Reactions with inorganic compounds

Complementary to its reactivity toward acids, KOH attacks
oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s. Thus, SiO2 is attacked by KOH to give soluble potassium silicates. KOH reacts with
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
to give
potassium bicarbonate Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, comp ...

potassium bicarbonate
: :KOH + CO2 -> KHCO3


Manufacture

Historically, KOH was made by adding
potassium carbonate Potassium carbonate is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the ch ...

potassium carbonate
to a strong solution of
calcium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula calcium, Ca(Hydroxide, OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed or slaking (ge ...

calcium hydroxide
(slaked lime). The
salt metathesis reaction A salt metathesis reaction, sometimes called a double replacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species A chemical species is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form ...
results in precipitation of solid
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held togethe ...

calcium carbonate
, leaving potassium hydroxide in solution: :Ca(OH)2 + K2CO3 -> CaCO3+ 2 KOH Filtering off the precipitated calcium carbonate and boiling down the solution gives potassium hydroxide ("calcinated or caustic potash"). This method of producing potassium hydroxide remained dominant until the late 19th century, when it was largely replaced by the current method of electrolysis of
potassium chloride Potassium chloride (KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. Covalently bonded metal halides may be discrete m ...

potassium chloride
solutions. The method is analogous to the manufacture of
sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching wood ashes, or a strong alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chem ...

sodium hydroxide
(see
chloralkali process The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, s ...
): :2 KCl + 2 H2O -> 2 KOH + Cl2 + H2
Hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

Hydrogen
gas forms as a byproduct on the
cathode A cathode is the from which a leaves a polarized electrical device. This definition can be recalled by using the ''CCD'' for ''Cathode Current Departs''. A conventional current describes the direction in which positive charges move. Electrons ha ...
; concurrently, an anodic oxidation of the
chloride The chloride ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects th ...

chloride
ion takes place, forming
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
gas as a byproduct. Separation of the anodic and cathodic spaces in the electrolysis cell is essential for this process.Römpp Chemie-Lexikon, 9th Ed. (in German)


Uses

KOH and NaOH can be used interchangeably for a number of applications, although in industry, NaOH is preferred because of its lower cost.


Precursor to other potassium compounds

Many potassium salts are prepared by neutralization reactions involving KOH. The potassium salts of
carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mi ...

carbonate
,
cyanide A cyanide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
,
permanganate A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion, , the conjugate base of permanganic acid. Because the manganese atom is in the +7 oxidation state, the permanganate(VII) ion is a strong oxidizing agent ...

permanganate
,
phosphate In chemistry, a phosphate is an anion, salt (chemistry), salt, functional group or ester derived from a phosphoric acids and phosphates, phosphoric acid. It most commonly means orthophosphate, a derivative of phosphoric acid, orthophosphoric a ...
, and various silicates are prepared by treating either the oxides or the acids with KOH. The high solubility of potassium phosphate is desirable in
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American E ...

fertilizer
s.


Manufacture of soft soaps

The
saponification Saponification is a process that involves the conversion of fat, oil, or lipid, into soap and alcohol by the action of aqueous alkali (e.g. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH). Soaps are salts of fatty acids, which in turn are carboxylic acids with long carbon ...

saponification
of
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
s with KOH is used to prepare the corresponding "potassium
soaps Soap Soap is a of a used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are s usually used for , , and other types of . In industrial settings, soaps are used as s, components of some s, and precursors to ...

soaps
", which are softer than the more common sodium hydroxide-derived soaps. Because of their softness and greater solubility, potassium soaps require less water to liquefy, and can thus contain more cleaning agent than liquefied sodium soaps.


As an electrolyte

Aqueous potassium hydroxide is employed as the
electrolyte An electrolyte is a medium containing ions that is electrically conducting Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resis ...

electrolyte
in
alkaline batteries An alkaline battery (IEC code: L) is a type of primary battery which derives its energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganese dioxide Manganese dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula . This blackish or brown solid occ ...
based on
nickel Nickel is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

nickel
-
cadmium Cadmium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical eleme ...

cadmium
,
nickel Nickel is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

nickel
-
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
, and
manganese dioxide Manganese dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula . This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart- ...

manganese dioxide
-
zinc Zinc is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

zinc
. Potassium hydroxide is preferred over sodium hydroxide because its solutions are more conductive. The nickel–metal hydride batteries in the
Toyota Prius The Toyota Prius (; Japanese:トヨタ・プリウス, ''Toyota Puriusu'') is a car built by Toyota which has a Hybrid vehicle drivetrain, hybrid drivetrain, combining an internal combustion engine with an electric motor. It was initially offer ...

Toyota Prius
use a mixture of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. Nickel–iron batteries also use potassium hydroxide electrolyte.


Food industry

In food products, potassium hydroxide acts as a food thickener, pH control agent and food stabilizer. The
FDA The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...
considers it generally safe as a direct food ingredient when used in accordance with
Good Manufacturing Practices Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of Food industry, food and Drink industry, beverage ...
. It is known in the
E number E numbers ("E" stands for "Europe") are codes for substances used as food additive Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμ ...
system as E525.


Niche applications

Like sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide attracts numerous specialized applications, virtually all of which rely on its properties as a strong chemical base with its consequent ability to degrade many materials. For example, in a process commonly referred to as "chemical cremation" or " resomation", potassium hydroxide hastens the decomposition of soft tissues, both animal and human, to leave behind only the bones and other hard tissues.
Entomologists upright=1.2, A Phyllium sp., mimicking a leaf Entomology () is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was or ...

Entomologists
wishing to study the fine structure of
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
may use a 10% aqueous solution of KOH to apply this process. In chemical synthesis, the choice between the use of KOH and the use of NaOH is guided by the solubility or keeping quality of the resulting
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...
. The corrosive properties of potassium hydroxide make it a useful ingredient in agents and preparations that clean and
disinfect Disinfectants are chemical agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms on inert surfaces. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant endospore, bacterial spores; it is less effective than steril ...
surfaces and materials that can themselves resist
corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecu ...

corrosion
by KOH. KOH is also used for semiconductor chip fabrication (for example anisotropic wet etching). Potassium hydroxide is often the main active ingredient in chemical "cuticle removers" used in
manicure A manicure is a cosmetic beauty treatment for the fingernails and hands performed at home or in a nail salon. A manicure consists of filing and shaping the ''free edge'' of nails, pushing and clipping (with a cuticle pusher and cuticle nip ...

manicure
treatments. Because aggressive bases like KOH damage the
cuticle A cuticle (), or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection. Various types of "cuticle" are non-homology (biology), homologous, differing in the ...
of the
hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Ph ...

hair
shaft, potassium hydroxide is used to chemically assist the removal of hair from animal hides. The hides are soaked for several hours in a solution of KOH and water to prepare them for the unhairing stage of the
tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of artificial light in place of the sun **Sunless tanning, application of a stain or dye to ...
process. This same effect is also used to weaken human hair in preparation for shaving. Preshave products and some shave creams contain potassium hydroxide to force open the hair cuticle and to act as a hygroscopic agent to attract and force water into the hair shaft, causing further damage to the hair. In this weakened state, the hair is more easily cut by a razor blade. Potassium hydroxide is used to identify some species of
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
. A 3–5% aqueous solution of KOH is applied to the flesh of a mushroom and the researcher notes whether or not the color of the flesh changes. Certain species of gilled mushrooms,
boletes {{refimprove, date=July 2020 A bolete is a type of mushroom, or fungus, fungal fruiting body. It can be identified thanks to a unique mushroom pileus (mycology), cap. The cap is clearly different from the stipe (mycology), stem. On the underside ...
,
polypores Polypores are a group of Fungus, fungi that form large fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside (see Polypore#Delimitation (morphology), Delimitation for exceptions). They are a morphological group of Basidiomycota, basidiomycetes-lik ...

polypores
, and
lichens A lichen ( , ) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among Hypha, filaments of multiple Fungus, fungi species in a mutualism (biology), mutualistic relationship.
are identifiable based on this color-change reaction.


Safety

Potassium hydroxide and its solutions are severe irritants to skin and other tissue.
Potassium hydroxide, SIDS Initial Assessment Report For SIAM 13. Bern, Switzerland, 6-9 November 2001.
By Dr. Thaly LAKHANISKY. Date of last Update: February 2002


See also

*
Potash Potash () includes various mined and manufactured salts In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structu ...
*
Soda lime Soda lime is a mixture of NaOH & CaO chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent el ...
* Saltwater soap – sailors' soap


References


External links


Newscientist article dn10104




{{DEFAULTSORT:Potassium Hydroxide Deliquescent substances Desiccants E-number additives Hydroxides Photographic chemicals Potassium compounds