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Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
, particularly in the international style advocated by
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
and
Henry-Russell Hitchcock Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903–1987) was an American architectural historian An architectural historian is a person who studies and writes about the history of architecture, and is regarded as an authority on it. Professional requirements A ...
. The movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner
Denise Scott Brown Denise Scott Brown (née Lakofski; born October 3, 1931) is an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the ...

Denise Scott Brown
and architectural theorist
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
in their book ''Learning from Las Vegas''. The style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s, particularly in the work of Scott Brown & Venturi,
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
, Charles Moore and
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
. In the late 1990s, it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including
high-tech architecture High-tech architecture, also known as structural expressionism, is a type of Late Modern architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identi ...
,
neo-futurism Neo-futurism is a late-20th to early-21st-century movement in the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valua ...
,
new classical architecture#REDIRECT New Classical architecture {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalization{{R from move ...
and
deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in ...
.


Origins

Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
, particularly its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, and its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In 1966, Venturi formalized the movement in his book, ''Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture''. Venturi summarized the kind of architecture he wanted to see replace modernism:
I speak of a complex and contradictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of modern experience, including that experience which is inherent in art. ... I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties. ... I like elements which are hybrid rather than "pure", compromising rather than "clean" ... accommodating rather than excluding. ... I am for messy vitality over obvious unity. ... I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, and sometimes gray, to black or white. ... An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion.
In place of the functional doctrines of modernism, Venturi proposed giving primary emphasis to the façade, incorporating historical elements, a subtle use of unusual materials and historical allusions, and the use of fragmentation and modulations to make the building interesting. Accomplished architect and urban planner
Denise Scott Brown Denise Scott Brown (née Lakofski; born October 3, 1931) is an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the ...

Denise Scott Brown
, who was Venturi's wife, and Venturi wrote ''Learning from Las Vegas'' (1972), co-authored with
Steven Izenour Steven Izenour (July 16, 1940 in New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New Y ...
, in which they further developed their joint argument against modernism. They urged architects to take into consideration and to celebrate the existing architecture in a place, rather than to try to impose a visionary utopia from their own fantasies. This was in line with Scott Brown’s belief that buildings should be built for people, and that architecture should listen to them. Scott Brown and Venturi argued that ornamental and decorative elements "accommodate existing needs for variety and communication". The book was instrumental in opening readers' eyes to new ways of thinking about buildings, as it drew from the entire history of architecture—both high-style and vernacular, both historic and modern—and In response to
Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
's famous maxim "Less is more", Venturi responded, to "Less is a bore." Venturi cited the examples of his wife’s and his own buildings, Guild House, in Philadelphia, as examples of a new style that welcomed variety and historical references, without returning to academic revival of old styles. In Italy at about the same time, a similar revolt against strict modernism was being launched by the architect
Aldo Rossi Aldo Rossi (3 May 1931 – 4 September 1997) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of ...
, who criticized the rebuilding of Italian cities and buildings destroyed during the war in the modernist style, which had had no relation to the architectural history, original street plans, or culture of the cities. Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the
Venice Biennale The Venice Biennale (; it, La Biennale di Venezia ; in English also called the "Venice ''Biennial''") is an arts organization based in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy ...

Venice Biennale
in 1980. The call for a post-modern style was joined by
Christian de Portzamparc Christian de Portzamparc (; born 5 May 1944) is a French architect and urbanist. He graduated from the École Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris in 1970 and has since been noted for his bold designs and artistic touch; his projects reflect a ...
in France and
Ricardo Bofill Ricardo Bofill Leví (; born ) is a Spanish architect. He founded Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura in 1963 and developed it into a leading international architectural and urban design practice. According to architectural historian Andrew Aye ...
in Spain, and in Japan by
Arata Isozaki Arata Isozaki (磯崎 新, ''Isozaki Arata''; born 23 July 1931) is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered de ...

Arata Isozaki
.


Notable postmodern buildings and architects


Robert Venturi

File:Guildhouse Philly.JPG, The Guild House in Philadelphia by
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
(1960–1963) File:Vanna Venturi House in Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania LCCN2011631388.tif,
Vanna Venturi House The Vanna Venturi House, one of the first prominent works of the postmodern architecture movement, is located in the neighborhood of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Chestnut Hill in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was designed by archit ...
by
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
(1964) File:Fire station 4 Columbus IN.jpg, Fire Station Number 4 in Columbus, Indiana (1968) Dartmouth College campus 2007-10-02 Carson Hall.JPG, Carson Hall,
Dartmouth College Dartmouth College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...
in
Hanover, New Hampshire Hanover is a New England town, town located along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census, its population was 11,870. The town is home t ...
File:Udel - Trabant center2.jpg, Trabant Center at the
University of Delaware The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel or Delaware) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. UD is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate' ...
in Newark, DE (1996) File:Episcopal Acad Chapel ext.JPG, Episcopal Academy Chapel File:Princeton Frist Campus Center back.jpg, Frist Campus Center at
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
(2000)
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
(1925-2018) was both a prominent theorist of postmodernism and an architect whose buildings illustrated his ideas. After studying at the American Academy in Rome, he worked in the offices of the modernists
Eero Saarinen Eero Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer noted for his wide-ranging array of designs for buildings and monuments. Saarinen is best known for designing the Washington Dul ...
and
Louis Kahn Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky; – March 17, 1974) was an Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Es ...

Louis Kahn
until 1958, and then became a professor of architecture at Yale University. One of his first buildings was the Guild House in Philadelphia, built between 1960 and 1963, and a house for his mother in Chestnut Hill, in Philadelphia. These two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. He went on to design, in the 1960s and 1970s, a series of buildings which took into account both historic precedents, and the ideas and forms existing in the real life of the cities around them.


Michael Graves

File:The Portland Building.jpg, by
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
(1982) File:HumanaBuilding1.jpg, Humana Building in
Louisville Louisville (, , ) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can ra ...
,
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
(1982) Modern Building in Antwerp - panoramio (1).jpg, Radisson Blu Astrid Hotel in
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
(1993) File:US-CO - Denver - Library (4891836173).jpg, The
Denver Public Library The Denver Public Library is the public library A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is usually founded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by librarians and library paraprofessionals, who ar ...
by
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
(1995) IFC Building.JPG, building in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
(1996) De Castaliatorens (de Puntmutsen).jpg, Castalia building in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
(1998)
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
(1934–2015) designed two of the most prominent buildings in the postmodern style, the
Portland Building
Portland Building
and the
Denver Public Library The Denver Public Library is the public library A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is usually founded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by librarians and library paraprofessionals, who ar ...
. He later followed up his landmark buildings by designing large, low-cost retail stores for chains such as
Target TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlementReal-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money Image:National ...
and
J.C. Penney Penney OpCo, LLC (formerly known as J. C. Penney Company, Inc; doing business as JCPenney and abbreviated JCP) is a midscale American department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Ec ...
in the United States, which had a major influence on the design of retail stores in city centers and shopping malls. In his early career, he, along with the
Peter Eisenman Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932) is an American architect. Considered one of the New York Five, Eisenman is known for his writing and speaking about architecture as well as his designs, which have been called high modernist or deconstructiv ...
,
Charles Gwathmey Charles Gwathmey (June 19, 1938 – August 3, 2009) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the des ...
,
John Hejduk John Quentin Hejduk (19 July 1929 – 3 July 2000) was an American architect, artist and educator of Czechs, Czech origin who spent much of his life in New York City, United States. Hejduk is noted for having had a profound interest in the fundam ...
and
Richard Meier Richard Meier (born October 12, 1934) is an American abstract artist and architect, whose geometric designs make prominent use of the color white. A winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1984, Meier has designed several iconic buildings ...
, was considered one of the New York Five, a group of advocates of pure
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
, but in 1982 he turned toward postmodernism with the
Portland Building
Portland Building
, one of the first major structures in the style. The building has since been added to the
National Register of Historic Places The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States ...
.


Charles Moore

File:PiazzaDItalia1990.jpg, Piazza d'Italia in
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
, by Charles Moore, completed 1978 File:Haas School of Business.jpg,
Haas School of Business The Walter A. Haas, Haas School of Business (Berkeley Haas) is the business school of the University of California, Berkeley. The first of its kind to be founded at a public university in the United States, it is ranked among the best business s ...

Haas School of Business
at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
by Charles Moore (1992) File:Entrance of Beverly Hills Civic Center.JPG,
Beverly Hills Civic Center The Beverly Hills Civic Center is a landmark building serving as a civic center in Beverly Hills, California. Location The Beverly Hills Civic Center stands at 455 North Rexford Drive in Beverly Hills, California.Charles Moore (1990) The most famous work of architect Charles Moore (1925-1993) is the Piazza d'Italia in
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
(1978), a public square composed of an exuberant collection of pieces of famous Italian Renaissance architecture. Drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the
Beverly Hills Civic Center The Beverly Hills Civic Center is a landmark building serving as a civic center in Beverly Hills, California. Location The Beverly Hills Civic Center stands at 455 North Rexford Drive in Beverly Hills, California.Haas School of Business The Walter A. Haas, Haas School of Business (Berkeley Haas) is the business school of the University of California, Berkeley. The first of its kind to be founded at a public university in the United States, it is ranked among the best business s ...

Haas School of Business
at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
blends in with both the neo-Renaissance architecture of the Berkeley campus and with picturesque early 20th century wooden residential architecture in the neighboring Berkeley Hills.


Philip Johnson

File:Sony Building by David Shankbone crop.jpg, (Formerly AT&T Building) in Manhattan, New York City, by
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
(1982) File:Building4 houston.jpg, in Houston, Texas by
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
(1983) File:2008-05-24 Pittsburgh 030 PPG Building (2669504940).jpg,
PPG Place PPG Place is a complex in downtown Pittsburgh Downtown Pittsburgh, colloquially referred to as the Golden Triangle, and officially the Central Business District, is the urban downtown center of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the sta ...

PPG Place
, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
(1979–1984) File:Five Hundred Boylston portrait 2.jpg,
500 Boylston Street 500 Boylston Street is a 1.3-million square foot postmodern architecture, postmodern building located in the Back Bay section of Boston and part of the city's High Spine, completed in 1989. It sits next to the landmark Trinity Church, Boston. It do ...
building in Boston, Massachusetts, by
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
(1989) File:AegonCtr2033.JPG,
400 West Market 400 West Market is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally acce ...
in Louisville, Kentucky by Philip Johnson (1993) File:Da-monsta-philip-johnson-glass-house.jpg, Glass house Pavilion for the
Glass House Glass house or glass houses may refer to: Architecture * Greenhouse, a building where plants are cultivated * Glass works or glasshouse, a manufactory building used for glassblowing * Glasshouse (British Army), a term for a military prison in the U ...

Glass House
in New Canaan, Connecticut (1995)
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
(1906–2005) began his career as a pure modernist. In 1935, he co-authored the famous catalog of the Museum of Modern Art exposition on the International Style, and studied with
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with ...
and
Marcel Breuer Marcel Lajos Breuer ( ; 21 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian-born modernism, modernist architect, and furniture designer. At the Bauhaus he designed the Wassily Chair and the Cesca Chair which is “among the 10 most im ...

Marcel Breuer
at Harvard. His
Glass House Glass house or glass houses may refer to: Architecture * Greenhouse, a building where plants are cultivated * Glass works or glasshouse, a manufactory building used for glassblowing * Glasshouse (British Army), a term for a military prison in the U ...

Glass House
in New Canaan, Connecticut (1949), inspired by a similar house by
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
became an icon of the modernist movement. He worked with Mies on another iconic modernist project, the Seagrams Building in New York City. However, in the 1950s, he began to include certain playful and mannerist forms into his buildings, such as the Synagogue of Port Chester (1954–1956), with a vaulted plaster ceiling and narrow colored windows, and the Art Gallery of the University of Nebraska (1963). However, his major buildings in the 1970, such as IDS Center in Minneapolis (1973) and Pennzoil Place in Houston (1970–1976), were massive, sober, and entirely modernist. With the AT&T Building (now named ) (1978–1982), Johnson turned dramatically toward postmodernism. The building's most prominent feature is a purely decorative top modeled after a piece of Chippendale furniture, and it has other more subtle references to historical architecture. His intention was to make the building stand out as a corporate symbol among the modernist skyscrapers around it in Manhattan, and he succeeded; it became the best-known of all postmodern buildings. Soon afterward he completed another postmodern project,
PPG Place PPG Place is a complex in downtown Pittsburgh Downtown Pittsburgh, colloquially referred to as the Golden Triangle, and officially the Central Business District, is the urban downtown center of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the sta ...

PPG Place
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1979–1984), a complex of six glass buildings for the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. These buildings have neo-gothic features, including 231 glass spires, the largest of which is high. In 1995, he constructed a postmodern gatehouse pavilion for his residence,
Glass House Glass house or glass houses may refer to: Architecture * Greenhouse, a building where plants are cultivated * Glass works or glasshouse, a manufactory building used for glassblowing * Glasshouse (British Army), a term for a military prison in the U ...

Glass House
. The gatehouse, called "Da Monstra", is 23 feet high, made of gunite, or concrete shot from a hose, colored gray and red. It is a piece of sculptural architecture with no right angles and very few straight lines, a predecessor of the sculptural
contemporary architecture Contemporary architecture is the architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionn ...
of the 21st century.


Frank Gehry

File:Gehry House - Image02.jpg, Gehry residence in
Santa Monica Santa Monica () is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous counties in the United Stat ...

Santa Monica
(1978) File:Venice Beach House.jpg, Norton Beach House,
Venice, California Venice is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles within the Westside region of Los Angeles County, California. Venice was founded by Abbot Kinney in 1905 as a seaside resort town. It was an independent city until 1926, when it merged with Lo ...
(1983) File:Case danzanti.jpg, in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
(1996) File:Bilbao - Guggenheim aurore.jpg, ,
Bilbao ) , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = 275 px , map_caption = Interactive map outlining Bilbao , pushpin_map = Spain Basque Country#Spain#Europe , pushpin_map_caption ...

Bilbao
, Spain (1997)
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
(born 1929) was a major figure in postmodernist architecture, and is one of the most prominent figures in
contemporary architecture Contemporary architecture is the architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionn ...
. After studying at the
University of Southern California , mottoeng = "Let whoever earns the palm bear it" , religious_affiliation = Nonsectarian - Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious de ...

University of Southern California
in Los Angeles and then the
Harvard Graduate School of Design The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) is a graduate school File:CCMDonation49.JPG, Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes shortened to gra ...
, he opened his own office in Los Angeles in 1962. Beginning in the 1970s, he began using prefabricated industrial materials to construct unusual forms on private houses in Los Angeles, including, in 1978, his own house in Santa Monica. He broke their traditional design giving them an unfinished and unstable look. His Schnabel House in Los Angeles (1986–1989) was broken into individual structures, with a different structure for every room. His Norton Residence in Venice, California (1983) built for a writer and former lifeguard, had a workroom modeled after a lifeguard tower overlooking the Santa Monica beach. In his early buildings, different parts of the buildings were often different bright colors. In the 1980s he began to receive major commissions, including the
Loyola Law School Loyola Law School is the Law school in the United States, law school of Loyola Marymount University, a private Catholic university in Los Angeles, California. Loyola was established in 1920. Academics Degrees offered include the Juris Doctor ( ...
(1978–1984), and the California Aerospace Museum (1982–1984), then international commissions in the Netherlands and Czech Republic. His "Dancing House" in Prague (1996), constructed with an undulating façade of plaques of concrete; parts of the walls were composed of glass, which revealed the concrete pillars underneath. His most prominent project was the museum (1991–1997), clad in undulating skins of titanium, a material which until then was used mainly in building aircraft, which changed color depending upon the light. Gehry was often described as a proponent of
deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in ...
, but he refused to accept that or any other label for his work.


César Pelli

File:200LibertyStreet.jpg, 200 Liberty Street, formerly One World Financial Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(1986) File:Two_World_Financial_Center.jpg, 225 Liberty Street, formerly Two World Financial Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(1987) File:3_World_Financial_Center.jpg, 200 Vesey Street, formerly Three World Financial Center, and American Express Tower, in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(1985) File:Four_World_Financial_Center.jpg, 250 Vesey Street, formerly Four World Financial Center in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(1986) File:Petronas_Panorama_II.jpg, The Petronas Towers, also known as Petronas Twin Towers, in
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , su ...

Kuala Lumpur
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
(1996) File: London_MMB_S6_Canary_Wharf.jpg, One Canada Square in
Canary Wharf Canary Wharf is the secondary central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's " ...

Canary Wharf
,
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, (1991)
César Pelli César Pelli (October 12, 1926 – July 19, 2019) was an Argentine-American architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. Two of his most notable buildings are the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur an ...
(October 12, 1926 – July 19, 2019) was an Argentine architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. Two of his most notable projects are the
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
in
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , su ...

Kuala Lumpur
and the in New York City. The
American Institute of Architects The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection ...
named him one of the ten most influential living American architects in 1991 and awarded him the
AIA Gold Medal The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred "by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture." It is the Insti ...
in 1995. In 2008, the
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st c ...
presented him with The Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1977, Pelli was selected to be the dean of the
Yale School of Architecture The Yale School of Architecture (YSOA) is one of the constituent professional schools of Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to ...
in
New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
, and served in that post until 1984. Shortly after Pelli arrived at Yale, he won the commission to design the expansion and renovation of the
Museum of Modern Art The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street (Manhattan), 53rd Street between Fifth Avenue, Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art ...
in New York, which resulted in the establishment of his own firm, Cesar Pelli & Associates. The museum's expansion/renovation and the Museum of Modern Art Residential Tower were completed 1984; the World Financial Center in New York, which includes the grand public space of the Winter Garden, was completed in 1988. Among other significant projects during this period are the Crile Clinic Building in Cleveland, Ohio, completed 1984; Herring Hall at Rice University in Houston, Texas (also completed 1984); completion in 1988 of the Green Building at the Pacific Design Center in West Hollywood, California; and the construction of the Wells Fargo Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1989. Pelli was named one of the ten most influential living American Architects by the
American Institute of Architects The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection ...
in 1991. In 1995, he was awarded the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. In May 2004, Pelli was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the
University of Minnesota Duluth The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that ...
where he designed Weber Music Hall. In 2005, Pelli was honored with the Connecticut Architecture Foundation's Distinguished Leadership Award. Buildings designed by Pelli during this period are marked by further experimentation with a variety of materials (most prominently
stainless steel Stainless steel is a group of ferrous alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistr ...
) and his evolution of the skyscraper.
One Canada Square One Canada Square is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universall ...

One Canada Square
at Canary Wharf in London (opened in 1991); Plaza Tower in Costa Mesa, California (completed 1991); and the NTT Headquarters in Tokyo (finished 1995) were preludes to a landmark project that Pelli designed for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The
Petronas Towers The Petronas Towers, or the Petronas Twin Towers ( ms, Menara Petronas, or ), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pu ...

Petronas Towers
were completed in 1997, sheathed in stainless steel and reflecting Islamic design motifs. The dual towers were the world's tallest buildings until 2004. That year, Pelli received the
Aga Khan Award for Architecture The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) is an List of architecture prizes, architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It aims to identify and reward architecture, architectural concepts that successfully address the needs and aspir ...
for the design of the Petronas Towers Pelli's design for the National Museum of Art in
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
, Japan, was completed 2005, the same year that Pelli's firm changed its name to Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects to reflect the growing roles of senior principals Fred W. Clarke and Pelli's son Rafael.


Postmodernism in Europe

File:Neue Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.jpg, The in
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
, Germany, by James Stirling (1977–1983) File:Hanse Viertel - panoramio (1).jpg, Hanse-Viertel, a store gallery in
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
, Northern Germany, by
Gerkan, Marg and Partners Gerkan, Marg & Partners (gmp) is an international architectural company based in Hamburg, Germany. The company was founded in 1965 by Meinhard von Gerkan and Volkwin Marg, and now has more than 300 employees in 13 offices. Notable projects ...
(1980) Stuttgart HochschuleFuerMusikUndDarstellendeKunst.jpg, State University of Music and Performing Arts in Stuttgart, Germany by James Stirling (1980s) File:Amoreiras Shopping Center (4841844895).jpg, Amoreiras towers in
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, by Tomás Taveira (1985) File:1 Poultry.jpg,
No 1 Poultry No 1 Poultry is a building in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primar ...

No 1 Poultry
, an office building and shops in London, by James Stirling (completed 1997) File:National Gallery London Sainsbury Wing 2006-04-17.jpg, Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery, London, National Gallery in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
by Robert Venturi (1991) File:01-01-2014 - Messeturm - trade fair tower - Frankfurt- Germany - 04.jpg, Messeturm in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany, by Helmut Jahn, (completed 1991) File:Messeturm, Frankfurt, Southwest detail view 20170325 1.jpg, Top of the Messeturm in Frankfurt File:Secret Intelligence Service building - Vauxhall Cross - Vauxhall - London - 24042004.jpg, The SIS Building in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, UK, by Terry Farrell (architect), Terry Farrell (1994) File:Groningen, het Groninger museum positie1 foto8 2015-03-22 10.20.jpg, The Groninger Museum, Netherlands, by Alessandro Mendini et al., (completed 1994) File:Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology, Krakow, Poland.jpg, Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology in Cracow, Poland, by
Arata Isozaki Arata Isozaki (磯崎 新, ''Isozaki Arata''; born 23 July 1931) is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered de ...

Arata Isozaki
and Krzysztof Ingarden (1994) File:Bonnefantenmuseum.jpg, The Bonnefanten Museum in Maastricht, the Netherlands by
Aldo Rossi Aldo Rossi (3 May 1931 – 4 September 1997) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of ...
(1995) File:Antigone Esplanade de l'Europe.jpg, Antigone, Montpellier, France, by
Ricardo Bofill Ricardo Bofill Leví (; born ) is a Spanish architect. He founded Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura in 1963 and developed it into a leading international architectural and urban design practice. According to architectural historian Andrew Aye ...
, completed 1992
While postmodernism was best known as an American style, notable examples also appeared in Europe. In 1991 Robert Venturi completed the Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery, London, National Gallery in London, which was modern but harmonized with the neoclassical architecture in and around Trafalgar Square. The German-born architect Helmut Jahn (1940-2021) constructed the Messeturm skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany, a skyscraper adorned with the pointed spire of a medieval tower. One of the early postmodernist architects in Europe was James Stirling (1926–1992). He was a first critic of modernist architecture, blaming modernism for the destruction of British cities in the years after World War II. He designed colorful public housing projects in the postmodern style, as well as the in
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
, Germany (1977–1983) and the Kammertheater in Stuttgart (1977–1982), as well as the Arthur M. Sackler Museum at Harvard University in the United States. One of the most visible examples of the postmodern style in Europe is the SIS Building in London by Terry Farrell (architect), Terry Farrell (1994). The building, next to the Thames, is the headquarters of the British Secret Intelligence Service. In 1992, Deyan Sudjic described it in ''The Guardian'' as an "epitaph for the 'architecture of the eighties. ... It's a design which combines high seriousness in its classical composition with a possible unwitting sense of humour. The building could be interpreted equally plausibly as a Mayan temple or a piece of clanking art deco machinery'. The Italian architect
Aldo Rossi Aldo Rossi (3 May 1931 – 4 September 1997) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of ...
(1931–1997) was known for his postmodern works in Europe, the Bonnefanten Museum in Maastricht, the Netherlands, completed in 1995. Rossi was the first Italian to win the most prestigious award in architecture, the Pritzker Prize, in 1990. He was noted for combining rigorous and pure forms with evocative and symbolic elements taken from classical architecture. The Spanish architect
Ricardo Bofill Ricardo Bofill Leví (; born ) is a Spanish architect. He founded Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura in 1963 and developed it into a leading international architectural and urban design practice. According to architectural historian Andrew Aye ...
(born 1939) is also known for his early postmodern works, including a residential complex in the form of a castle with red walls at Calp on the coast of Spain (1973). The works of Austrian architect Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928-2000) are occasionally considered a special expression of postmodern architecture.


Postmodernism in Japan

File:Inside of The Museum for wood culture.JPG, The Museum of Wood Culture by Tadao Ando (1995) File:150505 Benesse House Park Naoshima Kagawa pref Japan02n.jpg, Bennesse House in Naoshima, Kagawa, Japan by Tadao Ando File:水戸芸術館 - panoramio (1).jpg, Art Tower Mito, Art Tower in Mito, Ibaraki by Isozaki Arata (1986–1990) File:Kyoto Concert Hall02n3200.jpg, Kyoto Concert Hall in Kyoto, Japan by Isozaki Arata (1995) File:Kyoto Station November 2016 -02.jpg, Kyoto Train Station in Kyoto by Hiroshi Hara (architect), Hiroshi Hara (1991–1997) The Japanese architects Tadao Ando (born 1941) and Isozaki Arata (born 1931) introduced the ideas of the postmodern movement to Japan. Before opening his studio in Osaka in 1969, Ando traveled widely in North America, Africa and Europe, absorbing European and American styles, and had no formal architectural education, though he taught later at Yale University (1987), Columbia University (1988) and Harvard University (1990). Most of his buildings were constructed of raw concrete in cubic forms, but had wide openings which brought in light and views of the nature outside. Beginning in the 1990s, he began using wood as a building material, and introduced elements of traditional Japanese architecture, particularly in his design of the Museum of Wood Culture (1995). His Bennesse House in Naoshima, Kagama, has elements of classic Japanese architecture and a plan which subtly integrates the house into the natural landscape, He won the Pritzker Prize, the most prestigious award in architecture, in 1995. Isozaki Arata worked two years in the studio of Kenzo Tange (1913-2005), before opening his own firm in Tokyo in 1963. His Museum of Contemporary Art in Nagi artfully combined wood, stone and metal, and joined together three geometric forms, a cylinder, a half-cylinder and an extended block, to present three different artists in different settings. His Art Tower Mito, Art Tower in Mito, Ibaraki, Mito, Japan (1986-1990) featured a postmodernist Titanium and Stainless Steel tower that rotated upon its own axis. In addition to museums and cultural centers in Japan, he designed the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (MOCA), (1981–1986), and the COSI Columbus science museum and research center in Columbus, Ohio.


Concert halls – Sydney Opera House and the Berlin Philharmonic

File:Opera House and ferry. Sydney.jpg, The Sydney Opera House by Jørn Utzon (1957–1973) File:Philharmonie 1a.jpg, Facade of the Berliner Philharmonie by Hans Scharoun (1963) File:Berliner Philharmoniker.jpg, "Vineyard Style"; The orchestra surrounded by the audience in the Berlin Philharmonic The Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia, by the Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918–2008), is one of the most recognizable of all works of postwar architecture, and spans the transition from modernism to postmodernism. Construction began in 1957, but it was not completed until 1973 due to difficult engineering problems and growing costs. The giant shells of concrete soar over the platforms which form the roof of the hall itself. The architect resigned before the structure was completed, and the interior was designed largely after he left the project. The influence of the Sydney Opera House, can be seen in later concert halls with soaring roofs made of undulating stainless steel. One of the most influential buildings of the Postmodern period was the Berlin Philharmonic, designed by Hans Scharoun (1893–1972) and completed in 1963. The exterior, with its sloping roofs and glided façade, was a distinct break from the earlier, more austere modernist concert halls. The real revolution was inside, where Hans Scharoun, Scharoun placed the orchestra in the center, with the audience seated on terraces around it. He described it this way: "The form given to the hall is inspired by a landscape; In the center is a valley, at the bottom of which is found the orchestra. Around it on all sides rise the terraces, like vineyards. Corresponding to an earthly landscape, the ceiling above appears like a sky." Following his description, future concert halls, such as the Walt Disney Concert Hall by
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
in Los Angeles, and the Philharmonie de Paris of Jean Nouvel (2015) used the term "vineyard style" and placed the orchestra in the center, instead of on a stage at the end of the hall.


Characteristics

File:Staatsgalerie1.jpg, Complexity and Contradiction. The by James Stirling in Stuttgart, Germany (1977-1984). File:Cambridge University Judge Business School interior.jpg, Colour. Interior of Cambridge Judge Business School in Cambridge, UK by John Outram (1995) File:052607-006-Chiat-Day.jpg, Humour. Binoculars Building in Venice neighbourhood of Los Angeles by
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
and sculptor Claes Oldenberg (1991-2001) File:OSU Wexner Center.JPG, Fragmentation. Wexner Center by
Peter Eisenman Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932) is an American architect. Considered one of the New York Five, Eisenman is known for his writing and speaking about architecture as well as his designs, which have been called high modernist or deconstructiv ...
(1989) File:Wdw-dolphin-hotel.jpg, Camp. Hotel Dolphin by
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
, Walt Disney World Florida (1987)


Complexity and contradiction

Postmodern architecture first emerged as a reaction against the doctrines of
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
, as expressed by modernist architects including Le Corbusier and
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
. In place of the modernist doctrines of simplicity as expressed by Mies in his famous "less is more;" and functionality, "form follows function" and the doctrine of Le Corbusier that "a house is a machine to live in," postmodernism, in the words Robert Venturi, offered complexity and contradiction. Postmodern buildings had curved forms, decorative elements, asymmetry, bright colours, and features often borrowed from earlier periods. Colours and textures were unrelated to the structure or function of the building. Rejecting the "puritanism" of modernism, it called for a return to ornament, and an accumulation of citations and collages borrowed from past styles. It borrowed freely from classical architecture, rococo, neoclassical architecture, the Vienna Secession, the British Arts and Crafts movement, the German Jugendstil. Postmodern buildings often combined astonishing new forms and features with seemingly contradictory elements of classicism. James Stirling the architect of the in Stuttgart, Germany (1984), described the style as "representation and abstraction, monumental and informal, traditional and high-tech."


Fragmentation

Postmodern architecture often breaks large buildings into several different structures and forms, sometimes representing different functions of those parts of the building. With the use of different materials and styles, a single building can appear like a small town or village. An example is the Abteiberg Museum by Hans Hollein in Mönchengladbach (1972–1974).


Asymmetric and oblique forms

Asymmetric forms are one of the trademarks of postmodernism. In 1968, the French architect Claude Parent and philosopher Paul Virilio designed the church Saint-Bernadette-du-Banlay in Nevers, France, in the form of a massive block of concrete leaning to one side. Describing the form, they wrote: "a diagonal line on a white page can be a hill, or a mountain, or slope, an ascent, or a descent." Parent's buildings were inspired in part by concrete German blockhouses he discovered on the French coast which had slid down the cliffs, but were perfectly intact, with leaning walls and sloping floors. Postmodernist compositions are rarely symmetric, balanced and orderly. Oblique buildings which tilt, lean, and seem about to fall over are common.


Colour

Colour is an important element in many postmodern buildings; to give the façades variety and personality, coloured glass is sometimes used, or ceramic tiles, or stone. The buildings of Mexican architect Luis Barragan offer bright sunlight colours that give life to the forms.


Humour and "camp"

Humour is a particular feature of many postmodern buildings, particularly in the United States. An example is the Binoculars Building in the Venice neighbourhood of Los Angeles, designed by
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
in collaboration with the sculptor Claes Oldenberg (1991–2001). The gateway of the building is in the form of an enormous pair of binoculars; cars enter the garage passing under the binoculars. Camp (style), "Camp" humor was popular during the postmodern period; it was an ironic humour based on the premise that something could appear so bad (such as a building that appeared about to collapse) that it was good. In 1964, American critic Susan Sontag defined camp as a style which put its accent on the texture, the surface, and style to the detriment of the content, which adored exaggeration, and things which were not what they seemed. Postmodern architecture sometimes used the same sense of theatricality, sense of the absurd and exaggeration of forms. The aims of Postmodernism, which include solving the problems of Modernism, communicating meanings with ambiguity, and sensitivity for the building's context, are surprisingly unified for a period of buildings designed by architects who largely never collaborated with each other. These aims do, however, leave room for diverse implementations as can be illustrated by the variety of buildings created during the movement.


Theories of postmodern architecture

The characteristics of postmodernism allow its aim to be expressed in diverse ways. These characteristics include the use of sculptural forms, ornaments, anthropomorphism and materials which perform ''trompe-l'œil''. These physical characteristics are combined with conceptual characteristics of meaning. These characteristics of meaning include pluralism, double coding, flying buttresses and high ceilings, irony and paradox, and contextualism. The sculptural forms, not necessarily organic (model), organic, were created with much ardor. These can be seen in Hans Hollein's Abteiberg Museum (1972–1982). The building is made up of several building units, all very different. Each building's forms are nothing like the conforming rigid ones of Modernism. These forms are sculptural and are somewhat playful. These forms are not reduced to an absolute minimum; they are built and shaped for their own sake. The building units all fit together in a very organic way, which enhances the effect of the forms. After many years of neglect, ornament returned.
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
's Venice Beach house, built in 1986, is littered with small ornamental details that would have been considered excessive and needless in Modernism. The Venice Beach House has an assembly of circular logs which exist mostly for decoration. The logs on top do have a minor purpose of holding up the window covers. However, the mere fact that they could have been replaced with a practically invisible nail, makes their exaggerated existence largely ornamental. The ornament in
Michael Graves Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect, designer, and educator, as well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. He was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis G ...

Michael Graves
' Portland Building, Portland Municipal Services Building ("Portland Building") (1980) is even more prominent. The two obtruding triangular forms are largely ornamental. They exist for aesthetic or their own purpose. Postmodernism, with its sensitivity to the building's context, did not exclude the needs of humans from the building. Carlo Scarpa's Brion Cemetery (1970–1972) exemplifies this. The human requirements of a cemetery is that it possesses a solemn nature, yet it must not cause the visitor to become depressed. Scarpa's cemetery achieves the solemn mood with the dull gray colors of the walls and neatly defined forms, but the bright green grass prevents this from being too overwhelming. Postmodern buildings sometimes utilize ''trompe-l'œil'', creating the illusion of space or depths where none actually exist, as has been done by painters since the Roman art, Romans. The Portland Building (1980) has pillars represented on the side of the building that to some extent appear to be real, yet they are not. The Hood Museum of Art (1981–1983) has a typical symmetrical façade which was at the time prevalent throughout Postmodern Buildings. Robert Venturi's
Vanna Venturi House The Vanna Venturi House, one of the first prominent works of the postmodern architecture movement, is located in the neighborhood of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Chestnut Hill in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was designed by archit ...
(1962–1964) illustrates the Postmodernist aim of communicating a meaning and the characteristic of symbolism. The façade is, according to Venturi, a symbolic picture of a house, looking back to the 18th century. This is partly achieved through the use of symmetry and the arch over the entrance. Perhaps the best example of irony in Postmodern buildings is Charles Willard Moore, Charles Moore's Piazza d'Italia (1978). Moore quotes (architecturally) elements of Italian renaissance and Roman architecture, Roman Antiquity. However, he does so with a twist. The irony comes when it is noted that the pillars are covered with steel. It is also paradoxical in the way he quotes Italian antiquity far away from the original in
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
. ''Double coding'' meant the buildings convey many meanings simultaneously. The Sony Building (New York), Sony Building in New York does this very well. The building is a tall skyscraper which brings with it connotations of very modern technology. Yet, the top contradicts this. The top section conveys elements of classical antiquity. This double coding is a prevalent trait of Postmodernism. The characteristics of Postmodernism were rather unified given their diverse appearances. The most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant forms and the humour of the meanings the buildings conveyed. Postmodern architecture as an international style – the first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950s – but did not become a movement until the late 1970s and continues to influence present-day architecture. Postmodernity in architecture is said to be heralded by the return of "wit, ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of the International style (architecture), International Style of modernism. As with many cultural movements, some of Postmodernism's most pronounced and visible ideas can be seen in architecture. The Functionalism (architecture), functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the Modernism, modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. Perhaps most obviously, architects rediscovered past architectural ornament and forms which had been abstracted by the Modernist architects. Postmodern architecture has also been described as neo-eclectic architecture, neo-eclectic, where reference and ornament have returned to the façade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles. This eclecticism is often combined with the use of non-orthogonal angles and unusual surfaces, most famously in the Neue Staatsgalerie, State Gallery of Stuttgart by James Stirling and the Piazza d'Italia by Charles Willard Moore, Charles Moore. The Scottish Parliament Building in Edinburgh has also been cited as being of postmodern vogue. Modernist architecture, Modernist architects may regard postmodern buildings as vulgar, associated with a populist ethic, and sharing the design elements of shopping malls, cluttered with "wiktionary:gewgaw, gew-gaws". Postmodern architects may regard many modern buildings as soulless and bland, overly simplistic and abstract. This contrast was exemplified in the juxtaposition of the "whites" against the "grays," in which the "whites" were seeking to continue (or revive) the modernist tradition of purism and clarity, while the "grays" were embracing a more multifaceted cultural vision, seen in
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
's statement rejecting the "black or white" world view of modernism in favor of "black and white and sometimes gray." The divergence in opinions comes down to a difference in goals: modernism is rooted in minimal and true use of material as well as Ornament and crime, absence of ornament, while postmodernism is a rejection of strict rules set by the early modernists and seeks meaning and expression in the use of building techniques, forms, and stylistic references. One building form that typifies the explorations of Postmodernism is the traditional gable roof, in place of the iconic flat roof of modernism. Shedding water away from the center of the building, such a roof form always served a functional purpose in climates with rain and snow, and was a logical way to achieve larger spans with shorter structural members, but it was nevertheless relatively rare in Modernist buildings. However, Postmodernism's own modernist roots appear in some of the noteworthy examples of "reclaimed" roofs. For instance, Robert Venturi's
Vanna Venturi House The Vanna Venturi House, one of the first prominent works of the postmodern architecture movement, is located in the neighborhood of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Chestnut Hill in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was designed by archit ...
breaks the gable in the middle, denying the functionality of the form, and Philip Johnson's 1001 Fifth Avenue building in Manhattan advertises a mansard roof form as an obviously flat, false front. Another alternative to the flat roofs of modernism would exaggerate a traditional roof to call even more attention to it, as when Kallmann McKinnell & Wood's American Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts, layers three tiers of low hipped roof forms one above another for an emphatic statement of shelter.


Relationship to previous styles

A new trend became evident in the last quarter of the 20th century as some architects started to turn away from modern Functionalism (architecture), functionalism which they viewed as boring, and which some of the public considered unwelcoming and even unpleasant. These architects turned toward the past, quoting past aspects of various buildings and melding them together (even sometimes in an inharmonious manner) to create a new means of designing buildings. A vivid example of this new approach was that Postmodernism saw the comeback of columns and other elements of premodern designs, sometimes adapting classical Greek and Roman examples. In Modernism, the traditional column (as a design feature) was treated as a cylindrical pipe form, replaced by other technological means such as cantilevers, or masked completely by curtain wall (architecture), curtain wall façades. The revival of the column was an aesthetic, rather than a technological necessity. Modernist high-rise buildings had become in most instances monolithic architecture, monolithic, rejecting the concept of a stack of varied design elements for a single vocabulary from ground level to the top, in the most extreme cases even using a constant "footprint" (with no tapering or "wedding cake" design), with the building sometimes even suggesting the possibility of a single metallic extrusion directly from the ground, mostly by eliminating visual horizontal elements—this was seen most strictly in Minoru Yamasaki's World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Center buildings. Another return was that of the "wit, ornament and reference" seen in older buildings in terra cotta decorative façades and bronze or stainless steel embellishments of the Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts and Art Deco periods. In Postmodern structures this was often achieved by placing contradictory quotes of previous building styles alongside each other, and even incorporating furniture stylistic references at a huge scale. Contextualism, a trend in thinking in the later parts of 20th century, influences the ideologies of the postmodern movement in general. Contextualism is centered on the belief that all knowledge is "context-sensitive". This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be understood without considering its context. While noteworthy examples of modern architecture responded both subtly and directly to their physical context, postmodern architecture often addressed the context in terms of the materials, forms and details of the buildings around it—the cultural context.


Roots of postmodernism

The postmodernist movement is often seen (especially in the US) as an American movement, starting in United States, America around the 1960s–1970s and then spreading to Europe and the rest of the world, to remain right through to the present. In 1966, however, the architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner spoke of a revived Expressionism as being "a new style, successor to my International Modern of the 1930s, a post-modern style", and included as examples Le Corbusier's work at Ronchamp and Chandigarh, Denys Lasdun at the Royal College of Physicians in London, Richard Sheppard (architect), Richard Sheppard at Churchill College, Cambridge, and James Stirling's and James Gowan's Leicester Engineering Building, as well as
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
's own guest house at New Canaan, Connecticut. Pevsner disapproved of these buildings for their self-expression and irrationalism, but he acknowledged them as "the legitimate style of the 1950s and 1960s" and defined their characteristics. The job of defining Postmodernism was subsequently taken over by a younger generation who welcomed rather than rejected what they saw happening and, in the case of
Robert Venturi The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hrōþ, Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory ...
, contributed to it. The aims of postmodernism or late-modernism begin with its reaction to modernism; it tries to address the limitations of its predecessor. The list of aims is extended to include communicating ideas with the public often in a then humorous or witty way. Often, the communication is done by quoting extensively from past architectural styles, often many at once. In breaking away from modernism, it also strives to produce buildings that are sensitive to the context within which they are built. Postmodernism has its origins in the perceived failure of
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
. Its preoccupation with functionalism and economical building meant that ornaments were done away with and the buildings were cloaked in a stark rational appearance. Many felt the buildings failed to meet the human need for comfort both for body and for the eye, that modernism did not account for the desire for beauty. The problem worsened when some already monotonous apartment blocks degenerated into slums. In response, architects sought to reintroduce ornament, color, decoration and human scale to buildings. Form was no longer to be defined solely by its functional requirements or minimal appearance.


Changing pedagogies

Critics of the reductionism of modernism often noted the abandonment of the teaching of architectural history as a causal factor. The fact that a number of the major players in the shift away from modernism were trained at Princeton University's School of Architecture, where recourse to history continued to be a part of design training in the 1940s and 1950s, was significant. The increasing rise of interest in history had a profound impact on architectural education. History courses became more typical and regularized. With the demand for professors knowledgeable in the history of architecture, program were developed including the Advanced Masters-Level Course in the History and Theory of Architecture offered by Dalibor Vesely and Joseph Rykwert at the University of Essex in England between 1968 and 1978. It was the first of its kind. Other programs followed suit, including several PhD programs in schools of architecture that arose to differentiate themselves from art history PhD programs, where architectural historians had previously trained. In the US, MIT and Cornell were the first, created in the mid-1970s, followed by Columbia University, Columbia, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, and Princeton University, Princeton. Among the founders of new architectural history programs were Bruno Zevi at the Institute for the History of Architecture in Venice, Stanford Anderson and Henry Millon at MIT, Alexander Tzonis at the Architectural Association, Anthony Vidler at Princeton, Manfredo Tafuri at the University of Venice, Kenneth Frampton at Columbia University, and Werner Oechslin and Kurt Forster at ETH Zürich. The creation of these programs was paralleled by the hiring, in the 1970s, of professionally trained historians by schools of architecture: Margaret Crawford (with a PhD from UCLA) at Southern California Institute of Architecture, SCI-Arc; Elisabeth Grossman (PhD, Brown University) at Rhode Island School of Design; Christian Otto (PhD, Columbia University) at Cornell University; Richard Chafee (PhD, Courtauld Institute) at Roger Williams University; and Howard Burns (MA Kings College) at Harvard, to name just a few examples. A second generation of scholars then emerged that began to extend these efforts in the direction of what is now called "theory": K. Michael Hays (PhD, MIT) at Harvard, Mark Wigley (PhD, Auckland University) at Princeton (now at Columbia University), and Beatriz Colomina (PhD, School of Architecture, Barcelona) at Princeton; Mark Jarzombek (PhD MIT) at Cornell (now at MIT), Jennifer Bloomer (PhD, Georgia Tech) at Iowa State and Catherine Ingraham (PhD, Johns Hopkins) now at Pratt Institute. Postmodernism with its diversity possesses sensitivity to the building's context and history, and the client's requirements. The postmodernist architects often considered the general requirements of the urban buildings and their surroundings during the building's design. For example, in
Frank Gehry Frank Owen Gehry, , FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to in ...
's ''Venice Beach House'', the neighboring houses have a similar bright flat color. This vernacular sensitivity is often evident, but other times the designs respond to more high-style neighbors. James Stirling's Arthur M. Sackler Museum at Harvard University features a rounded corner and striped brick patterning that relate to the form and decoration of the polychromatic Victorian Memorial Hall across the street, although in neither case is the element imitative or historicist.


Subsequent movements

Following the postmodern riposte against modernism, various trends in architecture established, though not necessarily following principles of postmodernism. Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach toward construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, Vernacular architecture, architectural tradition and Classical architecture, classical design. This in contrast to Modern architecture, modernist and International Style (architecture), globally uniform architecture, as well as leaning against solitary housing estates and Urban sprawl, suburban sprawl. Both trends started in the 1980s. The Driehaus Architecture Prize is an award that recognizes efforts in New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture, and is endowed with a prize money twice as high as that of the modernist Pritzker Architecture Prize, Pritzker Prize. Some postmodern architects, such as Robert A. M. Stern and Albert, Righter, & Tittman, have moved from postmodern design to new interpretations of traditional architecture. The Neo-Andean style takes a similar approach to ornamentation as broader postmodernism. First brought to attention in 1996, the style is notable for being designed and championed by indigenous Indigenous peoples of Peru, Peruvians and Indigenous peoples of Bolivia, Bolivians, and takes inspiration from ancient Inca and Andean designs.


Postmodern architects

Some of the best-known and influential architects in the Postmodern style are:


Other examples of postmodern architecture

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César Pelli César Pelli (October 12, 1926 – July 19, 2019) was an Argentine-American architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. Two of his most notable buildings are the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur an ...
, completed 1988 File:San Francisco Marriott Marquis.jpg, Marriott Marquis, San Francisco, CA. Completed 1989 File:JacksonvilleCenter-2010-07-a.JPG, SunTrust Tower in Jacksonville, Florida, Jacksonville, by KBJ Architects, completed 1989 File:100 East Wisconsin building, side.jpg, 100 East Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by Clark, Tribble, Harris & Li, completed 1989 File:Harold Washington Library, Chicago, IL - front oblique.jpg, The Harold Washington Library in Chicago, Illinois, by Hammond, Beeby & Babka, completed 1991 File:Comericatower.jpg, One Detroit Center in Detroit, by John Burgee and
Philip Johnson Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect best known for his works of Modern architecture, modern and postmodern architecture. Among his best known designs are his modernist Glass House in New Canaan, ...

Philip Johnson
, completed 1993 File:Frankfurt Am Main-Westend Tower-Ansicht vom Maintower.jpg, Westendstrasse 1 in Frankfurt, by William Pedersen (architect), William Pedersen, completed 1993 File:Roy E. Disney Animation Building.jpg, The Walt Disney Animation Studios#Locations, Roy E. Disney Animation Building in Burbank, California, by Robert A. M. Stern, completed 1995 File:British library london.jpg, The British Library in
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César Pelli César Pelli (October 12, 1926 – July 19, 2019) was an Argentine-American architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. Two of his most notable buildings are the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur an ...
, completed 1999 File:L'Auberge du Lac Lake Charles.JPG, L'Auberge du Lac Resort in Lake Charles, Louisiana, by Joel Bergman, completed 2005 File:Casinò di Campione, day.jpg, Casinò di Campione in Campione d'Italia, by Mario Botta, completed 2007 File:One Towne Square Southfield.jpg, One Towne Square in Southfield, Michigan.


See also

* Neohistorism, a reference style to historical architecture, emerged from Postmodernism. It attempts at creating more accurate references of historical architecture styles. * Third Bay Tradition * Charles Jencks


Footnotes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * ''Learning from Las Vegas: The Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form''. Robert Venturi, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977 * ''History of Post-Modern Architecture''. Heinrich Klotz, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.


Further reading


''Postmodern Architecture: Restoring Context'' Princeton University Lecture



External links



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{{DEFAULTSORT:Postmodern Architecture Postmodern architecture, 20th-century architectural styles Architectural styles House styles