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A pitch or a sports ground is an outdoor playing area for various
sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectato ...

sport
s. The term ''pitch'' is most commonly used in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
, while the comparable term in
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
and
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of alg ...
is playing field or sports field. For most sports the official term is field of play, although this is not regularly used by those outside refereeing/umpiring circles. The field of play generally includes out-of-bounds areas that a player is likely to enter while playing a match, such as the area beyond the
touchlineThe touch-line is the line on either side of the playing area of a games of rugby league, rugby union Rugby union, commonly known simply as rugby, is a Contact sport#Terminology, full-contact team sport that originated in England in the first ...
s in
association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain ...
and
rugby Rugby may refer to: Sports Rugby codes * Rugby football in various forms: ** Rugby league: 13 players per side *** Masters Rugby League *** Mod league *** Rugby league nines *** Rugby league sevens *** Touch (sport) *** Wheelchair rugby league ** ...
or the
sidelines The "sidelines" are the white or colored lines which mark the outer boundaries of a sports field, running parallel to each other and perpendicular to the goal lines.http://www.sportingcharts.com/dictionary/nfl/sidelines.aspx The sidelines are al ...
in
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...

American
and
Canadian football Canadian football () is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other ...

Canadian football
, or the "
foul territory Image:Nook logan foul ball.jpg, 300px, Nook Logan, of the Erie SeaWolves, hitting a foul ball during a game against the Reading Phillies on July 2, 2006. In baseball, a foul ball is a batted ball that: * Settles on foul territory between home and f ...
" in
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at ...

baseball
. The surface of a pitch is most commonly composed of
sod (grass)
sod (grass)
, but may also be
artificial turf Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are normally played on grass. However, it is now being used on residential lawns and commerc ...
,
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
,
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
,
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone Crushed may refer to ...

gravel
,
concrete Concrete is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a ter ...

concrete
, or other materials. A playing field on
ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , eve ...

ice
may be referred to as a ''rink'', for example an
ice hockey rink An ice hockey rink is an ice rink An ice rink (or ice skating rink) is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, bandy, ...
, although ''rink'' may also refer to the entire building or, in the sport of
curling Curling is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit bet ...
, to either the building or a particular team. In the sport of
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
, the
cricket pitch In the game of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each compr ...

cricket pitch
refers not to the entire field of play, but to the section of the field on which batting and bowling take place in the centre of the field. The pitch is prepared differently from the rest of the field, to provide a harder surface for bowling. A pitch is often a
regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems A complex system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way e ...
space, as in an
association football pitch A football pitch (also known as a football field or soccer field) is the playing surface for the game of association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a sphere, ...
. The term level playing field is also used metaphorically to mean fairness in non-sporting human activities such as business where there are notional winners and losers.


Fields of play in various sports


Field sizes


Game Court

Game Court is one of the names for a multi-sport athletic space, typically constructed outdoors, where such games as
basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, ...

basketball
,
volleyball Volleyball is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoym ...

volleyball
,
paddle tennis Paddle tennis (Rebranded as Pop Tennis in 2015) is a game adapted from tennis and played for over a century. Compared to tennis, the court is smaller and has no doubles lanes, and the net is lower. Paddle tennis is played with a solid paddle as op ...
and other racquet sports, and up to a dozen more games and activities can be played. They are usually smaller than a regulation tennis (120' x 60')or basketball (84'x50')court, although there is no set dimensions or size for a game court. The game-court concept was popularized by Sport Court in the 1970s, and some generic references are made to game courts as 'sport courts', although that is a trademark of Connor Sport Court International, LLC. Game courts are often found in residential backyards, giving families and children opportunities for healthy recreation close to home. Game courts are usually constructed using a rectangular sub-base made from concrete or asphalt, then covered with an open-grid modular polypropylene (or similar) sports surface to improve safety. Most feature athletic equipment such as basketball goals, net systems for racquet sports, volleyball and badminton, lights for nighttime play, fencing or ball containment netting, hockey/soccer goals, lines or markings for various sports, and practice or training components can also be incorporated into the design.


Surface

The surface of a game court—as opposed to simply playing on concrete or asphalt—is designed for safe play and to reduce injury. Many people have started to use suspended athletic courts to cover old athletic courts like tennis courts and basketball courts. The surface should provide appropriate traction for various types of sports and activities, as well as shock or force reduction to minimize overuse and stress injuries. Game courts are typically custom-designed to the interests of the family or organization, and are versatile in enabling a wide variety of sports to be played in a relatively small space. Some activities played on a game court are enjoyable modifications of other sports (such as short-court tennis) that allow for similar skills to be developed as the 'regulation' game, but on a reduced-scale court size. A typical game court of might include a basketball key and 3-point line arranged around a hoop, overlaid by short-court tennis or
pickleball Pickleball is a paddleball sport (similar to a racquet sport) that combines elements of badminton Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net (device), net. Although it may be played with larger tea ...
lines (which can also be used for
volleyball Volleyball is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoym ...

volleyball
or
badminton Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock Plastic shuttlecock A shuttlecock (also called a bird or birdie) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton Badminton is a racquet sport played ...

badminton
) along the longer dimension.


Ball containment

Game courts for private use will frequently be built with a high fence surrounding the surface to allow for containment of the ball used in play, and, if required, to prevent people from entering. Any of several materials have been used, including
chain-link fencing A chain-link fence (also referred to as wire netting, wire-mesh fence, chain-wire fence, cyclone fence, hurricane fence, or diamond-mesh fence) is a type of woven fence A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and ...
,
welded wire mesh fence Welded wire mesh fence is a steel fence consisting of wire strands electrically welded together to form a high strength mesh. The fencing is available in two formats: Rolled mesh and Rigid mesh. Over the last 30 years Rigid Mesh Fencing has become ...

welded wire mesh fence
, and fabric mesh or netting.


See also

*
Line marker (sports) A line marker is a device or machine with which lines or markings are drawn on a sports field or Pitch (sports field), pitch. They were originally developed to mark out lawn tennis courts on grass, but later also became used in many other sports w ...


References


External links


Rules and dimensions
{{DEFAULTSORT:Pitch (Sports) Sports terminology Sports venues by type Playing field surfaces Association football venues