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Physical chemistry is the study of
macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments. It is the opposite of microscopic The microscopic scale (from , ''mikrós'', "sm ...
and particulate phenomena in
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
such as
motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position (mathematics), position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of Displacem ...
,
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...

energy
,
force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to acce ...

force
,
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

time
,
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ...

thermodynamics
,
quantum chemistry Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: thei ...
,
statistical mechanics In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
,
analytical dynamics In classical mechanics, analytical dynamics, or more briefly dynamics, is concerned with the relationship between motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which ...
and chemical equilibria. Physical chemistry, in contrast to
chemical physics Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic, molecular, and optical physics, atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of ...
, is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone (for example, chemical equilibrium and
colloids A colloid is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior ...
). Some of the relationships that physical chemistry strives to resolve include the effects of: #
Intermolecular force An intermolecular force (IMF) (or secondary force) is the force that mediates interaction between molecules, including the Electromagnetism, electromagnetic forces of attraction or repulsion which act between atoms and other types of neighboring pa ...

Intermolecular force
s that act upon the physical properties of materials (
plasticity Plasticity may refer to: Science * Plasticity (physics), in engineering and physics, the propensity of a solid material to undergo permanent deformation under load * Neuroplasticity, in neuroscience, how entire brain structures, and the brain its ...
,
tensile strength In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spa ...
,
surface tension Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces at rest to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. Surface tension is what allows objects with a higher density than water such as razor blades and insects (e.g. Gerridae, water strid ...

surface tension
in
liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, ...

liquid
s). #
Reaction kinetics Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a pro ...
on the rate of a reaction. # The identity of ions and the
electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particle In p ...

electrical conductivity
of materials. #
Surface science 250px, STM image of a self-assembled_supramolecular.html" ;"title="self-assembly.html" ;"title="adsorbate.html" ;"title="quinacridone adsorbate">quinacridone adsorbate. The self-assembly">self-assembled supramolecular">self-assembly.html" ;"ti ...

Surface science
and
electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying ...

electrochemistry
of
cell membrane The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membra ...

cell membrane
s. # Interaction of one body with another in terms of quantities of
heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these ...

heat
and
work Work may refer to: * Work (human activity), intentional activity people perform to support themselves, others, or the community ** Manual labour, physical work done by humans ** House work, housework, or homemaking * Work (physics), the product of ...

work
called
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ...
. # Transfer of heat between a chemical system and its surroundings during change of
phase Phase or phases may refer to: Science * State of matter, or phase, one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist *Phase (matter) In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system A thermodynamic system is a ...
or
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...

chemical reaction
taking place called
thermochemistry Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy which is associated with chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...
# Study of
colligative properties In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
of number of species present in solution. # Number of phases, number of components and degree of freedom (or variance) can be correlated with one another with help of
phase ruleThe phase rule is a general principle governing "pVT systems" in thermodynamic equilibrium Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), wor ...
. # Reactions of
electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy Electrical energy is energy derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy. When used loosely, ''electrical energy'' refers to energy that has been c ...
s. # Behaviour of microscopic systems using
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
and macroscopic systems using
statistical thermodynamics In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior throug ...
.


Key concepts

The key concepts of physical chemistry are the ways in which pure
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
is applied to chemical problems. One of the key concepts in classical chemistry is that all
chemical compounds A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemical bonds. A homonuclear molecule, mo ...
can be described as groups of
atoms An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atoms
bonded together and
chemical reactions A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic ...

chemical reactions
can be described as the making and breaking of those bonds. Predicting the properties of chemical compounds from a description of atoms and how they bond is one of the major goals of physical chemistry. To describe the atoms and bonds precisely, it is necessary to know both where the
nuclei ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
of the atoms are, and how electrons are distributed around them.Atkins, Peter and Friedman, Ronald (2005). ''Molecular Quantum Mechanics'', p. 249.
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is g ...

Oxford University Press
, New York. .

Quantum chemistry Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: thei ...
, a subfield of physical chemistry especially concerned with the application of
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
to chemical problems, provides tools to determine how strong and what shape bonds are, how nuclei move, and how light can be absorbed or emitted by a chemical compound.
Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way ...

Spectroscopy
is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of
electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...

electromagnetic radiation
with matter. Another set of important questions in chemistry concerns what kind of reactions can happen spontaneously and which properties are possible for a given chemical mixture. This is studied in
chemical thermodynamics Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms o ...
, which sets limits on quantities like how far a reaction can proceed, or how much
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...

energy
can be converted into work in an
internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and ...

internal combustion engine
, and which provides links between properties like the
thermal expansion coefficient Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface ...
and rate of change of
entropy Entropy is a scientific concept as well as a measurable physical property that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty. The term and the concept are used in diverse fields, from classical thermodynamics ...

entropy
with
pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving fr ...

pressure
for a
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
or a
liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, ...

liquid
. It can frequently be used to assess whether a reactor or engine design is feasible, or to check the validity of experimental data. To a limited extent, and
non-equilibrium thermodynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of macroscopic quantities (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extr ...
can describe irreversible changes.Hill, Terrell L. (1986). ''Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics'', p. 1. Dover Publications, New York. . However, classical thermodynamics is mostly concerned with systems in
equilibrium List of types of equilibrium, the condition of a system in which all competing influences are balanced, in a wide variety of contexts. Equilibrium may also refer to: Film and television * Equilibrium (film), ''Equilibrium'' (film), a 2002 scien ...
and reversible changes and not what actually does happen, or how fast, away from equilibrium. Which reactions do occur and how fast is the subject of
chemical kinetics Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a pro ...
, another branch of physical chemistry. A key idea in chemical kinetics is that for
reactants Image:SulfurReagent.jpg, 200px, Reactants, such as sulfur (''pictured''), are the starting materials that are used in chemical reactions. A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a ...
to react and form
products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
, most chemical species must go through
transition state The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate. It is defined as the state corresponding to the highest potential energy along this reaction coordinate. It is often marked with the double d ...

transition state
s which are higher in
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...
than either the reactants or the products and serve as a barrier to reaction. In general, the higher the barrier, the slower the reaction. A second is that most chemical reactions occur as a sequence of
elementary reactionAn elementary reaction is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having cons ...
s, each with its own transition state. Key questions in kinetics include how the rate of reaction depends on temperature and on the concentrations of reactants and
catalysts that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules ...
in the reaction mixture, as well as how catalysts and reaction conditions can be engineered to optimize the reaction rate. The fact that how fast reactions occur can often be specified with just a few concentrations and a temperature, instead of needing to know all the positions and speeds of every molecule in a mixture, is a special case of another key concept in physical chemistry, which is that to the extent an engineer needs to know, everything going on in a mixture of very large numbers (perhaps of the order of the
Avogadro constant The Avogadro constant (''N''A or ''L'') is the proportionality factor that relates the number of constituent particles (usually molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which ...
, 6 x 1023) of particles can often be described by just a few variables like pressure, temperature, and concentration. The precise reasons for this are described in
statistical mechanics In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
,Chandler, David (1987). ''Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics'', p. 54. Oxford University Press, New York. . a specialty within physical chemistry which is also shared with physics. Statistical mechanics also provides ways to predict the properties we see in everyday life from molecular properties without relying on empirical correlations based on chemical similarities.


History

The term "physical chemistry" was coined by
Mikhail Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (; russian: Михаил (Михайло) Васильевич Ломоносов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ , a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg; – ) was a Russian polymath A polymath ( e ...

Mikhail Lomonosov
in 1752, when he presented a lecture course entitled "A Course in True Physical Chemistry" (Russian: «Курс истинной физической химии») before the students of
Petersburg University St Petersburg University (SPbU, Saint Petersburg State University; russian: СПбГУ, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is a Russian public university based in Saint Petersburg. It is t ...
. In the preamble to these lectures he gives the definition: "Physical chemistry is the science that must explain under provisions of physical experiments the reason for what is happening in complex bodies through chemical operations". Modern physical chemistry originated in the 1860s to 1880s with work on
chemical thermodynamics Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms o ...
,
electrolyte An electrolyte is a medium containing ions that is electrically conducting Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resist ...

electrolyte
s in solutions,
chemical kinetics Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a pro ...
and other subjects. One milestone was the publication in 1876 by
Josiah Willard Gibbs Josiah Willard Gibbs (; February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in tr ...

Josiah Willard Gibbs
of his paper, ''
On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances In the history of thermodynamics, ''On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances'' is a 300-page paper written by American chemical physicist Willard Gibbs. It is one of the founding papers in thermodynamics, along with German physicist Hermann ...
''. This paper introduced several of the cornerstones of physical chemistry, such as
Gibbs energy In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governe ...
,
chemical potential In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed ...

chemical potential
s, and Gibbs' phase rule. The first
scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written ...
specifically in the field of physical chemistry was the German journal, '' Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie'', founded in 1887 by
Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (; 4 April 1932) was a Baltic German The Baltic Germans (german: Deutsch-Balten or , later ; and остзейцы ''ostzeitsy'' 'Balters' in Russian) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Ba ...

Wilhelm Ostwald
and
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Jacobus Henricus "Henry" van 't Hoff Jr. (; 30 August 1852 – 1 March 1911) was a Dutch physical chemist. A highly influential theoretical chemist of his time, Van 't Hoff was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His pionee ...

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
. Together with Svante August Arrhenius, these were the leading figures in physical chemistry in the late 19th century and early 20th century. All three were awarded the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MD ...
between 1901–1909. Developments in the following decades include the application of
statistical mechanics In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
to chemical systems and work on
colloid A colloid is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically combined. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are r ...

colloid
s and
surface chemistry 250px, STM image of a self-assembled_supramolecular.html" ;"title="self-assembly.html" ;"title="adsorbate.html" ;"title="quinacridone adsorbate">quinacridone adsorbate. The self-assembly">self-assembled supramolecular">self-assembly.html" ;"tit ...
, where
Irving Langmuir Irving Langmuir (; 31 January 1881 – 16 August 1957) was an American chemist, physicist, and engineer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. Langmuir's most famous publication is the 1919 a ...

Irving Langmuir
made many contributions. Another important step was the development of
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
into
quantum chemistry Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: thei ...
from the 1930s, where
Linus Pauling Linus Carl Pauling (; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific t ...

Linus Pauling
was one of the leading names. Theoretical developments have gone hand in hand with developments in experimental methods, where the use of different forms of
spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way ...

spectroscopy
, such as
infrared spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) is the measurement of the interaction of infrared radiation with matter by absorption spectroscopy, absorption, emission spectrum, emission, or reflection (physics), reflection. ...

infrared spectroscopy
,
microwave spectroscopyMicrowave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter. In molecular physics In the field of molecular physics, microwave spectroscopy is commonly used t ...
,
electron paramagnetic resonance Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of ...
and
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a technique to observe local magnetic fields around . The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is pr ...
, is probably the most important 20th century development. Further development in physical chemistry may be attributed to discoveries in
nuclear chemistry Nuclear chemistry is the sub-field of chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compo ...
, especially in isotope separation (before and during World War II), more recent discoveries in
astrochemistry Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an elect ...
, as well as the development of calculation algorithms in the field of "additive physicochemical properties" (practically all physicochemical properties, such as boiling point, critical point, surface tension, vapor pressure, etc.—more than 20 in all—can be precisely calculated from chemical structure alone, even if the chemical molecule remains unsynthesized), and herein lies the practical importance of contemporary physical chemistry. See Group contribution method,
Lydersen methodThe Lydersen method is a group contribution method for the estimation of critical properties temperature (Critical temperature, Tc), pressure (Critical pressure, Pc) and volume (Vc). The Lydersen method is the prototype for and ancestor of many new m ...
,
Joback methodThe Joback method (often named Joback/Reid method) predicts eleven important and commonly used pure component thermodynamic properties from molecular structure only. Basic principles Group-contribution method The Joback method is a group-c ...
, Benson group increment theory,
quantitative structure–activity relationshipQuantitative structure–activity relationship models (QSAR models) are regression analysis, regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering. Like other regression models, QSAR regression models relat ...


Journals

Some journals that deal with physical chemistry include '' Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie'' (1887); ''
Journal of Physical Chemistry A ''The Journal of Physical Chemistry A'' is a scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content avai ...
'' (from 1896 as ''Journal of Physical Chemistry'', renamed in 1997); ''
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics ''Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics'' is a weekly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualifi ...
'' (from 1999, formerly '' Faraday Transactions'' with a history dating back to 1905); '' Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics'' (1947); ''
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry ''Annual Review of Physical Chemistry'' is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews (publisher), Annual Reviews. It covers all topics pertaining to physical chemistry. The editors-in-chief are Mark A. Johnson (Yale University) ...
'' (1950); ''
Molecular Physics Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an elec ...
'' (1957); ''Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry'' (1988); ''Journal of Physical Chemistry B'' (1997); ''ChemPhysChem'' (2000); ''Journal of Physical Chemistry C'' (2007); and ''Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters'' (from 2010, combined letters previously published in the separate journals) Historical journals that covered both chemistry and physics include ''Annales de chimie et de physique'' (started in 1789, published under the name given here from 1815–1914).


Branches and related topics

* Thermochemistry * Chemical kinetics *
Quantum chemistry Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: thei ...
* Electrochemistry * Photochemistry * Surface chemistry * Solid-state chemistry *
Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way ...

Spectroscopy
* Biophysical chemistry * Materials science * Physical organic chemistry * Micromeritics


See also

* List of important publications in chemistry#Physical chemistry * List of unsolved problems in chemistry#Physical chemistry problems * Physical biochemistry * :Physical chemists


References


External links


The World of Physical Chemistry
(Keith J. Laidler, 1993)
Physical Chemistry from Ostwald to Pauling
(John W. Servos, 1996)
100 Years of Physical Chemistry
(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004)

(Joachim Schummer, ''The Autonomy of Chemistry'', Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann, 1998, pp. 135–148)
Cathedrals of Science
(Patrick Coffey, 2008)
The Cambridge History of Science: The modern physical and mathematical sciences
(Mary Jo Nye, 2003) {{DEFAULTSORT:Physical Chemistry Physical chemistry,