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"The Philippine constabulary guard with shore party of Hubert A. Paton. Off the ''Pathfinder''", Philippines, 1926 from the Historic Coast & Geodetic Survey (C&GS) Collection, NOAA Photo Library. The Philippine Constabulary (PC; tl|Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas, ''HPP''; es|Constabularia Filipina, ''CF'') was a
gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The term ''gendarme'' () is derived from the medieva ...
-type police force of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil|Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil|Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik|Republika kan Filipinas * ceb|Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk|República de Filipinas * hil|Republika sang ...

Philippines
from 1901 to 1991, and the predecessor to the
Philippine National Police The Philippine National Police ( fil|Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas, acronymed as PNP) is the armed national police force in the Philippines. Its national headquarters is at Camp Crame in Quezon City, Metro Manila. Currently, it has 220,000 perso ...
. It was created by the American colonial government to replace the Spanish colonial
Guardia Civil The Civil Guard ( es|Guardia Civil; ) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain and is one of two national police forces. As a gendarmerie force, it is military in nature and is responsible for civil policing under the authority of both the M ...
. It was the first of the four branches of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) ( fil|Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; es|Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy (i ...
. On January 29, 1991, it was merged with the
Integrated National Police The Integrated National Police (INP) (Filipino: ''Pinagsamang Pulisyáng Pambansà'', ''PPP''; Spanish:''Policía Nacional Conjunto'', ''PNC'') was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines. One of ...
to form the
Philippine National Police The Philippine National Police ( fil|Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas, acronymed as PNP) is the armed national police force in the Philippines. Its national headquarters is at Camp Crame in Quezon City, Metro Manila. Currently, it has 220,000 perso ...
.


History

The Philippine Constabulary (PC) was established on August 18, 1901, under the general supervision of the civil Governor-General of the Philippines, by the authority of Act. No. 175 of the
Second Philippine Commission The Taft Commission, also known as the Second Philippine Commission (Filipino: ''Ikalawang Komisyon ng Pilipinas''), was established by United States President William McKinley on March 16, 1900, following the recommendations of the First Philippi ...
, to maintain peace, law, and order in the various provinces of the Philippine Islands. By the end of 1901, a total of 180 officers had been commissioned.. The constabulary assisted the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
military in combating the remaining irreconcilable revolutionaries following the March 23 capture of General
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and the first presiden ...
and his April 1 pledge of allegiance to the United States. This phase of the Philippine–American War ended in Luzon by 1906, with the surrender and execution of one of its last remaining generals,
Macario Sakay Macario Sakay y de León (March 1, 1878 – September 13, 1907) was a Filipino general who took part in the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and in the Philippine–American War. After the war was declared over by the Unite ...
. Continued disorder and
brigandry Brigandage is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder. It is practiced by a brigand, a person who usually lives in a gang and lives by pillage and robbery.Oxford English Dictionary second edition, 1989. "Brigand.2" first recorded usag ...
prompted Governor-General
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857March 8, 1930) was the 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected preside ...

William Howard Taft
to maintain the PC to combat insurgents. Captain Henry T. Allen of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, a Kentucky-born graduate of
West Point The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on ...
(Class 1882), was named as the chief of the force, and was later dubbed as the "Father of the Philippine Constabulary". With the help of four other army officers, Captains David Baker, W. Goldsborough, H. Atkinson, and J.S. Garwood, Captain Allen organized the force, trained, equipped and armed the men as best as could be done at the time. Although the bulk of the officers were recruited from among the U.S. commissioned and non-commissioned officers, two Filipinos qualified for appointment as 3rd Lieutenants during the first month of the PC: Jose Velasquez of
Nueva Ecija Nueva Ecija (: 034900000; ISO: PH-NUE) ( fil|Lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija , also ; ilo|Probinsia ti Nueva Ecija; pam|Lalawigan ning Nueva Ecija; pag|Luyag na Nueva Ecija) is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon regio ...
and Felix Llorente of
Manila Manila ( , ; fil|Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil|Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is highly urbanized and as of 2019 was the world's most densely populated city pr ...
. Llorente retired as a colonel in 1921 while Velasquez retired as major in 1927. The
Philippine Constabulary Band The Philippine Constabulary Band was the principal military band of the Philippine Constabulary, and later, as the Philippine Army Orchestra, of the Army of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Between its establishment in 1901 and dissolution durin ...
was formed on October 15, 1902, by Colonel Walter Loving upon the instructions of Governor-General Taft, who was known as a music lover. The 86-piece band toured the United States to great acclaim, leading the parade in
Washington, D.C. ) | image_skyline = | image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall, United States Capitol, Washington Metro, Air and Space Museum, White House, ...
to celebrate Taft's 1909
presidential inaugurationA presidential inauguration is a ceremonial event centered on the formal transition of a new president into office, usually in democracies where this official has been elected. Frequently, this involves the swearing of an oath of office. Examples of ...
, and performing at the 1904
Louisiana Purchase Exposition The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local, state, and federal funds totaling $15 millio ...
and the 1915
World's Fair#REDIRECT World's fair#REDIRECT World's fair {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. Before the First World War, the PC Band would serve as a source of national pride.


Philippine Military Academy

A school for the constabulary was established on February 17, 1905, at the Santa Lucia barracks in
Intramuros Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the historic walled area within the city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration with the help of the city government of Manila. Present-day Intr ...
. In 1908, the school was transferred to
Baguio ( , ), officially the ( ibl|Syudad ne Bag-iw; ; ilo|Siudad ti ; tl|Lungsod ng ), is a in the , . It is known as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines", owing to its cool climate since the city is located approximately above mean sea l ...
. In 1916 the school was renamed Academy for Officers of the Philippine Constabulary. In 1926, the school was renamed the Philippine Constabulary Academy. When the
Philippine Army The Philippine Army (PA) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas''; Spanish: ''Ejército Filipino'') is the main, oldest and the largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare and currently has an est ...
was created in 1936, the institution became the
Philippine Military Academy The Philippine Military Academy (PMA; fil|Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas; es|Academia Militar de Filipinas) is the premier military academy for Filipinos aspiring for a commission as a military officer of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AF ...
. The school is the main source of regular officers of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) ( fil|Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; es|Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy (i ...
(AFP), which before 1991 included those of the Philippine Constabulary.


Camp Crame

In 1935, a large tract of land was acquired in New Manila Heights, now part of
Quezon City Quezon City (, ; tl|Lungsod Quezon ; also known as the City of Quezon, QC, and Kyusi) is a and the most populous city in the Philippines. It was founded by and named after Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines, to replace Ma ...
. It was given by the City of Manila government in exchange for the old Gagalangin barracks compound in Tondo. Part of this tract became Camp Crame, named after Brigadier General Rafael Cramé of
Rizal Province , officially the Province of ( tl|Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is the city of Antipolo. It is about east of Manila. The province is named after José Rizal, one of t ...
who became the first Filipino appointed Chief of the Constabulary on December 17, 1917. Other parts of the tract became Camp Murphy (now
Camp Aguinaldo Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo (CGEA) is the site of the General Headquarters (GHQ) of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is located along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. (or EDSA), in front of Camp ...
), and Zablan Field, site the Philippine Constabulary Air Corps (PCAC).


Reorganized as a military organization

Under the
National Defense Act of 1935 {{Infobox legislation |long_title = An Act to provide National Defense of the Philippines, penalizing certain violations thereof, appropriating funds therefor, and for other purposes |citation Commonwealth Act No. 1|territorial_extent = Philippine ...
, the PC became the backbone of the Philippine Army, later re-established after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
and was known as both the Philippine Constabulary and as the
Military Police#REDIRECT Military police#REDIRECT Military police {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
Command in 1946. It consisted of soldiers trained in
military police#REDIRECT Military police#REDIRECT Military police {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
duties with nationwide jurisdiction. The move to abolish the national police force and to make it a nucleus of a Philippine Army got underway when the Army of the Philippines was created in 1936. Thus, the transfer of the PC to the regular force of the new military organization was effected under the provisions of Sec. 18 of the National Defense Act, and pursuant to Executive Order No. 11 of President
Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the f ...
dated January 11, 1936. The Constabulary was inactivated on this date and was known as the Constabulary Division, Philippine Army. The PC was not gone but got submerged in a bigger organization. Thereafter, the insular police duties, formally reposed in the PC, were discharged by a "State Police" created by Commonwealth Act No. 88 dated October 26, 1936. After turning over the former Constabulary duties to a State Police, which proved to be short-lived and unsuccessful, the Constabulary was revived as a military police force on June 23, 1938, by Commonwealth Act No. 343. By operation of the CA 343, the State Police was abolished and its military police duties reverted to the PC. President Quezon himself recommended to the National Assembly that the State Police be abolished and in its place the PC was to be reconstituted into a separate organization, distinct and divorced from the
Philippine Army The Philippine Army (PA) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas''; Spanish: ''Ejército Filipino'') is the main, oldest and the largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare and currently has an est ...
, which was for "national defense". The PC once again existed as an independent force retaining all duties in maintaining peace and order and protection of life and property. One of the most significant provisions of the law re-creating it was that which provided that officers and enlisted men detached from the army and transferred to the PC shall retain their identity and legal rights and obligations as officers and enlisted men of the army; that the president may, at his discretion, transfer at any time any officer or enlisted man to and from the army to the Constabulary, respectively; and that all services performed in the Constabulary shall count for all legal purposes as military service. Thus, began the linear roster of officers for both the Constabulary and the Armed forces up until the PC was merged with the
Integrated National Police The Integrated National Police (INP) (Filipino: ''Pinagsamang Pulisyáng Pambansà'', ''PPP''; Spanish:''Policía Nacional Conjunto'', ''PNC'') was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines. One of ...
in 1991.


World War II

In May 1941, President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Demo ...
proclaimed a
state of emergency A state of emergency or emergency powers is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of their citizens. A government can decla ...
in the
continental United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states (plus the District of Columbia) on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawa ...
and all American overseas possessions including the Philippines. With the organization of the
United States Army Forces in the Far East United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
in July, the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the Constabulary prepared their combat units. The PC was inducted to the
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
and was formed into three infantry regiments for participation in national defense. On October 15, the 1st PC Regt. was inducted into the
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
by Brig, Gen. George M. Parker in Camp Crame, after which it was moved to the Balara cantonment area in Quezon City, where the men were trained as a combat team on the regimental level. The 2nd and 3rd Regts. were inducted into the
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
on November 17 and December 12, respectively. The 1st and the 2nd were assigned to safeguard public utilities vital to the survival of the growing population of the
City of Greater Manila The City of Greater Manila, also known simply as Greater Manila and sometimes Greater Manila Area (GMA), was a chartered city which existed during the World War II era. It was governed by the Commonwealth of the Philippines and was dissolved by Jap ...
. War broke out on December 8, 1941. The two PC regiments less the 2nd Battalion of the 1st which was ordered to proceed to
Bataan Bataan ( ; tl|Lalawigan ng Bataan ; pam|Lalauígan ning Bataan) is a province situated in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the city of Balanga while Mariveles is the largest local government unit in the province. Occupy ...
immediately, were assigned in Manila to arrest all aliens believed to be sympathetic with the enemy. In addition, these units were ordered to safeguard centers of communication and all public utilities in the city and of securing the metropolitan area against subversive elements. Soon, a protective cordon around Manila was formed by units of the two PC regiments. By January 1942, most of the "constables" were in the Bataan peninsula with other Fil-American troops. "On [[Bataan and [[Corregidor, in [[Aparri, [[Lingayen, Pangasinan|Lingayen and [[Atimonan, everywhere in the islands were the invaders dread to set foot, Constabulary troops distinguished themselves in action against overwhelming odds." On December 29, the 4th PC Regiment was activated and constituted by PC units from the provinces of [[Bataan, [[Bulacan province|Bulacan,
Nueva Ecija Nueva Ecija (: 034900000; ISO: PH-NUE) ( fil|Lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija , also ; ilo|Probinsia ti Nueva Ecija; pam|Lalawigan ning Nueva Ecija; pag|Luyag na Nueva Ecija) is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon regio ...
, [[Pampanga, [[Pangasinan, [[Tarlac, and [[Zambales. Two days later, the regiment was ordered to Bataan. To prevent the unnecessary slaughter of his war-weary troops, Maj. General [[Edward P. King Jr., the commanding officer of the Southern Luzon Force, negotiated with the Japanese High Command the surrender of the Bataan-based Filipino American troops. Bataan fell on April 9, 1942, and thousands of Filipino-American servicemen who had defended it became prisoners of war. A large number of Constabulary men died in the [[Battle of Bataan|battle and in the infamous [[Bataan Death March. Many more died at the [[concentration camp in [[Capas, Tarlac. The Philippines was liberated late in 1944 and early in 1945. Thereafter, the problem of restoring peace and order from the general chaos and disorder arising from the war came up. The Constabulary went on active service with the Philippine Commonwealth Army under President [[Sergio Osmeña's Executive Order 21, dated October 28, 1944. In the reorganization, that followed, the Military Police Command (MPC),
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
, was created pursuant to
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
General Orders No. 50 Another Order, General Orders No. 51 dated July 7, 1945, redesignated the organization as MPC, AFWESPAC.


Bureau of Constabulary

According to [[Robert Lapham, an American officer who had headed to the jungles to fight instead of obeying General MacArthur's order to surrender and had become a guerrilla commander, constabulary chief Gen. Guillermo Francisco had been "de-Americanized" by the Japanese after the surrender of Bataan, after which, they "half trusted him to do their will". Francisco and his men pursued "bandits and cut-throats, which was good in itself and which allowed them to look good to their Japanese overlords, but it was known among many of his officers and some outsiders as well that he and most of his men were just waiting for an opportune time to change sides." During the Japanese occupation, the enemy, through the use of force and threats, organized their version of the Philippine Constabulary which they called the Bureau of Constabulary; it was later renamed to match the pre-war Constabulary with the creation of the [[Second Philippine Republic|Second Republic. A handful of former PC officers and men were rounded up and forced to work with this outfit, with the threat that their loved ones would be harmed; majority of the men who escaped managed to find their way into the hills where they joined the resistance movement until liberation came in 1944. It is a fact that much of the stigma that haunted the PC was the result of the establishment by the Japanese of their version of the Constabulary. Many had the wrong impression that the occupation Constabulary was the same force as that of the pre-war organization.


Post war

A major revamp in the Armed Forces was effected on March 30, 1950, when President [[Elpidio Quirino issued Executive Order No. 308 which called for the merger of the Philippine Constabulary with the Armed Forces, making it one more major service command. This was the second time the PC returned to a military force. Due to the unstable peace and order conditions existing in the countrysides brought about by the resurgence of the [[Hukbalahap (Huk) which require more personnel strength, the Philippine Army was called upon to assist in the pacification drive with the employment of its combat arms – the [[Battalion Combat Teams or BCTs, with PC men absorbed by the BCTs. It was under E.O. 308 and according to Administrative Order No. 113, dated April 1, 1950, the PC was formally merged with the Armed Forces of the Philippines; the merger was completed on July 27, the same year. 12,000 men from the MPC to the PC. Under the E.O., the power of executive supervision and all authority and duties exercised by the Secretary of Interior concerning the PC or its members were transferred to and exercised by the Secretary of National Defense. With the appointment, on American advice, of former
USAFFE United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS''; Spanish: ''Fuerzas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos en el Lejano Oriente'') was a military formation of the United ...
guerilla Rep. [[Ramon Magsaysay as Secretary of National Defense in September 1950 and the subsequent appropriation by Congress of more funds for the drive against the Communist movement in the Philippines, more BCTs were formed. The delineation of the missions of the then four major services – Philippine Army, Philippine Constabulary, Philippine Navy, and Philippine Air Force – were underlined by EO No. 389 dated December 23, 1950, which abolished the Philippine Service Command and the Philippine Ground Force. Headquarters Armed Forces of the Philippines became known as "General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines"; while General Headquarters, Philippine Constabulary became known as "Headquarters, Philippine Constabulary", the nomenclature it had in the prewar years. Also, the major commands were abolished and in their places were activated the four major services. As defined in Executive Order (E.O.) No. 389, the main function of the PC was maintaining peace and order within the country and to be the country's national police force even though it was a branch then of the military. In the reorganization that followed, the four military areas created under EO No. 94, series 1947, were not altered substantially but were nevertheless placed under the administrative and operational control of the AFP General Headquarters. By 1975, the PC officially integrated the nation's municipal and city police, fire and penitentiary services, which from 1974 onward formed the Integrated National Police, into the service, thus the PC became the ''Philippine Constabulary-Integrated National Police'' (PC-INP), (Spanish: ''Constabularia Filipina – Policía Nacional Conjunto'') as per the provisions of Presidential Decree 765, enacted on August 8 the same year, that formally fused the two services into one joint service, with joint command resting with the Chief of the PC.


Post Marcos

In 1991, it was determined that a new
Philippine National Police The Philippine National Police ( fil|Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas, acronymed as PNP) is the armed national police force in the Philippines. Its national headquarters is at Camp Crame in Quezon City, Metro Manila. Currently, it has 220,000 perso ...
was to be formed by merging the
Integrated National Police The Integrated National Police (INP) (Filipino: ''Pinagsamang Pulisyáng Pambansà'', ''PPP''; Spanish:''Policía Nacional Conjunto'', ''PNC'') was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines. One of ...
into the Philippine Constabulary, with the PC forming the basis as it had the more developed infrastructure. The PC was then removed from the [[Department of National Defense (Philippines)|Ministry of National Defense and eventually civilianized, as part of the Department of the Interior and Local Government, through attrition and recruitment of new personnel. As of February 2017, President [[Rodrigo Duterte had previously contemplated in whether or not the Constabulary should be revived.


Missions and duties

The PC's missions were as follows: * 1. To preserve peace and order and enforce the law throughout the country and also to arrest law violators and those who will violate such laws; * 2. Inspectional supervision over, and undertake the training of, municipal and city level police forces, fire departments, and jail services; * 3. To assist civil government and semi-government agencies in the accomplishment of their missions; * 4. To perform home defense in rear areas and such other services as the chief of staff, AFP may direct. The PC covered a very extensive range of diversified missions that through the years did not fall under its primary responsibilities. By express provision of law, the PC enforced the motor vehicle law, fishing and games law, the alien law for registration and fingerprinting, and anti-dummy law, and the nationalization of retail trade law. By direction of the president, it enforced the tenancy law, the law on scrap metal, iron and gold, a ban on slaughter of carabao, and other laws. By deputation, it enforced the immigration law, customs law, forestry law, quarantine law, election law, public service law, and amusement law and weight and standards on rice and palay. As a civic function, it performed in conjunction with the SWA and the Red Cross disaster relief operations during natural calamities. The security of VIPs was a routine requirement for the constabulary.


Organization

The chief of the Philippine Constabulary was, from 1975 onward, also the director-general of the
Integrated National Police The Integrated National Police (INP) (Filipino: ''Pinagsamang Pulisyáng Pambansà'', ''PPP''; Spanish:''Policía Nacional Conjunto'', ''PNC'') was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines. One of ...
(the municipal police, fire, and jail force for the larger towns and cities). The PC was organized on similar lines to the army, and consisted of a General Staff located at its General Headquarters at [[Camp Crame,
Manila Manila ( , ; fil|Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil|Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is highly urbanized and as of 2019 was the world's most densely populated city pr ...
, and 12 Regional Commands (under a regional director) consisting of 104 Provincial Commands (under a Provincial Commander); these controlled the 450 PC Companies which performed all the day-to-day military police work. The Regions were based on the country's political regions and directly controlled the various [[Highway Patrol, Rangers, and investigative groups. The PC used to have four Field Units or Command Zones (PCZs), each of which was headed by a Zone Commander (provinces are as of 1990): * IPCZ – Abra, Aurora, Bataan, Batanes, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Union, Mt. Province, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Tarlac and Zambales * IIPCZ – Albay, Batangas, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes, Cavite, Laguna, Marinduque, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Palawan, Quezon, Rizal and Sorsogon * IIIPCZ – Aklan, Antique, Bohol, Capiz, Cebu, Iloilo, Leyte and Southern Leyte, Masbate, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Romblon, Samar and Northern Samar and Siquijor * IVPCZ – Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Basilan, Bukidnon, Camiguin, Cotabato, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur


Ranks of the PC

Ranks of the PC followed those first of the [[United States Army and later on those used by the
Armed Forces of the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) ( fil|Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; es|Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy (i ...
.


Ranks of the [[Philippine Constabulary

Originally the PC used the ranks and insignia of the United States Army upon its foundation and in its latter years it was more modelled on
Philippine Army The Philippine Army (PA) (Filipino: ''Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas''; Spanish: ''Ejército Filipino'') is the main, oldest and the largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare and currently has an est ...
but with branch-specific shoulder board and sleeve insignia.


Officers


Enlisted constables and NCOs

*Master Sergeant *Technical Sergeant *Staff Sergeant *Sergeant *Constable 1st Class (Corporal) *Constable 2nd Class (Patrolman 1st Class) *Constable (Patrolman 2nd Class)


Headquarters organization

Headquarters Directorates: * 1. Directorate for Personnel * 2. Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development * 3. Directorate for Logistics, * 4. Directorate for Research and Development * 5. Directorate for [[Comptrollership, * 6. Directorate for Plans, * 7. Directorate for Police-Community Relations, * 8. Directorate for Investigation and * 9. Directorate for Special Staff The Philippine Constabulary Rangers, or PC Rangers (''Unidades de Cazadores Policiales''), were independent light infantry companies which served as a [[counter-insurgency force similar to [[United States Army Rangers and were organized into 12 large regional companies. Constabulary Headquarters directly controlled many other services needed at a national level such as the [[Special Action Force, Central Crime Laboratory, White Collar Crime Group, and [[Office of Special Investigations (Philippines)|Office of Special Investigations (which was a counter-intelligence group). The Constabulary also maintained the following units: * PC/INP Air Unit (''Unidad Aérea'') * Constabulary Boat Service * Crime and Forensic Labs * [[Philippine Constabulary Metropolitan Command|PC Metropolitan Command (METROCOM). * National Constabulary Investigations Service which acted in a similar way to the [[FBI before the NBI was reformed.


References

;Citations ;Bibliography * 53rd PC Anniversary Yearbook, 1954 Edition * * Philippine Constabulary Yearbook August 1960 * The Constable, 70th PC Anniversary, August 8, 1971 Edition * {{Philippine Revolution [[Category:Armed Forces of the Philippines [[Category:Defunct military provosts [[Category:Military history of the Philippines [[Category:Defunct law enforcement agencies of the Philippines