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The highest-ranking
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s in
Eastern Orthodoxy The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion ( ...
,
Oriental Orthodoxy The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings ...
, the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic Church
(above
major archbishop In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for the chief hierarch of an autonomous ('' sui juris'') particular ChurchIn metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of ge ...
and
primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ...
), the
Hussite Church The Czechoslovak Hussite Church ( cs, Církev československá husitská, ''CČSH'' or ''CČH'') is a Christian church that separated from the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List ...
, and the
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also ''
popes This chronological list of pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide ...
'' – such as the
Pope of Rome The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Chr ...
or
Pope of Alexandria The Coptic Orthodox pope ( cop, Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ, translit=Papa; ar, البابا, translit=al-Bābā), also known as the Bishop of Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: A ...
, and ''
catholicoiCatholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain Christian Church, churches in some Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and in some cases it is the title of the head of an autonomous ...
'' – such as
Catholicos Karekin II Catholicos Karekin II ( hy, Գարեգին Բ) (born August 21, 1951) is Catholicos of All Armenians, the supreme head of the Armenian Apostolic Church. In 2013 he was unanimously elected the Oriental Orthodox head of the World Council of Chur ...
). The word is derived from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
πατριάρχης (''patriarchēs''), meaning "chief or father of a family", a compound of πατριά (''patria''), meaning "family", and ἄρχειν (''archein''), meaning "to rule".Online Etymological Dictionary: "patriarch"
/ref> Originally, a ''patriarch'' was a man who exercised
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
authority as a
pater familias The ''pater familias'', also written as ''paterfamilias'' (plural ''patres familias''), was the head of a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, th ...

pater familias
over an
extended family An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of parents and their children (one or more). It is in contrast to a single-parent family, th ...

extended family
. The system of such rule of families by senior males is termed
patriarchy Patriarchy is a social system In sociology, social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions. It is the formal Social structure, structure of role ...

patriarchy
. Historically, a patriarch has often been the logical choice to act as
ethnarch Ethnarch, pronounced , the anglicized form of ethnarches ( el, ), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (p ...
of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different
creed A creed, also known as a confession of faith, symbol, or statement of faith, is a statement of the shared belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology ...
(such as Christians within the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
). The term developed an ecclesiastical meaning, within the
Christian Church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. ...
. The office and the ecclesiastical circumscription of a
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
patriarch is termed a ''
patriarchate Patriarchate ( Greek: , ''patriarcheîon'') is an ecclesiological term in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of ...
''.
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the , including , , and . In Judaism, he is the founding father of the , the special relationship between the and ; in C ...

Abraham
,
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gener ...

Isaac
, and
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب, Yaʿqūb; gr, Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State ...

Jacob
are referred to as the three
patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...
of the
people of Israel Israelis ( he, ישראלים ''Yiśraʾelim'', ar, الإسرائيليين ''al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin'') are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by Demographics of Israel, people of different ...
, and the period during which they lived is termed the
Patriarchal Age The patriarchal age is the era of the three biblical patriarchs, Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religi ...
. The word ''patriarch'' originally acquired its religious meaning in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
version of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
.


Catholic Church


Patriarchs

In the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic Church
, the bishop who is head of a particular autonomous Church, known in canon law as a Church ''sui iuris'', is ordinarily a patriarch, though this responsibility can be entrusted to a major archbishop, metropolitan, or other prelate for a number of reasons. Since the Council of Nicaea, the bishop of Rome has been recognized as the first among patriarchs. That council designated three bishops with this 'supra-Metropolitan' title: Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch. In the
Pentarchy Pentarchy (from the Greek , ''Pentarchía'', from πέντε ''pénte'', "five", and ἄρχειν ''archein'', "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Chu ...
formulated by
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
(527–565), the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe (including almost all of modern
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
), except for the region of
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
, the areas near
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, and along the coast of the Black Sea. He included in this patriarchate also the western part of North Africa. The jurisdictions of the other patriarchates extended over Roman Asia, and the rest of Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the
Quinisext Council The Quinisext Council (Latin: ''Concilium Quinisextum''; Koine Greek: , ''Penthékti Sýnodos''), i.e. the Fifth-Sixth Council, often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod, was a church council held in 692 at Cons ...
of 692, which the
see of Rome The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gene ...
has, however, not recognized. There were at the time bishops of other apostolic sees that operated with patriarchal authority beyond the borders of the Roman Empire, such as the Catholicos of Selucia-Ctesephon. Today, the patriarchal heads of Catholic autonomous churches are: * The Bishop of Rome (Pope), as head of the
Latin Catholic Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint John ...
* The
Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria The Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria is the Patriarchal and only Metropolitan see of the head of the Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern ''sui iuris'' Coptic Catholic Church, a particular Church in the Catholic Church in full communion with ...
and head of the
Coptic Catholic Church The Coptic Catholic Church ( ar, الكنيسة القبطية الكاثوليكية; la, Ecclesia Catholica Coptorum) is an Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion Full communion is a communion or relationship of full underst ...
, recognised 1824 *The Maronite Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East and head of the
Maronite Catholic Church The Maronite Church is an Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases ...
, recognised 685 * The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, head of the
Melkite Greek Catholic Church The Melkite Greek Catholic Church ( ar, كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك, '; el, Μελχιτική Ελληνική Καθολική Εκκλησία; la, Ecclesiae Graecae Melkitae Catholicae) or Melkite Byzantine Catho ...
; in his case, Antioch is the actual and sole patriarchate, Alexandria and Jerusalem are just titular (once residential) patriarchates vested in his see. *The Syriac Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East and head of the
Syriac Catholic Church The Syriac Catholic Church ( syc, ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿĪṯo Suryayṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo, ar, الكنيسة السريانية الكاثوليكية), also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch, is an Eas ...
*The Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and head of the
Chaldean Catholic Church , native_name_lang = syc , image = , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = , abbreviation = , type = , main_classification = Eastern Catholic , orientation ...
, recognised 1553 *The Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians and head of the
Armenian Catholic Church , native_name_lang = hy , image = St Elie - St Gregory Armenian Catholic Cathedral.jpg , imagewidth = 260px , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Saint Elias and Saint Gregory the Illuminato ...
, recognised 1742


Major archbishoprics

Four more of the
Eastern Catholic Church The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Chris ...
es are headed by a prelate known as a "
Major Archbishop In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for the chief hierarch of an autonomous ('' sui juris'') particular ChurchIn metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of ge ...
," a title essentially equivalent to that of Patriarch and originally created by
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
in 1963 for Josyf Slipyj: *The Major Archbishop of Kyiv-Halych and head of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC; ; la, Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a in with the worldwide . It is the second-largest (') in the Catholic Church, second only to the . It is part of the es of the Catholic Church that ar ...
*The Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly and head of the
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church lat, Ecclesia Syrorum-Malabarensium , native_name_lang=, image = St. Thomas' Cross (Chennai, St. Thomas Mount).jpg , caption = The ''Mar Thoma Sliva'' or ''Saint Thomas Cross'', the symbol of the Syro-Malabar Church. ...
*The Major Archbishop of Trivandrum and head of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church *The Major Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia and head of the
Romanian Greek Catholic Church The Romanian Greek Catholic Church or Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic ( la, Ecclesiae Graecae Catholico Romaniae; ro, Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite sepa ...

Romanian Greek Catholic Church
Within their proper ''sui iuris'' churches there is no difference between patriarchs and major archbishops. However, differences exist in the order of precedence (i.e. patriarchs take precedence over major archbishops) and in the mode of accession. Whereas the election of a major archbishop has to be confirmed by the pope before he may take office, no papal confirmation is needed for a newly elected patriarch before he takes office. Rather, a newly installed patriarch is required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion. Furthermore, patriarchs who are created
cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
form part of the order of
cardinal bishop Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
s, whereas major archbishops are only created
cardinal priest Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
s.


Minor Latin patriarchates

Minor patriarchs do not have jurisdiction over other metropolitan bishops. The title is granted purely as an honor for various historical reasons. They take precedence after the heads of autonomous churches in full communion, whether pope, patriarch, or major archbishop. *The
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languag ...

Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
, established 1099. *The
Patriarch of the East Indies The Titular Patriarch of the East Indies ( la, Patriarcha Indiarum Orientalium; for Titular Patriarchate of the East Indies) in the Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
a titular patriarchal see, united to Goa and Daman, established 1886. *The
Patriarch of Lisbon The Patriarch of Lisbon ( la, Patriarcha Olisiponensis, pt, Patriarca de Lisboa), also called the Cardinal-Patriarch of Lisbon once he has been made cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a ...
, established 1716. *The
Patriarch of Venice The Patriarch of Venice ( la, Patriarcha Venetiarum; it, Patriarca di Venezia) is the ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing ...
, established 1451.


Historical Latin patriarchates

* The
Patriarch of Aquileia This is a list of bishops and patriarchs of Aquileia in northeastern Italy. For the ecclesiastical history of the diocese, see Patriarchate of Aquileia. From Council of Aquileia, 553, 553 until Council of Aquileia, 698, 698 the archbishops renounce ...
– with rival line of succession moved to Grado – dissolved in 1752. * The
Patriarch of Grado This is a list of the Patriarchs of Grado (north-eastern Italy).
''Catholic-Hierarchy.org''. David M. Cheney. Retr ...
– in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice (later a residential Patriarchate itself). * The
Patriarch of the West Indies The Titular Patriarchate of the West Indies ( la, Patriarchatus Indiarum Occidentalium) is a Latin Rite titular patriarchate of the Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of ...
– a titular patriarchal see, vacant since 1963. * The
Latin Patriarch of Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
– title abolished in 1964. * The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964. * The
Latin Patriarch of Constantinople The Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople was an office established as a result of the Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to ...
– title abolished in 1964. * The Latin Patriarchate of Ethiopia – 1555 to 1663, never effective, only held by Iberian
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...


Patriarch as title ''ad personam''

The pope can confer the rank of patriarch without any see, upon an individual archbishop, as happened on 24 February 1676 to Alessandro Crescenzi, of the Somascans, former Latin Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (19 January 1671 – retired 27 May 1675), who nevertheless resigned the title on 9 January 1682.


"Patriarch of the West"

In theological and other scholarly literature of the
Early Modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. Humanity's written history was preceded by its , beginning with ...
period, the title "
Patriarch of the West Patriarch of the West was, on several occasions between AD 450 and 2006, one of the official titles of the bishop of Rome, as patriarch and highest authority of the Latin Church. The title no longer appears among the official ones, starting from ...
" (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
: ''Patriarcha Occidentis'';
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: Πατριάρχης τῆς Δύσεως) was mainly used as designation for the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome over the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
in the West. From 1863 to 2005, the title "Patriarch of the West" was appended to the list of papal titles in the ''
Annuario Pontificio The ''Annuario Pontificio'' (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Re ...
'', which in 1885 became a semi-official publication of the Holy See. This was done without historical precedent or theological justification: There was no ecclesiastical office as such, except occasionally as a truism: the patriarch of Rome, for the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
, was the only patriarch, and the only apostolic see, in the "west". The title was not included in the 2006 ''Annuario''. On 22 March 2006, the
Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (PCPCU) is a pontifical council whose origins are associated with the Second Vatican Council which met intermittently from 1962 to 1965. Pope John XXIII wanted the Catholic Church to engage in ...
offered an explanation for the decision to remove the title. It stated that the title "Patriarch of the West" had become "obsolete and practically unusable" when the term ''the West'' comprises Australia, New Zealand and North America in addition to Western Europe, and that it was "pointless to insist on maintaining it" given that, since the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
, for which "the West" is an equivalent, has been organized as a number of
episcopal conference #REDIRECT Episcopal conference#REDIRECT Episcopal conference An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal ...
s and their international groupings. Though the formulation "Patriarch of the West" is no longer used, the pope in that role issues the ''Code of Canon Law'' for the Latin Church. During the Synod of Bishops on the Middle East in 2009,
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy Clergy are formal leader ...

Pope Benedict XVI
appeared, as patriarch of the Latin Church, with the other patriarchs, but without the
Latin patriarch of Jerusalem Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languag ...

Latin patriarch of Jerusalem
, though he was present at the same synod.


Current and historical Catholic patriarchates


Eastern Christianity


Eastern Orthodox

*The five ancient Patriarchates, the
Pentarchy Pentarchy (from the Greek , ''Pentarchía'', from πέντε ''pénte'', "five", and ἄρχειν ''archein'', "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Chu ...
, listed in order of preeminence ranked by the
Quinisext Council The Quinisext Council (Latin: ''Concilium Quinisextum''; Koine Greek: , ''Penthékti Sýnodos''), i.e. the Fifth-Sixth Council, often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod, was a church council held in 692 at Cons ...
in 692: *The five junior Patriarchates created after the consolidation of the Pentarchy, in chronological order of their recognition as Patriarchates by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople:


Patriarchs outside the Eastern Orthodox Communion


Oriental Orthodox Churches


Church of the East

Catholicose of the East is the title that has been held by the ecclesiastical heads of the
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
, the Grand Metropolitan of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, since AD. 280. It refers to
Patriarchs of the Church of the East The Patriarch of the Church of the East was a patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority ...
, primate (Catholicos-Patriarch) of the Church of the East now divided into: * Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East. * Catholicos-Patriarchs of the Ancient Church of the East (since 1964)


Manichaeism

The term patriarch has also been used for the leader of the extinct, dualist, heretical Manichaeist sect, initially based at
Ctesiphon Ctesiphon ( ; Middle Persian: 𐭲𐭩𐭮𐭯𐭥𐭭 ''tyspwn'' or ''tysfwn''; fa, تیسفون; grc-gre, Κτησιφῶν, ; syr, ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢThomas A. Carlson et al., “Ctesiphon — ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer last modi ...

Ctesiphon
(near modern-day
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
) and later at
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The Reg ...

Samarkand
.


Other Christian denominations

The title of "Patriarch" is assumed also by the leaders of certain
Christian denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
, who are seldom in communion with none of the historic Christian Churches. Many, but not necessarily all such patriarchs are church leaders of the following Churches: ;Hussite *The Patriarch of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church mainly in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
and also some parts of
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
. ;Independent Catholic *The Patriarch of the
Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church , image =Emblema da Igreja Católica Apostólica Brasileira.png , imagewidth = , caption =Emblem of the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church , main_classification = Western Christian 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the larges ...
in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
(Not officially used, but described in a similarly holy level). *The Patriarch of the Venezuelan Catholic Apostolic Church in
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
. *The Patriarch of the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch.When a woman was elected head of this Church, she was styled
Matriarch Matriarchy is a social system In sociology, social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions. It is the formal Social structure, structure of role a ...

Matriarch
.
*The Patriarch of the
Apostolic Catholic Church The Apostolic Catholic Church (ACC) is an independent Catholic church founded by John Florentine L. Teruel in 1992 in the Philippines. The church's goal is to mediate and unite the Western Rite or the Roman Catholic Church, and the Eastern Rite or ...
, in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. ;Independent Eastern Catholic *The Patriarch of the
Ukrainian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church The Ukrainian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church (UOGCC) is an unregistered Eastern Independent Catholic Independent Catholicism is a denominational movement of clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functi ...
in
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. ;Independent Eastern Orthodox *The Patriarch of the
American Orthodox Catholic ChurchThe American Orthodox Catholic Church (AOCC), also known as the American Orthodox Catholic Church – American Patriarchate (AOCC-AP) or the Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in North America (HEOCACNA), and sometimes simply the Ame ...
. ;Independent Oriental Orthodox *The Patriarch of the
British Orthodox Church The British Orthodox Church, formerly known as the Orthodox Church of the British Isles, is a small independent Oriental Orthodox church defining its mission to the people of the British Isles. It has not been in communion with any of the Orienta ...
. ;Protestant *The Patriarch of the International Communion of the
Charismatic Episcopal Church The Charismatic Episcopal Church, officially the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church (ICCEC), is a Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct religious Religion is a - of designated and practi ...
. ;Latter Day Saint movement In the
Latter Day Saint movement The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christianity, Christian Restorationism, Restora ...
, a
patriarch The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, ...
is one who has been ordained to the office of patriarch in the
Melchizedek priesthood The priesthood of Melchizedek is a role in Abrahamic religions, modelled on Melchizedek, combining the dual position of king and priest. Hebrew Bible Melchizedek is a king and priest appearing in the Book of Genesis. The name means "King of Rig ...
. The term is considered synonymous with the term evangelist, a term favored by the Community of Christ. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, one of the patriarch's primary responsibilities is to give patriarchal blessings, as Jacob did to his twelve sons according to the Old Testament. Patriarchs are typically assigned in each Stake (Mormonism), stake and possess the title for life.


See also

* List of current patriarchs * Lists of Patriarchs * Catholicos * Patriarchate * Patriarchy * Matriarchy * List of Bishops and Archbishops * Major archbishop * List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow


References


Further reading

*


External links


Current and former patriarchates of the Catholic Church (GCatholic)


* [http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/data/type-patr.htm Current patriarchates of the Catholic Church (GCatholic)].
WorldStatesmen - Religious Organisations
* * {{Authority control Church patriarchs, Catholic ecclesiastical titles Episcopacy in Eastern Orthodoxy Episcopacy in Oriental Orthodoxy Christian terminology