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The Ottoman Navy ( ota, دوننماى همايون, Donanma-yı Humâyûn or tr, Osmanlı Donanması), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing
Karamürsel Karamürsel is a town and district located in northwestern Turkey, in the province of Kocaeli Province, Kocaeli. The mayor is İsmail Yıldırım (Justice and Development Party (Turkey), AKP). Karamürsel is on the coast of Izmit Bay and has beaut ...

Karamürsel
, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy. During its long existence, it was involved in many conflicts and signed a number of maritime treaties. At its height, the Navy extended to the Indian Ocean, sending an expedition to Indonesia in 1565. For much of its history, the Navy was led by the position of the
Kapudan Pasha The Kapudan Pasha ( ota, قپودان پاشا, modern Turkish Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (''İstanbul Türkçesi'') or Turkey Turkish (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages The ...
(Grand Admiral; literally "Captain Pasha"). This position was abolished in 1867, when it was replaced by the Minister of the Navy ( tr, Bahriye Nazırı) and a number of
Fleet Commanders Fleet may refer to: Vehicles *Fishing fleet *Naval fleet *Fleet vehicles, a pool of motor vehicles *Fleet Aircraft, the aircraft manufacturing company Places Canada *Fleet, Alberta, Canada, a hamlet England *Chesil Beach#The Fleet Lagoon, The F ...
( tr, Donanma Komutanları). After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
in 1923, the Navy's tradition was continued under the modern
Turkish Naval Forces The Turkish Naval Forces ( tr, ), or Turkish Navy ( tr, ) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, ...
.


History


Pre-Ottoman Turkish fleets

The first Turkish naval fleet in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, which consisted of 33 sail ships and 17 oar ships, was formed at the port of
Smyrna Smyrna ( ; grc, Σμύρνη, Smýrnē, or grc, Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
(
İzmir Izmir ( , ; tr, İzmir, ) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the İzmir Province, province of the same name. It is the list of cities in Turkey, third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara; ...

İzmir
) by
Tzachas Tzachas ( gr, Τζαχᾶς, Tzachás), also known as Chaka Bey ( tr, Çaka Bey)"Tzachas" is the Hellenized form of a Turkish language, Turkish name which does not appear in any historical documents, but was likely "Chaka", "Chagha", or "Chaqan" ...
in 1081, following his conquest of Smyrna, Vourla (
UrlaUrla may refer to: * Urla, İzmir, a district of Izmir Province, Turkey * Urla, Raipur, a town in Chhattisgarh, India {{geodis ...
), Kysos (
Çeşme Çeşme () is a coastal town and the administrative centre of the district of the same name in Turkey's westernmost end, on a promontory on the tip of the peninsula that also carries the same name and that extends inland to form a whole with the ...

Çeşme
),
Phocaea Phocaea or Phokaia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...
(
Foça Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean Sea, Aegean coast. The town of Foça is situated at about northwest of İzmir's city center. The district also has a township with its own municipality named Yenifoça (lit ...

Foça
) and Teos ( Sığacık) on the Aegean coast of Anatolia in that same year. Tzachas's fleet raided
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly con ...
in 1089 and
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Mast ...

Chios
in 1090, before defeating a
Byzantine fleet The Byzantine navy was the navy, naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. Like the empire it served, it was a direct continuation from its Roman navy, Imperial Roman predecessor, but played a far greater role in the defence and survival ...
near the
Oinousses Islands
Oinousses Islands
off Chios on 19 May 1090, which marked the first major naval victory of the Anatolian Turks in a naval battle. In 1091 Tzachas's fleet raided the islands of
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a sep ...
and
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
in the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
, but was then defeated and driven out by the
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
admirals Constantine Dalassenos and John Doukas. In 1095 Tzachas's fleet raided the strategic port city and Gulf of Adramyttium ( Edremit) on the Aegean coast of Anatolia and the city of Abydos on the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
Strait.
Seljuq sultan of Rûm
Seljuq sultan of Rûm
Kayqubad I Kayqubad I or Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw ( fa, علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيخسرو; tr, I. Alâeddin Keykûbad, 1190–1237) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237. He expanded the borders of th ...

Kayqubad I
conquered
Alaiye Alaiye () is the medieval Seljuq dynasty, Seljuq name for Alanya (on the southern coast of Turkey). It refers to the city-state in a specific period and the Anatolian beyliks, beylik which developed around there, at times under the Karamanids, Kar ...
(
Alanya Alanya (; ), formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort town, resort city and a district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, Turkey, Mediterranean Region, east of the city of Antalya. As of Turkey's ...

Alanya
) and formed a naval arsenal there. Alanya became the homeport of the Seljuk fleet in the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Kayqubad I later formed a fleet in the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
based in Sinope ( Sinop), which, under the command of Amir Chupan, conquered parts of the
Crimean peninsula Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula along the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up ...

Crimean peninsula
and
Sugdak
Sugdak
on the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
(1220–1237).


Rise (1299–1453)


Expansion to the Aegean, Black, Ionian and Adriatic Seas

The conquest of the island of Kalolimno (
İmralı Island
İmralı Island
) in the
Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara,; grc, Προποντίς, Προποντίδα, Propontís, Propontída also known as the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or cl ...

Sea of Marmara
in 1308 marked the first Ottoman naval victory. The Ottoman fleet made its first landings on
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
in 1321. The first Ottoman fortress in Europe was built in 1351, and the Anatolian shores of the strategic
Bosporus The Bosporus () or Bosphorus (;The spelling ''Bosporus'' is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.gOxford Online Dictionaries
Strait near
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
in 1352, and both shores of the equally strategic
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
Strait were conquered by the Ottoman fleet. In 1373 the first landings and conquests on the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
shores of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
were made, which was followed by the first Ottoman siege of
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica () is the second-largest city in Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...

Thessaloniki
in 1374. The first Ottoman conquest of Thessaloniki and Macedonia were completed in 1387. Between 1387 and 1423 the Ottoman fleet contributed to the territorial expansions of the Ottoman Empire on the Balkan peninsula and the Black Sea coasts of Anatolia. Following the first conquests of Venetian territories in
Morea The Morea ( el, Μορέας or ) was the name of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in sou ...

Morea
, the first Ottoman-Venetian War (1423–1430) started. In the meantime, the Ottoman fleet continued to contribute to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Aegean and Black Seas, with the conquests of Sinop (1424),
Izmir
Izmir
(1426) and the reconquest of Thessaloniki from the Venetians (1430).
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
was reconquered by the Ottoman fleet with landings between 1448 and 1479.


Growth (1453–1683)

In 1453 the Ottoman fleet participated in the historic conquests of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
,
Gökçeada Imbros or İmroz, officially Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities in Greece And Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), ''Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange ...
,
Lemnos Lemnos or Limnos ( el, Λήμνος; grc, Λῆμνος) is a Greece, Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Lemnos (regional unit), Lemnos regional unit, whic ...

Lemnos
and
Thasos Thasos or Thassos ( el, Θάσος, ''Thásos'') is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Thasos
. The conquest of the
Duchy of Athens The Duchy of Athens (Greek language, Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, ''Doukaton Athinon''; Catalan language, Catalan: ''Ducat d'Atenes'') was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during ...
and the
Despotate of the Morea The Despotate of the Morea ( el, Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras ( el, Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the E ...
was completed between 1458 and 1460, followed by the conquest of the
Empire of Trebizond The Empire of Trebizond, or Trapezuntine Empire, was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: ...
and the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
colony of
Amasra Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, ''gen''. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeas ...

Amasra
in 1461, which brought an end to the final vestiges of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
. In 1462 the Ottoman fleet conquered the Genoese islands of the northern Aegean Sea, which were administered by the Gattilusio family, including their capital Mytilene in the island of
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly con ...
. This was followed by the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1463-1479. In the following period the Ottoman fleet gained more territory in the Aegean Sea, and in 1475 set foot on
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural ...

Crimea
on the northern shores of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. Until 1499 this was followed by further expansion on the Black Sea coasts (such as the conquest of Georgia in 1479) and on the Balkan peninsula (such as the final reconquest of Albania in 1497, and the conquest of Montenegro in 1499). The loss of Venetian forts in Montenegro, near the strategic
Castelnuovo
Castelnuovo
, triggered the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1499-1503, during which the Turkish fleet of
Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman privateer and List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, who accompanied him in most of his ...
defeated the Venetian forces at the
Battle of Zonchio The naval Battle of Zonchio ( tr, Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22, and 25 August 1499. It was a part of the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1 ...
(1499) and the Battle of Modon (1500). By 1503 the Ottoman fleet raided the northeastern
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
coasts of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, and completely captured the Venetian lands on
Morea The Morea ( el, Μορέας or ) was the name of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in sou ...

Morea
, the
Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ("our sea")) is an elongated bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, suc ...

Ionian Sea
coast and the southeastern
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
coast. According to
Kâtip Çelebi Kâtip Çelebi (), or Ḥājjī Khalīfa ()), Muṣṭafa Ben Hājī Khalīfah, Haji Khalifa, Hajji Khalifeh, Hazi Halife, Hadschi Chalfa, Khalfa, Kalfa, etc. (*1017 AH/1609 AD – d. 1068 AH/1657 AD); was the celebrated Ottoman- Turkish polyma ...
a typical Ottoman fleet in the mid-17th century consisted of 46 vessels (40 galleys and 6 maona's) whose crew was 15,800 men, roughly two-thirds (10,500) were oarsmen, and the remainder (5,300) fighters.


Expansion to the Levant and Maghreb, operations in the West Mediterranean

Starting from the conquest of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
in 1516, the Ottoman fleet of
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire fr ...

Selim I
started expanding the Ottoman territories towards the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
and the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
coasts of
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. Between 1516 and 1517
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
was conquered from Spain by the forces of
Oruç Reis Oruç Reis ( ota, عروج ريس; es, Aruj; 1474–1518) was an Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and ...
, who declared his allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, which was followed by the conquest of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
and the end of the Mameluke Empire in 1517. In 1522 the strategic island of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
, then the seat of the Knights of St. John, was conquered by the naval fleet of Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis;
Suleiman I
Suleiman I
let the Knights leave the island, and they relocated their base first to Sicily and later to Malta. In 1527 the Ottoman fleet participated in the conquest of
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Slavonia Slavonia (; hr, Slavonija) is, with , , and , one of the four of . Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five : , , , , and , although the territory of the counties includes , and the definition of the western exte ...

Slavonia
, and
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...
. In 1529 the Ottoman fleet under
Salih Reis Salah Rais ( tr, Salih Reis) (c. 1488 – 1568) was an Ottoman privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until t ...
and Aydın Reis destroyed the Spanish fleet of Rodrigo Portundo near the Isle of
Formentera Formentera (, ) is the smallest and more southerly island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on ...

Formentera
. This was followed by the first conquest of
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
from Spain and the reconquest of
Morea The Morea ( el, Μορέας or ) was the name of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in sou ...

Morea
by the forces of
Hayreddin Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr), also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis (c. 1466/1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral ...

Hayreddin Barbarossa
, whose fleet later conquered the islands belonging to the Duchy of Naxos in 1537. Afterwards, the Ottoman fleet laid siege on the Venetian island of
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch ...

Corfu
, and landed on the coasts of
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
and
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
, which forced the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
and
Habsburg Spain Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700) when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern ...
ruled by
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
to ask the Pope to create a Holy League consisting of Spain, the Republic of Venice, the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
, the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
and the
Knights of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta ( it, Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; l ...

Knights of Malta
. The joint fleet was commanded by Charles V's leading admiral,
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
. The Holy League and the Ottoman fleet under the command of Hayreddin Barbarossa met in September 1538 at the
Battle of Preveza The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman fleet and that of a Holy League (1538), Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which ...
, which is often considered the greatest Turkish naval victory in history. In 1543 the Ottoman fleet participated with French forces in the
siege of Nice The siege of Nice occurred in 1543 and was part of the Italian War of 1542–46 in which Francis I of France, Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent collaborated as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Hol ...
, which at the time was part of the Duchy of Savoy. Afterwards,
Francis I of France Francis I (french: François Ier; frm, Francoys; 12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his first cousin once ...
enabled the Ottoman fleet to overwinter in the French harbor of
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
. This unique Ottoman wintering in Toulon (sometimes inaccurately called an occupation; the Ottomans merely stayed the winter and did not impose any form of governance on the populace) allowed the Ottomans to attack Habsburg Spanish and Italian ports (enemies of France); they left Toulon in May 1544.
Matrakçı Nasuh Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, commonly known as Matrakçı Nasuh (; ) for his competence in the game of Matrak, invented by himself, (also known as ''Nasuh el-Silâhî'', ''Nasuh the Swordsman'', because of his talent w ...
, a 16th-century Ottoman
Janissary A Janissary ( ota, يڭيچرى ' , meaning "new soldier") was a member of the elite infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, perso ...

Janissary
,
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific pro ...

polymath
, and swordmaster, reportedly participated in the wintering in Toulon. In 1541, 1544, 1552 and 1555, the Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria was defeated in
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in ...

Algiers
,
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
,
Ponza Ponza (Italian: ''isola di Ponza'' ) is the largest island of the Italy, Italian Pontine Islands archipelago, located south of Cape Circeo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is also the name of the commune of the island, a part of the province of Latina i ...
, and
Piombino Piombino is an Italy, Italian town and ''comune'' of about 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany). It lies on the border between the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma ...
, respectively.


Operations in the Indian Ocean and the final conquests in North Africa

In the meantime, the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet, based in
Suez Suez ( ar, السويس '; ) is a Port#Seaport, seaport city (population of about 750,000 ) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having ...

Suez
and
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
, defeated the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
forces on several occasions near the
Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabian peninsula
, conquering
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni Arabic, Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately ...

Aden
and
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
(1538–1539) which were important Portuguese ports, along with
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
,
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
coast. The Ottoman siege of Diu in 1538, which aimed to remove the Portuguese from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, failed to achieve this goal. Between 1547 and 1548, Yemen was reconquered from the Portuguese, while in the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
and
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
, other important Portuguese ports such as
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
and
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares it ...

Qatar
were conquered in 1552, but the Ottomans failed to take
Hormuz Island Hormuz Island (; fa, جزیره هرمز ''Jazireh-ye Hormoz''), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), i ...

Hormuz Island
and therefore the control of the Persian Gulf remained firmly in Portuguese hands. In 1565 the
Sultanate of Aceh The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam ( ace, Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially ...

Sultanate of Aceh
in
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia S ...

Sumatra
(
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
) declared allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, and in 1569 the Ottoman fleet of Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis sailed to new ports such as
Debal Debal (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region cons ...
,
Surat Surat is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Surat
, Janjira and finally set foot on
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...
with a well-equipped fleet of 22 ships, which marked the easternmost Ottoman territorial expansion. The Ottoman naval victory at the
Battle of Preveza The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman fleet and that of a Holy League (1538), Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which ...
in 1538 and the
Battle of Djerba The Battle of Djerba ( tr, Cerbe) took place in May 1560 near the island of Djerba, Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = ...
in 1560 ensured the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea for several decades, until the Ottomans suffered their first ever military defeat at the hands of the Europeans at the
Battle of Lepanto (1571) The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic states arranged by Pope Pius V Pope Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislier ...
. But the defeat at Lepanto, despite being much celebrated in Europe, was only a temporary setback: it could not reverse the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus, and within a year, the Ottomans built an equally large fleet, which in 1574 conquered Tunisia from Spain. This completed the Ottoman conquest of
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, following the operations of the Ottoman fleet under
Turgut Reis Dragut ( tr, Turgut Reis) (1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God ...
which had earlier conquered
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...
(1551); and of the fleet under
Salih Reis Salah Rais ( tr, Salih Reis) (c. 1488 – 1568) was an Ottoman privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until t ...
which had conquered the coasts of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
beyond the
Strait of Gibraltar The Strait of Gibraltar ( ar, مضيق جبل طارق, Maḍīq Jabal Ṭāriq; es, Estrecho de Gibraltar, Archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also no ...

Strait of Gibraltar
in 1553.


Operations in the Atlantic Ocean

Starting from the early 17th century, the Ottoman fleet began to venture into the Atlantic Ocean (earlier,
Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman privateer and List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, who accompanied him in most of his ...
had sailed to the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
in 1501, while the fleet of Murat Reis the Elder had captured Lanzarote of the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
in 1585).Turkish Navy Official Website: "Atlantik'te Türk Denizciliği"
Szkk.tsk.tr
In 1617 the Ottoman fleet captured Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean, before raiding Sussex, Plymouth, Devon, Hartland Point, Cornwall and the other counties of western England in August 1625. In 1627 Ottoman naval ships, accompanied by Barbary corsairs under the leadership of Murat Reis the Younger, captured the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel, which served as the main base for Ottoman naval and privateering operations in the North Atlantic for the next five years. They raided the Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, Denmark-Norway, Iceland and Vestmannaeyjar. Between 1627 and 1631 the same Ottoman force also raided the coasts of Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and Swedish Empire, Sweden. Ottoman ships later appeared off the eastern coasts of North America, particularly being sighted at the English colonies like Colony of Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Virginia.


Black Sea operations

Before the Ottomans, the , Alaeddin Keykubad I, had formed a
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
fleet based in Sinop, which, under the command of Amir Chupan, had conquered parts of the
Crimean peninsula Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula along the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up ...

Crimean peninsula
and on the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
between 1220 and 1237. In the years following their fall of Constantinople, conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Turks had dominated the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
with their fleets of galleys. In 1475, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II employed 380 galleys under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, whose fleet conquered the Greeks, Greek Principality of Theodoro together with the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
-administered
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural ...

Crimea
n port towns of Balaklava, Cembalo, Sudak, Soldaia, and Feodosiya, Caffa ("Kefe" in Turkic languages.) As a result of these conquests, starting from 1478, the Crimean Khanate became a vassal state and protectorate of the Ottoman Empire, which lasted until 1774. The failure of the Siege of Malta (1565), siege of Malta in 1565 and the victory of the Holy League navies over the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 indicated that the pendulum was beginning to swing the other way, but the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
was, for a time, regarded as a "Turkish Lake".Charles King, ''The Black Sea: a History'', Oxford University Press, 2004 pp. 125, 131, 133–134 For over a hundred years Ottoman naval supremacy in the Black Sea rested on three pillars: the Ottoman Turks controlled the Turkish Straits and the mouth of the Danube; none of the states in the region could muster an effective naval force; and the virtual absence of piracy on the Black Sea. However, after the 1550s, it was the start of frequent naval raids by Zaporozhian Cossacks that marked a major change in control of the Black Sea. The Cossacks' keelless rowing boats, called chaika (boat), chaikas, could accommodate up to seventy men and outfitted with cannonades, the boats made formidable sea vessels. They had the advantage over the Ottoman galleys in that being small, and low in the water, they were difficult to spot and highly manoeuvrable. In the early 1600s the Cossacks were able to assemble fleets of up to 300 such boats and send them to every corner of the Black Sea. They began attacking large towns such as Feodosiya, Caffa, Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, Trabzon, and even the suburbs of Istanbul, Constantinople. w:fr:Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan, Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan, a French military engineer, provided a first-hand account of the Cossack operations and their tactics against the Turkish ships and towns on the Black Sea Coast. The high point of the Cossack attacks came in 1637, when a large party of Zaporozhian and Don Cossacks laid siege to the fortress of Azov. After a two-month land and sea battle, the fortress was conquered by the Cossacks. The Ottoman Navy also engaged in blockades of Georgia (country), Georgia's western coast during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in order to coerce local kingdoms into submission.


Stagnation (1683–1827)

In the rest of the 17th and 18th centuries, however, the operations of the Ottoman fleet were largely limited to the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
,
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
,
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
,
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
and the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
. The long lasting Cretan War (1645–1669), Ottoman-Venetian War of 1645–1669 ended with Ottoman victory and the completion of the conquest of Crete, marking the Empire's territorial zenith. In 1708 another long-lasting objective, the conquest of Oran (the final Spanish stronghold in Ottoman Algeria, Algeria) was accomplished. The 18th century was a period of stalemate for the Ottoman fleet, with numerous victories matched by equally numerous defeats. Important Ottoman naval victories in this period included the reconquest of Moldavia and Azov from the Russian Empire, Russians in 1711. The Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718), Ottoman–Venetian War of 1714–1718 saw the reconquest of Morea from the Venetians and the elimination of the last Venetian island strongholds in the Aegean. However, during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Chesme (1770). The next Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) again saw numerous naval defeats at the hands of the Russian Black Sea Fleet under Admiral Fyodor Ushakov. During the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829), the Greek rebel navy consisting of converted merchant ships originally challenged Ottoman naval supremacy in the Aegean, blockading Ottoman forts in the Morea and contributing to their capture by Greek land forces. Following the intervention of the Egypt Eyalet, Ottoman eyalet of Egypt in 1824, the far superior Ottoman-Egyptian fleet under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ibrahim Pasha gained the upper hand and successfully invaded Crete and the Morea until the arrival of the combined British Empire, British-Bourbon Restoration in France, French-Russian Empire, Russian fleets which destroyed most of the Ottoman-Egyptian naval force at the Battle of Navarino in 1827.


Danube fleet

The size of the Danube fleet of the Ottoman Navy at the time of the Great Turkish War in the late 17th century was 52 vessels (4 galliots, 28 frigates and 20 flat-bottomed river boats) manned by 4,070 crew.


Decline (1827–1908)

The 19th century saw further decline in Ottoman naval power, despite occasional recovery. Following the defeat against the combined British-French-Russian fleet at the Battle of Navarino in 1827, Sultan Mahmud II gave priority to develop a strong and modern Ottoman naval force. The first steam ships of the Ottoman Navy were acquired in 1828. In 1829 the world's largest warship for many years, the 201 x 56 ''Traditional Turkish units of measurement#List of units, kadem'' (1 ''kadem'' = 37.887 cm) or ship of the line , which had 128 cannons on 3 decks and carried 1,280 sailors on board, was built for the Ottoman Navy at the Imperial Arsenal (Ottoman Empire), Imperial Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Constantinople. In the 1830s, about 2.500 Christian sailors (mainly Armenians and Greeks) were recruited in the Ottoman navy. This caused negative reactions from the Christian communities. Many Greeks from Rhodos and Chios fled to the neighboring smaller islands. In 1847 Christian sailors demanded their own priests and chapels on the warships, which was refused on the basis of Sharia. The Great Admiral and the Great Vizier were in favour of the Christians' demands, but the Sheih ul-Islam declared that Christian services on board were equivalent to the construction of new churches, and thus forbidden by the religious law. In 1875, during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz, the Ottoman Navy had 21 battleships and 173 other types of warships, ranking as the third largest navy in the world after the British and French navies. But the vast size of the navy was too much of a burden for the Ottoman public debt, collapsing Ottoman economy to sustain. Abdülhamid II was aware that the empire needed a navy to shield herself from the ever-growing Russian threat. However, the Ottoman public debt, Ottoman economic crisis of 1875 and the additional financial burden of the disastrous Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) deprived the Ottoman Empire from the financial resources and Ottoman Public Debt Administration, economic independence to maintain and modernize a large fleet. The second half of the 19th century was a period of breakthroughs in the field of naval engineering. The Ottoman Navy was rapidly becoming obsolete, and needed to replace all her warships once a decade to keep up with the pace in technological progress – which, given the dismal state of the economy, was clearly not an option. The aforementioned submarines were an attempt to gain an edge over the Greek navy (which had only one Nordenfelt submarine, a smaller and older version). However, it was quickly realized that – like the other Nordenfelt submarines ordered by Russia – they suffered from stability problems and were too easy to swamp on the surface. The Turks could not find a crew that was willing to serve on the primitive submarines. ''Abdül Hamid'' ended up rotting at dock, while ''Abdül Mecid'' was never fully completed.


Dissolution (1908–1922)

Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress which effectively took control of the country sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force. The poor condition of the fleet became evident during the Ottoman Naval Parade of 1910, and the ''Ottoman Navy Foundation'' was established in order to purchase new ships through public donations. Those who made donations received different types of medals according to the size of their contributions. In 1910, the Ottoman Navy purchased two pre-dreadnought battleships from Germany: and her sister ship . These ships were renamed and , respectively. The Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912 and the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 proved disastrous for the Ottoman Empire. In the former, the Italians occupied Ottoman Tripolitania (present-day Libya) and the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean Sea and the Regia Marina defeated Ottoman light naval forces in the battles of Battle of Preveza (1911), Preveza, Battle of Beirut (1912), Beirut and Battle of Kunfuda Bay, Kunfuda Bay. In the latter, a smaller Greek fleet successfully engaged with Ottoman battleships in the naval skirmishes of Battle of Elli, Elli and Battle of Lemnos (1913), Lemnos. The better condition of the Greek fleet in the Aegean Sea during the Balkan Wars led to the liberation of all Ottoman-held Aegean islands other than those in the Italian-occupied Dodecanese. It also prevented Ottoman reinforcements and supplies to the land battles on the Balkan peninsula, where the Balkan League emerged victorious. The only Ottoman naval successes during the Balkan Wars were the raiding actions of the light cruiser under the command of Rauf Orbay. In the aftermath of the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans remained engaged in a dispute over the sovereignty of the North Aegean islands with Greece. A naval race ensued in 1913–1914, with the Ottoman government ordering large dreadnought battleships like and with the aforementioned public donations made to the Ottoman Navy Foundation. Although Istanbul had made full payment for both battleships and sent a Turkish delegation to Britain to collect them after the completion of their sea trials, the United Kingdom confiscated them at the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 and renamed them as and . This caused considerable ill-feeling towards Britain among the Ottoman public, and the German Empire took advantage of the situation when the battlecruiser and light cruiser arrived at the Dardanelles and entered service in the Ottoman Navy as and , respectively. These events significantly contributed to the Sublime Porte, Porte's decision to enter the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. However, Germany and the Ottomans had already signed a secret alliance, the Ottoman-German alliance on 2 August 1914, before the British naval seizures.


World War I and aftermath

The Ottomans' first military action in the First World War was a surprise attack by the Ottoman Navy on the Russian Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914. The naval raid prompted Russia and its allies, Britain and France, to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914. During WWI, the Ottoman Navy engaged the Entente Powers in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. In 1915 at the Battle of Gallipoli, the Royal Navy, British and French Navy, French fleets failed to pass through the Dardanelles, Dardanelles Strait (''Çanakkale Boğazı'') thanks to the heavy Turkish fortifications lining the Strait, mining by Turkish minelayers like ''Nusret'', and fierce fighting by the Turkish soldiers on land, sea and air. During the battle, the British submarine sank on 8 August 1915. In the last year of World War I, while returning from a bombardment mission of the Allied port of Mudros on the Greek island of
Lemnos Lemnos or Limnos ( el, Λήμνος; grc, Λῆμνος) is a Greece, Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Lemnos (regional unit), Lemnos regional unit, whic ...

Lemnos
, ''Midilli'' ran into a minefield between Lemnos and
Gökçeada Imbros or İmroz, officially Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities in Greece And Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), ''Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange ...
on 20 January 1918, and sank after being severely damaged by five consecutive mine hits. During the mission, ''Midilli'', together with ''Yavuz Sultan Selim'', had managed to sink the British warships and , as well as a 2,000-ton transport ship, and had Battle of Imbros (1918), bombarded the port of Mudros, together with the communication posts and air fields of the Allies on the other parts of Lemnos. The battlecruiser ''Yavuz Sultan Selim'' became one of the most active Ottoman warships throughout the First World War; she bombarded numerous ports on the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
and
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
, while engaging with Russian dreadnought battleships of the and sinking a number of Russian and British warships and transport vessels. Following the end of World War I, the victorious Allies of World War I, Allies dissolved the Ottoman Navy and the large ships of the Ottoman fleet were towed to the Prince Islands in the
Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara,; grc, Προποντίς, Προποντίδα, Propontís, Propontída also known as the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or cl ...

Sea of Marmara
under the control of Allied warships, or locked inside the Golden Horn. Some of them were scrapped. After the independence of the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
in 1923, the remaining major warships of the former Ottoman fleet, such as the battlecruiser , the pre-dreadnought battleship Ottoman battleship Turgut Reis, TCG ''Turgut Reis'', protected cruisers and , torpedo cruisers and , destroyers , and , and torpedo boats , , and were overhauled, repaired and modernized, while new ships and submarines were acquired.


Admirals

Famed Ottoman admirals include: *
Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman privateer and List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, who accompanied him in most of his ...
, who twice defeated the Venetian fleet at the Battle of Zonchio, First Battle of Lepanto in 1499 and the Battle of Lepanto (1500), Second Battle of Lepanto in 1500 *
Hayreddin Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr), also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis (c. 1466/1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral ...

Hayreddin Barbarossa
, who defeated the fleet of the Holy League of
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
under the command of
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
at the island of Algiers, Peñón in 1531,
Battle of Preveza The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman fleet and that of a Holy League (1538), Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which ...
in 1538 and Algiers expedition (1541), Algiers in 1541 *
Turgut Reis Dragut ( tr, Turgut Reis) (1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God ...
(known as Dragut in the West), who conquered Libya in 1551 and defeated the fleet of
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
under the command of
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
at the Battle of
Ponza Ponza (Italian: ''isola di Ponza'' ) is the largest island of the Italy, Italian Pontine Islands archipelago, located south of Cape Circeo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is also the name of the commune of the island, a part of the province of Latina i ...
in 1552 * Piyale Pasha, who defeated the Holy League of Philip II of Spain under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria at the
Battle of Djerba The Battle of Djerba ( tr, Cerbe) took place in May 1560 near the island of Djerba, Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = ...
in 1560 * Aruj, who established the Ottoman presence in North Africa which lasted four centuries *
Salih Reis Salah Rais ( tr, Salih Reis) (c. 1488 – 1568) was an Ottoman privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until t ...
, who conquered
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
in 1553 and extended Ottoman territory into the Atlantic Ocean * Uluç Ali Reis, Uluç (Kılıç) Ali Reis, who restored the Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean after the Battle of Lepanto (1571), Third Battle of Lepanto in 1571 and conquered
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
from Spain in 1574 * Murat Reis the Elder, Murat Reis, who fought the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese in the Indian Ocean between 1552 and 1554 and captured Lanzarote of the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
in the Atlantic Ocean in 1585 * Seydi Ali Reis (known as Sidi Ali Reis in the West), who fought the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean in 1554 and is famous for his books of travel which have been translated into many languages * Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (known as Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis, Curtogoli in the West), who played an important role in the conquests of Egypt in 1517 and
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
in 1522, and established the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet based in
Suez Suez ( ar, السويس '; ) is a Port#Seaport, seaport city (population of about 750,000 ) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having ...

Suez
which was later commanded by his son, Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, who led the Ottoman naval expedition to
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...
(1568–1569) which marked the easternmost territorial expansion of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
The Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis crafted maps and books of navigation, including Piri Reis map, his first world map (1513) which is one of the oldest surviving maps of Americas, America and possibly the oldest surviving map of Antarctica. The first world map (1513) and second world map (1528) of Piri Reis are today preserved at the Library of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. Other works of Piri Reis are preserved at the Istanbul Naval Museum, Naval Museum in Istanbul.


Gallery

Image:Göke (1495) the flagship of Kemal Reis.jpg , "Göke" (1495) was the flagship of
Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman privateer and List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, who accompanied him in most of his ...
File:Barbarossa galley in France 1543.jpg, Hayreddin Barbarossa, Barbarossa's galley during his Siege of Nice, campaign in France (1543–1544) Image:Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha.jpg,
Hayreddin Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr), also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis (c. 1466/1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral ...

Hayreddin Barbarossa
Image:Dragut Monument Palm Globe Istanbul.jpg , Dragut, Turgut Reis File:Piri_reis.jpg , Piri Reis File:Piyale Pasha bust at Istanbul Naval Museum.JPG , Piali Pasha, Piyale Pasha File:Uluc.jpg , Uluç Ali Reis File:Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Paşa büstü.JPG , Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, Gazi Hasan Pasha File:Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Paşa - Bahriye Nazırlığı.jpg, Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Pasha (1890) File:Mirliva Osman Pasha.jpg , Ali Osman Pasha File:Fuat Husnu Kayacan.jpg , Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan File:Bayramlık Büyük Üniforma.jpg , Naval uniform 1910 File:Selamlık Üniforma.jpg , Naval uniform 1909–1916 File:Setre Takımı.jpg , Naval uniform 1909–1916 File:Günlük Siyah Üniforma.jpg , Naval uniform 1916–1925 File:Günlük Beyaz Üniforma.jpg , Naval uniform 1916–1925 File:Firle-Ali Riza-Ahmed Saffed.jpg , Naval uniforms as of 1915 File:Muzaffer Adil Bey.jpg , Muzaffer Adil Bey File:Rauf orbay2.jpg , Rauf Orbay File:Necip Okaner.jpg , Necip Okaner


Ships

* List of battleships of the Ottoman Empire * List of cruisers of the Ottoman Navy * List of major surface ships of the Ottoman steam navy * List of mine warfare vessels of the Ottoman steam navy * List of non-combat vessels of the Ottoman steam navy * List of patrol vessels of the Ottoman steam navy * List of sail frigates of the Ottoman Empire * List of ships of the line of the Ottoman Empire * List of wrecked or lost ships of the Ottoman steam navy


See also

* List of Ottoman sieges and landings * List of Fleet Commanders of the Ottoman Navy * List of Kapudan Pashas * Turkish Navy * ''The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors''


References and sources


Bibliography

* E. Hamilton Currey, ''Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean'' (London, 1910). * Bono, Salvatore: ''Corsari nel Mediterraneo'' (''Corsairs in the Mediterranean'') (Perugia, Oscar Storia Mondadori, 1993);
Corsari nel Mediterraneo: Condottieri di ventura. Online database in Italian, based on Salvatore Bono's book.
* Bradford, Ernle, ''The Sultan's Admiral: The life of Barbarossa'' (London, 1968). * Wolf, John B., ''The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks'' (New York, 1979). * Melis, Nicola, "The importance of Hormuz for Luso-Ottoman Gulf-centred policies in the 16th century: Some observations based on contemporary sources", in R. Loureiro-D. Couto (eds.), ''Revisiting Hormuz – Portuguese Interactions in the Persian Gulf Region in the Early Modern Period'' (Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2008, 107–120 (Maritime Asia, 19). * Tuncay Zorlu, ''Innovation and Empire in Turkey: Sultan Selim III and the Modernisation of the Ottoman Navy'' (London, I.B. Tauris, 2011).


External links


The Ottomans: Comprehensive and detailed online chronology of Ottoman history in English.

Turkish Navy official website: Historic heritage of the Turkish Navy (in Turkish)

Turkish Navy official website: Turkish seamen in the Atlantic Ocean (in Turkish)

Istanbul Naval Museum Official Website

History of the Ottoman Navy



Representations in popular culture

* The Ottoman Navy and Admiral
Hayreddin Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr), also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis (c. 1466/1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral ...

Hayreddin Barbarossa
are depicted in the nove
The Sultan's Admiral: Barbarossa: Pirate and Empire Builder
by Ernle Bradford. * The Ottoman Navy, Admiral
Turgut Reis Dragut ( tr, Turgut Reis) (1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God ...
, and the Siege of Malta are depicted in the nove
The Religion
by Tim Willocks. * The Ottoman Navy and Admiral
Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman privateer and List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, who accompanied him in most of his ...
are portrayed in the nove
The Sultan's Helmsman
by Robert Colburn. {{Ottoman Empire topics Ottoman Navy, Naval history of the Ottoman Empire, Military units and formations disestablished in 1923