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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
and the
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Generally, OECD members are high-income economies with a very high
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(HDI) and are regarded as
developed countries A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...
. As of 2017, the OECD member countries collectively comprised 62.2 % of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion) and 42.8 % of global GDP ( Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity. The OECD is an official
United Nations observer The United Nations General Assembly has granted observer status to international organizations, entities, and non-member Sovereign state, states, to enable them to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitati ...
. In 1948, the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), led by
Robert Marjolin Robert Marjolin (27 July 1911 – 15 April 1986) was a French economist and politician involved in the formation of the European Economic Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization that aimed to bring about ...
of France, was established to help administer the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
(which was rejected by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and its
satellite state A satellite state is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state ...
s). This would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states. The OECD's headquarters are at the
Château de la Muette The Château de la Muette () is a château A château (; plural: châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor, or a country house of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal fami ...

Château de la Muette
in Paris, France. The OECD is funded by contributions from member countries at varying rates and had a total budget of €386 million in 2019. The OECD is recognised as a highly influential publisher of mostly economic data through publications as well as annual evaluations and rankings of member countries.


History


Organisation for European Economic Co-operation

The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
for the reconstruction of Europe after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan". The organisation started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the
Committee of European Economic Co-operation The Committee of European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) was a joint European conference to determine the priorities for the recovery of the European economy after World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WW ...
in 1947 in preparation for the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
. Since 1949, it has been headquartered in the
Château de la Muette The Château de la Muette () is a château A château (; plural: châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor, or a country house of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal fami ...

Château de la Muette
in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues. In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a
European Free Trade Area At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history. Note that there are also a number of bilateral free trade agreements between states and between trade blocks; and that some s ...
, to bring the
European Economic Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Economic Community
of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a
European Nuclear Energy Agency The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coop ...
was set up under the OEEC By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.


Founding

Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the
European Economic Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Economic Community
, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960, and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada. Three countries, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy—all OEEC members—ratified the OECD Convention after September 1961 but are nevertheless considered founding members. The official founding members are: *Austria *Belgium *Canada *Denmark *France *Germany *Greece *Iceland *Ireland *Italy *Luxembourg *Netherlands *Norway *Portugal *Spain *Sweden *Switzerland *Turkey *United Kingdom *United States During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation.
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country. The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961),
International Energy Agency The International Energy Agency (IEA; french: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estima ...
(IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering. Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see
-ise Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography, the two most notable variations being British and Ameri ...
/
-ize Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography English orthography is the system of writing convention ...
).


Enlargement to Central Europe

In 1989, after the
Revolutions of 1989 The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is often also called the Fall of Communism, and some ...
, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the
Visegrád Group The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, V4, or European Quartet, is a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, ar ...
) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Czechoslovakia
, Hungary, and Poland. This programme also included a membership option for these countries. As a result of this, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
, as well as Mexico and South Korea became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.


Reform and further enlargement

In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995,
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or poli ...

Cyprus
applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. In 1996,
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
, and
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become members of the OECD.
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, l ...

Slovenia
also applied for membership that same year. In 2005,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
applied to join the organisation. The EU is lobbying for the admission of all
EU member states The European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total populat ...
.
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister
Victor Ponta Victor Viorel Ponta (; born 20 September 1972) is a Romanian jurist and politician, who served as Prime Minister of Romania between his appointment by President Traian Băsescu in May 2012 and his resignation in November 2015. A former member ...
to then-OECD-Secretary-General
José Ángel Gurría José Ángel Gurría Treviño, also known as Ángel Gurría, (born 8 May 1950) is a Mexican people, Mexican economist and diplomat. Since 1 June 2006, he has been the Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmen ...
. In September 2012, the government of
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
confirmed it will apply for membership before the OECD Secretariat. The OECD established a working group headed by ambassador Seiichiro Noboru to work out a plan for the enlargement with non-members. The working group defined four criteria that must be fulfilled: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 May 2004. On 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
, Estonia,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, China, India,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement. Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Annexation of Crimea. In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Amer ...

Costa Rica
and Lithuania. Latvia became a member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania on 5 July 2018. Colombia signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and became a member on 28 April 2020. On 15 May 2020, the OECD decided to extend a formal invitation for Costa Rica to join the OECD, and joined as a member on 25 May 2021. Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
.


Objectives and issues


Taxation

The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings). Additionally, the OECD has published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of inter-company transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20. Finance officials from 130 countries agreed on July 1, 2021 to plans for a new international taxation policy. All the major economies agreed to pass national laws that would require corporations to pay at least 15% income tax in the countries they operate. This new policy would end the practice of locating world headquarters in small countries with very low taxation rates. Governments hope to recoup some of the lost revenue, estimated at $100 billion to $240 billion each year. The new system was promoted by the Biden Administration in the United States and the OECD. Secretary-General
Mathias Cormann Mathias Hubert Paul Cormann (; ; born 20 September 1970) is a former Australian politician and the secretary-general designate of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), due to take office on 1 June 2021. He served as M ...
of the OECD said, "This historic package will ensure that large multinational companies pay their fair share of tax everywhere."


Multinational corporations

The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are a set of legally non-binding guidelines attached as an annex to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. They are recommendations providing principles and standards for responsible business conduct for
multinational corporations A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Nat ...
operating in or from countries adhering to the Declaration.


Bid rigging

The OECD's work on
bid rigging Bid rigging is a fraudulent scheme in procurement auctions resulting in non-competitive bids and can be performed by corrupt officials, by firms in an orchestrated act of collusion Collusion is a deceitful agreement or secret cooperation betwee ...
includes the publication of guidelines for fighting this practice in the context of public procurement. In a Policy Brief issued in October 2008, OECD noted that "programmes to systematically educate procurement officials exist in only a few OECD countries". "Guidelines for Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement" were published in 2009, and incorporated into a "Recommendation on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement" which was adopted on 17 July 2012, calling on member governments "to assess their public procurement laws and practices at all levels of government in order to promote more effective procurement and reduce the risk of bid rigging in public tenders".


Publications

The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers, and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via
OECD iLibrary OECD iLibrary is OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental economic organisatio ...

OECD iLibrary
. The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.


Books

The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship titles include: * The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries. The OECD exceptionally published the 2020 Economic Outlook on June 10, 2020 to adjust economic forecasts greatly impacted by the
Coronavirus Coronaviruses are a group of related Orthornavirae, RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some ca ...
since the March Interim Economic Outlook. The June Economic Outlook assesses the economic impact of COVID-19 and provides projections for economic impact if a second outbreak were to occur. * The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators. * The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in
Excel Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a computer application for organization, analysis, and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets were developed as computerized analogs of paper accounting worksheets. The program oper ...
format via StatLinks. * The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies. * In 2007 the OECD published ''Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life'', the first book in the ''OECD Insights'' series. This series uses OECD analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration. All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives.


Magazine

''OECD Observer'', an award-winning magazineHighly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see articl

was launched in 1962. The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the ''OECD Yearbook'', launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation. The online and mobile editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information. An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.


Statistics

The OECD is known as a List of national and international statistical services, statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on numerous subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators. OECD statistics are available in several forms: * as interactive charts on the OECD Data Portal, *as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables, * as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal, * as StatLinks (in most OECD books, there is a
URL A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

URL
that links to the underlying data).


Working papers

There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.


Reference works

The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a ''de facto'' standard (i.e., soft law). It has published the ''OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030'', which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
,
biodiversity loss Biodiversity loss includes the extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
,
water scarcity Water scarcity (water stress or water crisis) is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand. Humanity is facing a water crisis, due to unequal distribution (exacerbated by climate change Climate change inclu ...

water scarcity
, and the health impacts of
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...

pollution
—is both achievable and affordable.


Structure

The OECD's structure consists of three main elements: * The OECD member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation. * The OECD Substantive
Committees A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals. * The OECD
Secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its central administrative or general secretary duties. The term is especially associated with government ...
, led by the Secretary-General (currently
Mathias Cormann Mathias Hubert Paul Cormann (; ; born 20 September 1970) is a former Australian politician and the secretary-general designate of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), due to take office on 1 June 2021. He served as M ...
), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organised into Directorates, which include about 2,500 staff.


Meetings

Delegates from the member countries attend committee and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat. This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations. In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration. The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, member countries, and non-member countries. Noteworthy meetings include: * The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries. * The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM. * Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.). * The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies. * The Forum for Harmful Tax Practices * The Committee on Fiscal Affairs * OECD Eurasia Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.


Secretariat

Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas. The secretariat is organised in Directorates: * Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities *
Centre for Tax Policy and AdministrationThe Centre for Tax Policy and Administration is part of the Secretariat of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de ...
* Development Co-operation Directorate * Directorate for Education and Skills * Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs * Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs * Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation * Economics Department * Environment Directorate * Public Governance Directorate * Statistics Directorate * Trade and Agriculture Directorate * General Secretariat * Executive Directorate * Public Affairs and Communication Directorate * Public Affairs and Communication Directorate * General Secretariat * Trade and Agriculture Directorate * Environment Directorate


Secretary-General

The head of the OECD Secretariat and chair of the OECD Council is the Secretary-General. Secretary-General selections are made by
consensus Consensus decision-making or consensus politics (often abbreviated to ''consensus'') is group decision-making processes in which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or requirement, of acceptance by all. The focus on es ...
, meaning all member states must agree on a candidate.


Committees

Representatives of member and observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.


Special bodies

OECD has a number of specialised bodies: * Africa Partnership Forum * Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) *
Development Assistance Committee The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic or ...
* OECD Development Centre * International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport) *
International Energy Agency The International Energy Agency (IEA; french: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estima ...
*
Nuclear Energy Agency The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coop ...
* Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN) * Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG) * Sahel and West Africa Club * Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC)


Decision-making process

OECD decisions are made through voting, which requires unanimity among all of those voting. However, dissenting members which do not wish to block a decision but merely to signal their disapproval can abstain from voting.


Member countries


Current members

As of May 2021 there are 38 members of the OECD. The
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU member states.
Dependent territories A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in São Paulo after breaking the news of Independence of Brazi ...

Dependent territories
of member states are not members in their own right, but may have membership as part of their controlling state. As of January 2021, the Dutch territory of the
Caribbean Netherlands The Caribbean Netherlands ( nl, Caribisch Nederland, ) are the three #Administration, special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea. They consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba,"Bonaire, Sin ...

Caribbean Netherlands
and the British territories of
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the spoken in . It is sometimes known on the island simply as "". As one of the , it has its roots in , ...

Guernsey
,
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coa ...

Jersey
, the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
,
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
, and
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
''are'' members of the OECD. Territories of other OECD member states are not members of the OECD.


Former members

Free Territory of Trieste The Free Territory of Trieste was an independent territory situated in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. ...
(Zone A) was member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity.


Countries whose accession talks are suspended

In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean Annexation and continuous human and civil rights abuses.


Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council

* * * * * *


See also

* Frascati Manual *
German Marshall Fund The German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF) is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete ...
*
Good laboratory practice In the experimental (non-clinical) research arena, good laboratory practice or GLP is a quality system of management controls for research laboratories and organizations to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, qualit ...
*
International organisations in EuropeThe following table lists the independent Europe#Political geography, European states, and their memberships in selected organisations and treaties. Table 1 These countries are currently not participating in the EU's single market (EEA), but t ...
* List of country groupings *
List of multilateral free-trade agreements This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally. For agreements between two countries, between a bloc and a country, or between two blocs, see list of bilateral free-trade agreements; these are ...
*
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
*
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (officially Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions) is an anti-corruption convention of the OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and D ...
*
OECD Better Life IndexThe OECD Better Life Index, created in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiqu ...
*
OECD Environmental Performance ReviewsThe OECD Environmental Performance Reviews programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving domestic and international environmental policy commitments. The programme has completed over 60 reviews that aim to help imp ...
*
OECD iLibrary OECD iLibrary is OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental economic organisatio ...

OECD iLibrary
(replaced SourceOECD in July 2010) * OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship * Official development assistance * Transfer pricing


Notes


References


External links


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OECD iLibrary – OECD's portal for books, reports, statistics, working papers and journals

SDG Pathfinder
- explore content on SDGs from six international organisations (powered by the OECD)
OECD 60th anniversary
{{DEFAULTSORT:Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development OECD, International economic organizations International trade organizations Organizations based in Paris Organizations established in 1948 United Nations General Assembly observers 16th arrondissement of Paris Forecasting organizations International organizations based in France