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Oceania (, , ) is a
geographic region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic reg ...

geographic region
that includes
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( enviro ...
,
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
,
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
and
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a s ...

Polynesia
. Spanning the
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 41 million. When compared with the
continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in area to small ...
s, the region of Oceania is the smallest in
land area This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territ ...
and the second smallest in population after
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oce ...

Antarctica
. Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive
financial markets A financial market is a market (economics), market in which people trade financial Security (finance), securities and derivative (finance), derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and Bond (finance), bonds, raw ...
of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
,
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , subd ...

New Caledonia
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
,
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise" , song_type = Territorial anthem , song = "Ia Ora 'O Tahiti Nui" , image_map = French Polynesia on the globe (French Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt ...
and
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, a ...

Hawaii
, which rank high in
quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public heal ...

quality of life
and
human development index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average (see below) time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current a ...
, to the much less developed economies such as
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
, Indonesian New Guinea,
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese language, Gilbertese: '' ibaberikiKiribati''),
,
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
and
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
, while also including medium-sized economies of
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific
islands such as
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, and togethe ...

Palau
,
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
and
Tonga Tonga (; Tongan language, Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan language, Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising List of islands and towns in Tonga, 169 islan ...

Tonga
. The largest and most populous country in Oceania is Australia, and the largest city is
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia ...

Sydney
. The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60,000 years ago. Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward.
Portuguese navigators Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Descobrimentos portugueses'') are the numerous territories and maritime routes recorded by the Portugal, Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and ...
, between 1512 and 1526, reached the
Tanimbar Islands The Tanimbar Islands, also called ''Timur Laut'', are a group of about 65 islands in the Maluku province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia' ...
, some of the
Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small numbe ...
and west
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
. On his first voyage in the 18th century,
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milita ...

James Cook
, who later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiian Islands, went to
Tahiti Tahiti (; Tahitian language, Tahitian ; ; previously also known as Otaheite) is the largest island of the Windward Islands (Society Islands), Windward group of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, located in the central part of the Pacific ...

Tahiti
and followed the
east coast of Australia East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to eas ...
for the first time. The Pacific front saw major action during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
, mainly between Allied powers the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...
, and Axis power
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic
identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cultural identity, a person's self-affiliation (or categorization by others ...
. The
rock art In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural surfaces, typically vertical stone surfaces. A high proportion of surviving historic and prehistoric rock art is found in caves or partly enclosed rock shelters; this type also ma ...
of
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Islands, and Groote Eylandt, but excluding the Torr ...
is the longest continuously practised artistic tradition in the world.
Puncak Jaya Puncak Jaya (; literally Glorious Peak) or Carstensz Pyramid, Mount Jayawijaya or Mount Carstensz is the highest mountain in Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a countr ...
in Papua is the highest peak in Oceania at 4,884 metres. Most Oceanian countries are
multi-party In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and as ...
representative Representative may refer to: Politics *Representative democracy, type of democracy in which elected officials represent a group of people *House of Representatives, legislative body in various countries or sub-national entities *Legislator, someone ...
parliamentary democracies A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fro ...
, with
tourism at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourism
being a large source of income for the
Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arcti ...
nations.


Definition and extent

Definitions of Oceania vary. The broadest definition of Oceania encompasses the many transitional islands in the sea between
Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict crite ...
and the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...
, with
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
being the only piece of land in the area large enough to constitute a continent. The culture of the people who lived on these islands was distinct from that of Asia and pre-Columbus America, hence the lack of association with either. Before the advent of
Europeans The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by common genetic ancestry, common language, or ...
into the area, the sea barrier shielded Australia and Oceanian islands from cultural influences that raged through large continental land masses and adjacent islands. This is a common bond that ties the entire region together. Islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania are generally considered to be the
Bonin Islands The Bonin Islands, also known as the , or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small num ...
, a politically integral part of
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
;
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, a ...

Hawaii
, a state of the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
;
Clipperton Island Clipperton Island (french: link=no, Île de Clipperton or french: Île de la Passion, label=none; es, link=no, Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is from Paris, France, from Papeete, Tahiti, a ...
, a possession of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
; the
Juan Fernández Islands The Juan Fernández Islands ( es, Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group in the South Pacific Ocean reliant on tourism and fishing. Situated off the coast of Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of C ...
, belonging to
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
; and
Macquarie Island Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica. Regionally part of Oceania and politically a part of Tasmania, Australia, since 1900, it became a Protec ...
, belonging to Australia. (The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
has its own geopolitical definition of Oceania, but this consists of discrete political entities, and so excludes the Bonin Islands, Hawaii, Clipperton Island and the Juan Fernández Islands, along with
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. The island is most famous for its nearly ...
and the
Galápagos Islands The Galápagos Islands (official name: , other Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de ...
.) The geographer
Conrad Malte-Brun Conrad Malte-Brun (12 August 177514 December 1826), born Malthe Conrad Bruun, and sometimes referred to simply as Malte-Brun, was a Danish people, Dano-French people, French geographer and journalist. His second son, Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun, was ...
coined the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
expression ''Terres océaniques'' (Oceanic lands) 1804., then in 1814 another French, , coined from this expression the shorter "Océanie" putting it on a map, « ''Océanie, ou cinquième partie du monde, comprenant l’archipel d’Asie, l’Australasie et la Polynésie (ou le continent de la Nouvelle Hollande et les îles du Grand Océan)'' ». ''Océanie'' derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
word , and this from the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
word (''ōkeanós''), "ocean". The term ''Oceania'' is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the parts of the region together. In the used by the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, CIO) is a non-governmental Sports governing body, sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Founded by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1 ...
, and by many atlases, Oceania includes Australia and the nations of the Pacific from Papua New Guinea east, but not Indonesian New Guinea. In some countries, such as Brazil, Oceania is regarded as a continent in the sense of "one of the parts of the world", and the concept of Australia as a continent does not exist. Some geographers group the Australian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one "quasi-continent" called Oceania.


History


Australia

Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are ...

Africa
to
Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict crite ...
around 70,000 years ago and arrived in Australia around 50,000 years ago. They are believed to be among the earliest human migrations out of Africa. Although they likely migrated to Australia through Southeast Asia they are not demonstrably related to any known Asian or Polynesian population. There is evidence of genetic and linguistic interchange between Australians in the far north and the Austronesian peoples of modern-day
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
and the islands, but this may be the result of recent trade and intermarriage. They reached
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. Th ...
approximately 40,000 years ago by migrating across a
land bridge Image:Pm-map.png, upright=1.3, The Isthmus of Panama is a land bridge whose appearance 3 million years ago allowed the Great American Interchange In biogeography, a land bridge is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate are ...
from the mainland that existed during the last
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...

ice age
. It is believed that the first
early human migration Early human migrations are the earliest Human migration, migrations and expansions of Homo, archaic and modern humans across continents. They are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the early expansions of hominin ...
to Australia was achieved when this landmass formed part of the
Sahul continent The continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in ...
, connected to the island of New Guinea via a land bridge. The
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are ...
are indigenous to the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait () is a strait between Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Ta ...

Torres Strait
Islands, which are at the northernmost tip of
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wale ...

Queensland
near
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
. The earliest definite human remains found in Australia are that of
Mungo ManMungo (also spelled Moungo) may refer to: People * Mungo (name), a list of people with the given name or surname * Mungo people, an ethnic group in Cameroon Places * Mungo, Angola, a town and municipality * Mungo National Park, Australia * La ...

Mungo Man
, which have been dated at about 40,000 years old.


Melanesia

The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan-speaking people. Migrating from South-East Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands archipelago, including
Makira The island of Makira (also known as San Cristobal) is the largest island of Makira-Ulawa Province in the Solomon Islands. It is third most populous island after Malaita and Guadalcanal, with a population of 55,126 as of 2020. The island is loca ...
and possibly the smaller islands farther to the east. Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the
Austronesian people The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples.


Micronesia

Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers. There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis. The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; c ...

Saipan
, dated to 1500 BC or slightly before. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4,000 years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on
Yap Yap ( yap, Waqaab) traditionally refers to an island group located in the Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island ch ...

Yap
and
Pohnpei Pohnpei "upon (''pohn'') a stone altar (''pei'')" (formerly known as Ponape or Ascension, Proto-Chuukic-Pohnpeic: ''*Fawo ni pei'') is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei S ...

Pohnpei
. The prehistories of many Micronesian islands such as Yap are not known very well. The first people of the Northern Mariana Islands navigated to the islands and discovered it at some period between 4000 BC to 2000 BC from
South-East Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the southeastern subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the ...
. They became known as the
Chamorros The Chamorro people (; also CHamoru) are the indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particul ...
. Their
language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original soun ...
was named after them. The ancient Chamorro left a number of megalithic ruins, including
Latte stone, Hagåtña, Guam , az, GUAM Demokratiya və İqtisadi İnkişaf naminə Təşkilat , ro, GUAM Organizația pentru Democrație și Dezvoltare Economică , linking_name = GUAM , symbol_type = Logo , image_symbol ...
. The Refaluwasch or
Carolinian people Carolinians are Micronesian people, Micronesian ethnic group who originated in Oceania, in the Caroline Islands, with a total population of around 8,500 people. They are also known as ''Remathau'' in the Yap's outer islands. The Carolinian wor ...
came to the Marianas in the 1800s from the
Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small numbe ...
. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the
2nd millennium BC The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban de ...
, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.


Polynesia

The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating
Austronesian people The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
and tracing
Polynesian languages The Polynesian languages form a genealogical group of languages, itself part of the Oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also call ...

Polynesian languages
places their
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study ...
origins in the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( Indonesian/ Malay: ''Kepulauan Melayu''; Tagalog: ''Kapuluang Malay''; Cebuano: ''Kapupud-ang Malay''; Javanese: ''Nusantara'') is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island ...

Malay Archipelago
, and ultimately, in
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...
. Between about 3000 and 1000 BCE speakers of
Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages () are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
began spreading from Taiwan into Island South-East Asia, as tribes whose
natives Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the b ...
were thought to have arrived through South China about 8,000 years ago to the edges of western Micronesia and on into Melanesia. In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty. It is thought that by roughly 1400 BC, "
Lapita The Lapita culture is the name given to a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by ...
Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the
Bismarck Archipelago The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's second-largest island, and with an area of , t ...
of north-west Melanesia. Easter Islanders claimed that a chief Hotu Matu'a discovered the island in one or two large canoes with his wife and extended family. They are believed to have been
Polynesian Polynesian is the adjectival form of Polynesia. It may refer to: * Polynesians, an ethnic group * Polynesian culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia * Polynesian mythology, the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia * Polyne ...
. Around 1200, Tahitian explorers discovered and began settling the area. This date range is based on glottochronological calculations and on three radiocarbon dates from charcoal that appears to have been produced during forest clearance activities. Moreover, a recent study which included radiocarbon dates from what is thought to be very early material suggests that the island was discovered and settled as recently as 1200.


European exploration

Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onwards. Portuguese navigators, between 1512 and 1526, reached the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in the east of Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west ...

Maluku Islands
(by António de Abreu and in 1512),
Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the ...

Timor
, the
Aru Islands The Aru Islands Regency ( id, Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about ninety-five low-lying islands in the Maluku (province), Maluku Provinces of Indonesia, province of eastern Indonesia. They also form a regency of Maluku (province), Maluku, ...
(Martim A. Melo Coutinho), the
Tanimbar Islands The Tanimbar Islands, also called ''Timur Laut'', are a group of about 65 islands in the Maluku province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia' ...
, some of the
Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small numbe ...
(by
Gomes de Sequeira Gomes de Sequeira was a Portuguese explorer in the early 16th century. It has been suggested by some historians that Gomes de Sequeira may have sailed to the northeast coast of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, ...
in 1525), and west
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
(by
Jorge de Menezes Jorge de Menezes (c. 1498 – 1537) was a Portuguese explorer, who in 1526–27 landed on the islands of Biak ( Cenderawasih Bay), whilst he awaited the passing of the monsoon season, and on the northern coasts of the Bird's Head Peninsula, call ...
in 1526). In 1519, a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...

Spanish
expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan sailed down the east coast of South America, found and sailed through the Strait of Magellan, strait that bears his name and on 28 November 1520 entered the ocean which he named "Pacific". The three remaining ships, led by Magellan and his captains Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão, then sailed north and caught the trade winds which carried them across the Pacific to the Philippines where Magellan was killed. One surviving ship led by Juan Sebastián Elcano returned west across the Indian Ocean and Trinidad (ship), the other went north in the hope of finding the westerlies and reaching Mexico. Unable to find the right winds, it was forced to return to the East Indies. The Timeline of Magellan's circumnavigation, Magellan-Elcano expedition achieved the first circumnavigation of the world and reached the Philippines, the Mariana Islands and other islands of Oceania. From 1527 to 1595 a number of other large Spanish expeditions crossed the Pacific Ocean, leading to the arrival in Marshall Islands and
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, and togethe ...

Palau
in the North Pacific, as well as
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
, the Marquesas Islands, Marquesas, the Solomon Islands archipelago, the Cook Islands and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, sailed to Pitcairn Islands, Pitcairn and
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
archipelagos, and sailed the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait () is a strait between Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Ta ...

Torres Strait
between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Willem Janszoon, made the first completely documented European landing in Australia (1606), in Cape York Peninsula. Abel Tasman, Abel Janszoon Tasman circumnavigated and landed on parts of the Australian continental coast and discovered Van Diemen's Land (now
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. Th ...
), New Zealand in 1642, and
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
islands. He was the first known European explorer to reach these islands. On 23 April 1770 British explorer
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milita ...

James Cook
made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point, New South Wales, Bawley Point. On 29 April, Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Silver Beach (Kurnell), Kurnell Peninsula. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal. His expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline of Australia.


European settlement and colonisation

In 1789 the Mutiny on the Bounty against William Bligh led to several of the mutineers escaping the Royal Navy and settling on Pitcairn Islands, which later became a British colony. Britain also established colonies in Australia in 1788, New Zealand in 1840 and Colonial Fiji, Fiji in 1872, with much of Oceania becoming part of the British Empire. The Gilbert Islands (now known as
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese language, Gilbertese: '' ibaberikiKiribati''),
) and the Ellice Islands (now known as
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
) came under Britain's sphere of influence in the late 19th century. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a protectorate, French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of Papeete, Papeetē was founded in 1843. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Napoleon III, Admiral Auguste Febvrier Despointes, Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia and Port-de-France (Nouméa) was founded 25 June 1854. The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed in the Marshall Islands in 1529. They were named by Adam Johann von Krusenstern, Krusenstern, after English explorer John Marshall (British captain), John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert (captain), Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Guangzhou, Canton (two ships of the First Fleet). In 1905 the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over south-east New Guinea to Australia (which renamed the area "Territory of Papua"); and in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. The Marshall Islands were claimed by Spain in 1874. Germany established colonies in New Guinea in 1884, and German Samoa, Samoa in 1900. The United States also expanded into the Pacific, beginning with Baker Island and Howland Island in 1857, and with Hawaii becoming a Territory of Hawaii, U.S. territory in 1898. Disagreements between the US, Germany and UK over Samoa led to the Tripartite Convention (1899), Tripartite Convention of 1899.


Modern history

One of the first land offensives in Oceania was the Occupation of German Samoa in August 1914 by New Zealand Defence Force, New Zealand forces. The campaign to take Samoa ended without bloodshed after over 1,000 New Zealanders landed on the German colony. Australian forces attacked German New Guinea in September 1914. A company of Australians and a British warship besieged the Germans and their colonial subjects, ending with a German surrender. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor,
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, a ...

Hawaii
, on the morning of 7 December 1941. The attack led to the Military history of the United States during World War II, United States' entry into World War II. The Japanese subsequently invaded New Guinea, Solomon Islands and other Pacific islands. The Japanese were turned back at the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Kokoda Track campaign before they were finally defeated in 1945. Some of the most prominent Oceanic battlegrounds were the Battle of Bita Paka, the Solomon Islands campaign, the Bombing of Darwin, Air raids on Darwin, the Kokoda Track campaign, Kokada Track, and the Borneo campaign. The United States fought the Battle of Guam (1944), Battle of Guam from July 21 to August 10, 1944, to recapture the island from Japanese military occupation. Australia and New Zealand became British Dominions, dominions in the 20th century, adopting the Statute of Westminster 1931, Statute of Westminster Act in 1942 and 1947 respectively. In 1946, Polynesians were granted French citizenship and the islands' status was changed to an overseas administrative territorial entity, overseas territory; the islands' name was changed in 1957 to ''Polynésie Française'' (
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise" , song_type = Territorial anthem , song = "Ia Ora 'O Tahiti Nui" , image_map = French Polynesia on the globe (French Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt ...
). Hawaii became a U.S. state in 1959.
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
and
Tonga Tonga (; Tongan language, Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan language, Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising List of islands and towns in Tonga, 169 islan ...

Tonga
became independent in 1970. On 1 May 1979, in recognition of the evolving political status of the Marshall Islands, the United States recognized the constitution of the Marshall Islands and the establishment of the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The South Pacific Forum was founded in 1971, which became the Pacific Islands Forum in 2000.


Geography

Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean, stretching from the Strait of Malacca to the coast of the Americas. It comprised four regions: ''
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a s ...

Polynesia
'', ''
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
'', ''Malaysia'' (now called the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( Indonesian/ Malay: ''Kepulauan Melayu''; Tagalog: ''Kapuluang Malay''; Cebuano: ''Kapupud-ang Malay''; Javanese: ''Nusantara'') is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island ...

Malay Archipelago
), and ''
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
''. Today, parts of three geological continents are included in the term "Oceania": Eurasia, Australia, and Zealandia (continent), Zealandia, as well the non-continental volcanic islands of the Philippines, Wallacea, and the open Pacific. Oceania extends to New Guinea in the west, the
Bonin Islands The Bonin Islands, also known as the , or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small num ...
in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Easter Island, Rapa Nui and Isla Salas y Gómez, Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and
Macquarie Island Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica. Regionally part of Oceania and politically a part of Tasmania, Australia, since 1900, it became a Protec ...
in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands, and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. In its periphery, Oceania sprawls 28th parallel north, 28 degrees north to the Bonin Islands in the northern hemisphere, and 55th parallel south, 55 degrees south to Macquarie Island in the southern hemisphere. Oceanian islands are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral island, coral platforms. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville Island, Bougainville, Hawaii, and Solomon Islands. Oceania is one of eight terrestrial biogeographic realms, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. Related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled. Although the majority of the Oceanian islands lie in the South Pacific, a few of them are not restricted to the Pacific Ocean – Kangaroo Island and Ashmore and Cartier Islands, for instance, are situated in the Southern Ocean and Indian Ocean, respectively, and West Coast, Tasmania, Tasmania's west coast faces the Southern Ocean. The coral reefs of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba Island, Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise" , song_type = Territorial anthem , song = "Ia Ora 'O Tahiti Nui" , image_map = French Polynesia on the globe (French Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt ...
. File:Oceania Political Map (EEZ based).png, upright=1.5, Exclusive economic zones of Pacific states and territories


Regions

Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands in the northwest, the
Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small numbe ...
in the center, the Marshall Islands to the west and the islands of
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese language, Gilbertese: '' ibaberikiKiribati''),
in the southeast.
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
, to the southwest, includes
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Maluku Islands, Maluku Islands Archipelago, the
Bismarck Archipelago The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's second-largest island, and with an area of , t ...
, the Solomon Islands archipelago, Santa Cruz Islands, Santa Cruz,
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
,
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
and
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , subd ...

New Caledonia
.
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a s ...

Polynesia
, stretching from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south, also encompasses
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
, Tokelau, Samoa,
Tonga Tonga (; Tongan language, Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan language, Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising List of islands and towns in Tonga, 169 islan ...

Tonga
and the Kermadec Islands to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands and Austral Islands in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotus, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands, and
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. The island is most famous for its nearly ...
to the east.
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( enviro ...
comprises Australia, New Zealand, the island of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. Along with India most of Australasia lies on the Indo-Australian Plate with the latter occupying the Southern area. It is flanked by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Southern Ocean to the south.


Geology

The Pacific Plate, which makes up most of Oceania, is an oceanic Plate tectonics, tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At , it is the largest tectonic plate. The plate contains an interior Hotspot (geology), hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands. It is almost entirely oceanic crust. The oldest member disappearing by way of the plate tectonics cycle is early-Cretaceous (145 to 137 million years ago). Australia, being part of the Indo-Australian plate, is the lowest, flattest, and oldest landmass on Earth and it has had a relatively stable geological history. Geological forces such as tectonic uplift of mountain ranges or clashes between tectonic plates occurred mainly in Australia's early history, when it was still a part of Gondwana. Australia is situated in the middle of the tectonic plate, and therefore currently has no active volcanism. The geology of New Zealand is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal Geothermal areas in New Zealand, areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate and Pacific Plates. Much of the basement rock of New Zealand was once part of the super-continent of Gondwana, along with South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Antarctica and Australia. The rocks that now form the continent of Zealandia (continent), Zealandia were nestled between Eastern Australia and Western Antarctica. The Australia-New Zealand continental fragment of Gondwana split from the rest of Gondwana in the late Cretaceous time (95–90 Ma). By 75 Ma, Zealandia was essentially separate from Australia and Antarctica, although only shallow seas might have separated Zealandia and Australia in the north. The Tasman Sea, and part of Zealandia then locked together with Australia to form the Australian Plate (40 Ma), and a new plate boundary was created between the Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. Most islands in the Pacific are high islands (volcanic islands), such as,
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. The island is most famous for its nearly ...
, American Samoa and
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
, among others, having peaks up to 1300 m rising abruptly from the shore. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands were formed approximately 7 to 30 million years ago, as shield volcanoes over the same volcanic Hotspot (geology), hotspot that formed the Emperor Seamounts to the north and the Main Hawaiian Islands to the south. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is above mean sea level.


Flora

The most diverse country of Oceania when it comes to the environment is Australia, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the centre. Deserts of Australia, Desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. The Eastern Australian temperate forests, coastal uplands and a Brigalow Belt, belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland. The northernmost point of the east coast is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula. Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include sclerophyll, scleromorphy and serotiny. These adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae (''Banksia''), Myrtaceae (''Eucalyptus'' – gum trees), and Fabaceae (''Acacia'' – wattle). The flora of Fiji, Solomon Islands,
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
and
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , subd ...

New Caledonia
is tropical dry forest, with tropical vegetation that includes palm trees, premna protrusa, psydrax odorata, gyrocarpus americanus and derris trifoliata. New Zealand's landscape ranges from the fjord-like sounds of the southwest to the tropical beaches of the far north. South Island is dominated by the Southern Alps. There are 18 peaks of more than 3000 metres (9800 ft) in the South Island. All summits over 2,900 m are within the Southern Alps, a chain that forms the backbone of the South Island; the highest peak of which is Aoraki / Mount Cook, at . Earthquakes are common, though usually not severe, averaging 3,000 per year. There is a wide variety of native trees, adapted to all the various micro-climates in New Zealand. In Hawaii, one endemic plant, ''Brighamia'', now requires hand-pollination because its natural pollinator is presumed to be extinct. The two species of ''Brighamia'' – ''B. rockii'' and ''B. insignis'' – are represented in the wild by around 120 individual plants. To ensure these plants set seed, biologists rappel down cliffs to brush pollen onto their stigmas.


Fauna

The aptly-named Pacific kingfisher is found in the Pacific Islands, as is the Red-vented bulbul, Polynesian starling, Brown goshawk, Pacific Swallow and the Cardinal myzomela, among others. Birds breeding on Pitcairn include the fairy tern, common noddy and red-tailed tropicbird. The Pitcairn reed warbler, endemic to Pitcairn Island, was added to the endangered species list in 2008. Native to Hawaii is the Hawaiian crow, which has been extinct in the wild since 2002. The brown tree snake is native to northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Papua New Guinea, Guam and Solomon Islands. Native to Australia, New Guinea and proximate islands are birds of paradise, honeyeaters, Australasian treecreeper, Australasian robin, kingfishers, butcherbirds and bowerbirds. A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placentalia, placental mammals, and dominance of the marsupials – a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch (marsupial), pouch, including the Macropodidae, macropods, Phalangeriformes, possums and dasyuromorphia, dasyuromorphs. The passerines of Australia, also known as songbirds or perching birds, include wrens, the Artamidae, magpie group, Acanthiza, thornbills, corvids, pardalotes, lyrebirds. Predominant bird species in the country include the Australian magpie, Australian raven, the pied currawong, crested pigeons and the laughing kookaburra. The koala, emu, platypus and kangaroo are national animals of Australia, and the Tasmanian devil is also one of the well-known animals in the country. The goanna is a predatory lizard native to the Australian mainland. The birds of New Zealand evolved into an avifauna that included a large number of endemism, endemic species. As an island archipelago New Zealand accumulated bird diversity and when Captain James Cook arrived in the 1770s he noted that the bird vocalization, bird song was deafening. The mix includes species with unusual biology such as the kakapo which is the world's only flightless, nocturnal, Lek mating, lek breeding parrot, but also many species that are similar to neighboring land areas. Some of the more well known and distinctive bird species in New Zealand are the Kiwi (bird), kiwi, kea, takahe, kakapo, Yellowhead (bird), mohua, Tui (bird), tui and the New Zealand bellbird, bellbird. The tuatara is a notable reptile endemic to New Zealand.


Climate

The Pacific Islands are ruled by a tropical rainforest and tropical savanna climate. In the tropical and subtropical Pacific, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather conditions. In the tropical western Pacific, the monsoon and the related wet season during the summer months contrast with dry winds in the winter which blow over the ocean from the Asian landmass. November is the only month in which all the tropical cyclone basins are active. To the southwest of the region, in the Australian landmass, the climate is mostly desert or Semi-arid climate, semi-arid, with the southern coastal corners having a Temperateness, temperate climate, such as oceanic climate, oceanic and humid subtropical climate in the east coast and Mediterranean climate in the west. The northern parts of the country have a tropical climate. Snow falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, New South Wales,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. Th ...
and in the Australian Capital Territory. Most regions of New Zealand belong to the temperate zone with a maritime climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) characterised by four distinct seasons. Conditions vary from extremely wet on the West Coast, New Zealand, West Coast of the South Island to almost Semi-arid climate, semi-arid in Central Otago and subtropical in North Auckland Peninsula, Northland. Snow falls in New Zealand's South Island and at higher altitudes in the North Island. It is extremely rare at sea level in the North Island. Hawaii, although being in the tropics, experiences many different climates, depending on latitude and its geography. The Hawaii (island), island of Hawaii for example hosts 4 (out of 5 in total) climate groups on a surface as small as according to the Köppen climate types: tropical, arid, temperate and polar. The Hawaiian Islands receive most of their precipitation during the winter months (October to April). A few islands in the northwest, such as Guam, are susceptible to typhoons in the wet season. The highest recorded temperature in Oceania occurred in Oodnadatta, South Australia (2 January 1960), where the temperature reached . The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oceania was , at Ranfurly, New Zealand, Ranfurly in Otago in 1903, with a more recent temperature of recorded in 1995 in nearby Ophir, New Zealand, Ophir.
Pohnpei Pohnpei "upon (''pohn'') a stone altar (''pei'')" (formerly known as Ponape or Ascension, Proto-Chuukic-Pohnpeic: ''*Fawo ni pei'') is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei S ...

Pohnpei
of the Senyavin Islands in
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
is the wettest settlement in Oceania, and one of the wettest places on earth, with annual recorded rainfall exceeding each year in certain mountainous locations. Big Bog, Maui, The Big Bog on the island of Maui is the wettest place, receiving an average each year.


Demographics

The linked map below shows the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the islands of Oceania and neighbouring areas, as a guide to the following table (there are few land boundaries that can be drawn on a map of the Pacific at this scale).
The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania. The countries and territories in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated. These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, depending on the source and purpose of each description. ! style="text-align:right;" , 16.6


Largest city for regions

*
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( enviro ...
(metro, urban or proper largest city:
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia ...

Sydney
) *
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
(metro, urban or proper largest city: Port Moresby) *
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
(metro, urban or proper largest city: Tarawa) *
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a s ...

Polynesia
(metro, urban or proper largest city: Auckland)


Urban areas


Religion

The predominant religion in Oceania is Christianity (73%). A 2011 survey found that 92% in
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
, 93% in
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Easte ...

Micronesia
and 96% in
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a s ...

Polynesia
described themselves as Christians. Traditional religions are often Animism, animist, and prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in spirits (''masalai'' in Tok Pisin) representing natural forces. In the 2018 census, 37% of New Zealanders affiliated themselves with Christianity and 48% declared no religion. In the 2016 Census, 52% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity and 30% stated "no religion". In recent Australian and New Zealand censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to "Irreligion, no religion" (which includes atheism, agnosticism, deism, secular humanism). In
Tonga Tonga (; Tongan language, Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan language, Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising List of islands and towns in Tonga, 169 islan ...

Tonga
, everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian culture, Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith. The Ahmadiyya mosque in Marshall Islands is the only mosque in Micronesia. Another one in
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
belongs to the same sect. The Baháʼí House of Worship in Tiapapata, Samoa, is one of seven designations administered in the Baháʼí Faith. Other religions in the region include Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism, which are prominent minority religions in Australia and New Zealand. Judaism, Sikhism and Jainism are also present. Sir Isaac Isaacs was the first Australian born Governor General of Australia and was the first Jewish vice-regal representative in the British Empire. Prince Philip Movement is followed around Yaohnanen village on the southern island of Tanna (island), Tanna in
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
.


Languages

Native languages of Oceania fall into three major geographic groups: * The large Austronesian languages, Austronesian language family, with such languages as Malay language, Malay (Indonesian), and Oceanic languages such as Gilbertese language, Gilbertese, Fijian language, Fijian, Māori language, Māori or Hawaiian language, Hawaiian * The Aboriginal Australian languages, including the large Pama–Nyungan family * The Papuan languages of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
and neighbouring islands, including the large Trans–New Guinea family Colonial languages include English language, English in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many other territories;
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
in
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , subd ...

New Caledonia
,
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise" , song_type = Territorial anthem , song = "Ia Ora 'O Tahiti Nui" , image_map = French Polynesia on the globe (French Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt ...
, Wallis and Futuna, and
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
, Japanese in the
Bonin Islands The Bonin Islands, also known as the , or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small num ...
, Spanish language, Spanish on
Galápagos Islands The Galápagos Islands (official name: , other Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de ...
and
Easter Island Easter Island ( rap, Rapa Nui; es, Isla de Pascua) is an island and special territory of Chile in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania. The island is most famous for its nearly ...
. There are also Creole language, Creoles formed from the interaction of Malay or the colonial languages with indigenous languages, such as Tok Pisin, Bislama, Chavacano, various Malay trade and creole languages, Hawaiian Pidgin, Norfuk, and Pitkern. Contact between Austronesian and Papuan resulted in several instances in mixed languages such as Maisin language, Maisin. Immigrants brought their own languages to the region, such as Standard Chinese, Mandarin, Hindi, Italian, Arabic, Portuguese, Polish, German, Spanish, Russian, Korean, Cantonese and
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
, among many others, namely in Australia and New Zealand, or Fiji Hindi in
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
.


Immigration

The most multicultural areas in Oceania, which have a List of sovereign states and dependent territories by immigrant population, high degree of immigration, are Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a Multiculturalism in Australia, multicultural country. Sydney is the most multicultural city in Oceania, having more than 250 different languages spoken with about 40 percent of residents speaking a Languages Other Than English, language other than English at home. Furthermore, 36 percent of the population reported having been foreign born, born overseas, with top countries being Italy, Lebanon, Vietnam and Iraq, among others. Melbourne is also fairly multicultural, having the largest Greek community of Melbourne, Greek-speaking population outside of Europe, and the second largest Asian Australians, Asian population in Australia after Sydney. European migration to New Zealand provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, The Americas and Asia. Auckland is home to over half (51.6 percent) of New Zealand's overseas born population, including 72 percent of the country's Pacific Island-born population, 64 percent of its Asian people, Asian-born population, and 56 percent of its Middle Eastern people, Middle Eastern and African born population. Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Chinese people, Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. , a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry – especially Filipino people, Filipino, Japanese, Korean immigration to Hawaii, Korean and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. Almost 13,000 Portuguese people, Portuguese immigrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in 1899 when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii. Between 2001 and 2007 Australia's Pacific Solution policy transferred asylum seekers to several Pacific nations, including the Nauru detention centre. Australia, New Zealand and other nations took part in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands between 2003 and 2017 after a request for aid.


Archaeogenetics

Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetics, genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration of Australo-Melanesians took place approximately 40 to 80 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuan people, Papuans, colonised much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian languages, Austronesian speakers arrived in Near Oceania, and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonising Remote Oceania. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian peoples, Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years. Santa Cruz Islands, Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin. Large areas of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. Known indigenous tribes in
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
have very little contact with local authorities aside from the authorities knowing who they are. Many remain preliterate and, at the national or international level, the names of tribes and information about them is extremely hard to obtain. The Indonesian provinces of Papua (province), Papua and West Papua (province), West Papua on the island of New Guinea are home to an estimated 44 uncontacted peoples, uncontacted tribal groups.


Economy


Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand are the only highly Developed country, developed independent nations in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world. New Caledonia, Hawaii and French Polynesia are highly developed too but are not sovereignty, sovereign states. Australia's per-capita GDP is List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, higher than that of the UK, Canada, Germany, and France in terms of purchasing power parity. New Zealand is also one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade. The Australian Securities Exchange in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia ...

Sydney
is the largest List of stock exchanges in Oceania, stock exchange in Australia and in the South Pacific. New Zealand is the List of countries by GDP (nominal), 53rd-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and List of countries by GDP (PPP), 68th-largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). In 2012, Australia was the 12th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 19th-largest measured by Purchasing power parity, PPP-adjusted GDP. Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the world's most livable cities, most livable cities. It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC. Melbourne also ranked highly in the World's Most Livable Cities, world's most liveable city list, and is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. Auckland and Wellington, in New Zealand, are frequently ranked among the world's most liveable cities with Auckland being ranked 3rd according to the Mercer Quality of Living Survey. The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in Mining in Australia, mining, electrical and Manufacturing in Australia, manufacturing sectors also. Australia boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region, Automotive industry in Australia, producing cars, electrical equipment, machinery and clothing industry, clothes.


Pacific Islands

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS. The main produce from the Pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, Cocoa bean, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific. Fishing provides a major Industry (economics), industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union. Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources,
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economics, economies, though it remains a developing nation, developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product, although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001. Sugar exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconuts, ginger, and copra are also significant. The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane, pineapple, the military, tourism and education. Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. , Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, and was also ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U.S.


Tourism

Tourists mostly come from Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Economy of Fiji#Tourism, Fiji currently attracts almost half a million tourists each year, more than a quarter of whom come from Australia. This has contributed $1 billion or more to Fiji's economy since 1995, but the Government of Fiji likely underestimates these figures due to the invisible economy inside the tourism industry. Vanuatu is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific region. Tourism has been promoted, in part, by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows. The ninth season of the reality TV series ''Survivor (US TV series), Survivor'' was filmed on Vanuatu, entitled ''Survivor: Vanuatu – Islands of Fire''. Two years later, Australia's ''Celebrity Survivor'' was filmed at the same location used by the US version. Tourism in Australia is an important component of the Australian economy. In the financial year 2014/15,
tourism at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourism
represented 3% of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
's Gross domestic product, GDP contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy. In 2015, there were 7.4 million visitor arrivals. Popular Australian destinations include the Sydney Harbour (Sydney Opera House, Sydney Harbour Bridge, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney, Royal Botanic Garden, etc.), Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold Coast (theme parks such as Warner Bros. Movie World, Dreamworld (Australian theme park), Dreamworld and Sea World (Australia), Sea World), Walls of Jerusalem National Park and Mount Field National Park in
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. Th ...
, Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, the Great Barrier Reef in
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wale ...

Queensland
, The Twelve Apostles (Victoria), The Twelve Apostles in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Uluru (Ayers Rock) and the Australian outback. Tourism in New Zealand contributes New Zealand dollar, NZ$7.3 billion (or 4%) of the country's gross domestic product, GDP in 2013, as well as directly supporting 110,800 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 6% of New Zealand's workforce). International tourist spending accounted for 16% of New Zealand's export earnings (nearly NZ$10 billion). International and domestic tourism contributes, in total, NZ$24 billion to New Zealand's economy every year. Tourism New Zealand, the country's official tourism agency, is actively promoting the country as a destination worldwide. Milford Sound in South Island is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination. In 2003 alone, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million tourism in Hawaii, visitors to the Hawaiian Islands with expenditures of over $10.6 billion. Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. In 2011, Hawaii saw increasing arrivals and share of foreign tourists from Canada, Australia and China increasing 13%, 24% and 21% respectively from 2010.


Politics


Australia

Australia is a federalism, federal parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Monarchy of Australia, Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors of the Australian states, Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition (Australia), Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party of Australia, National Party. Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. The Australian Defence Force is by far the largest military force in Oceania.


New Zealand

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although Constitution of New Zealand, its constitution is Uncodified constitution, not codified. Elizabeth II is the Monarchy of New Zealand, Queen of New Zealand and the head of state. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General of New Zealand, Governor-General, whom she appoints on the Advice (constitutional), advice of the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister. The New Zealand Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the New Zealand House of Representatives, House of Representatives. A Elections in New Zealand, parliamentary general election must be called no later than three years after the previous election. New Zealand is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states, with high government transparency and among the lowest perceived levels of corruption.


Pacific Islands

In Politics of Samoa, Samoan politics, the Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government. The Constitution of Samoa, 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand in 1962, builds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs. The national government (''malo'') generally controls the Legislative Assembly of Samoa, legislative assembly. Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King of Tonga is the Head of State. Politics of Fiji, Fiji has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji as head of government. The Executive (government), executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji.
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago o ...

Fiji
's Head of State of Fiji, Head of State is the President of Fiji, President. He is elected by Parliament of Fiji after nomination by the Prime Minister of Fiji, Prime Minister or the Leader of the Opposition (Fiji), Leader of the Opposition, for a three-year term. In the politics of Papua New Guinea the List of Prime Ministers of the Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister is the head of government, and the head of state is Elizabeth II, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, represented by a Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, Governor-General. In Politics of Kiribati, Kiribati, a Parliamentary system, Parliamentary regime, the President of Kiribati is the head of state and government, and of a multi-party system. Politics of New Caledonia, New Caledonia remains an integral part of the French Republic. Inhabitants of New Caledonia are French citizens and carry French passports. They take part in the legislative and presidential French elections. New Caledonia sends two representatives to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate. Politics of Hawaii, Hawaii is dominated by the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The governor is elected statewide. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State of Hawaii, Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the Hawaii State Capitol, State Capitol.


Culture


Australia

Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous Australians, Indigenous influences. The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture. Since the mid-20th century, Culture of the United States, American popular culture has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations. ''The Story of the Kelly Gang'' (1906), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in cinema of Australia, Australian cinema during the silent film era. The Australian Museum in Sydney and the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne are the oldest and List of largest art museums, largest museums in Oceania. The city's Sydney New Year's Eve, New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Oceania. Australia is also known for its Coffeehouse, cafe and coffee culture in Urban area, urban centres. Australia and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
were responsible for the flat white coffee. Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker. The first settlers introduced British cuisine, British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast. Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post-World War II European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Culture of Asia, Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese cuisine, Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll.


Hawaii

The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock music, rock and hip hop music, hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Cinema of the United States, Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. The Hawaiian religion is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky. The cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians and Native Hawaiian cuisine, and Cuisine of the United States, American, Chinese cuisine, Chinese, Filipino cuisine, Filipino, Japanese cuisine, Japanese, Korean cuisine, Korean, Polynesian cuisine, Polynesian and Portuguese cuisine, Portuguese origins. Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, famous for his medley of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by NPR in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.


New Zealand

New Zealand as a culture is a Western culture, which is influenced by the cultural input of the indigenous Māori people, Māori and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration which followed the History of New Zealand, British colonisation of New Zealand. The Māori people constitute one of the major cultures of Polynesia. The country has been broadened by globalisation and immigration specifically from Oceania, Europe, and Asia. New Zealand marks two national days of remembrance, Waitangi Day and ANZAC Day, and also celebrates many holidays such as the Queen's Birthday, Labour Day, and Christmas Day, as well as public anniversaries of the founding dates of most regions. The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of ''kapa haka'' (song and dance) has made a resurgence. The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some Film producer, producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand, including ''Avatar (2009 film), Avatar'', ''The Lord of the Rings (film series), The Lord of the Rings'', ''The Hobbit (film series), The Hobbit'', ''The Chronicles of Narnia (film series), The Chronicles of Narnia'', ''King Kong (2005 film), King Kong'' and ''The Last Samurai''. The national cuisine has been described as Pacific Rim, incorporating the native Māori cuisine and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia and Asia. New Zealand yields produce from land and sea – most crops and livestock, such as maize, potatoes and pigs, were gradually introduced by the early European settlers. Distinctive ingredients or dishes include Lamb and mutton, lamb; salmon; Paranephrops, koura (crayfish); whitebait; shellfish including dredge oysters, paua, mussels, scallops, Paphies australis, pipi and tuatua; Sweet potato, kumara (sweet potato); kiwifruit; tamarillo and Pavlova (food), pavlova (considered a national dish).


Samoa

The fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and Samoan language, language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa 'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of ''fa'amatai, matai'' chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven '''ie toga''. The Samoan word for dance is ''siva Samoa, siva'', which consists of unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and which tell a story. Samoan male dances can be more snappy. The ''sasa (dance), sasa'' is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronization, synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums ''(pate (musical instrument), pate)'' or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the ''fa'ataupati'' or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian culture, Hawaiian, Tahitians, Tahitian and Māori culture, Māori) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos.


Arts

The artistic creations of native Oceanians varies greatly throughout the cultures and regions. The subject matter typically carries themes of fertility or the supernatural. Petroglyphs, Tattooing, painting, wood carving, stone carving and textile work are other common art forms. Art of Oceania properly encompasses the artistic traditions of the people indigenous to Australia and the Pacific Islands. These early peoples lacked a writing system, and made works on perishable materials, so few records of them exist from this time. Indigenous Australian
rock art In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural surfaces, typically vertical stone surfaces. A high proportion of surviving historic and prehistoric rock art is found in caves or partly enclosed rock shelters; this type also ma ...
is the oldest and richest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. These rock paintings served several functions. Some were used in magic, others to increase animal populations for hunting, while some were simply for amusement. Sculpture in Oceania first appears on New Guinea as a series of stone figures found throughout the island, but mostly in mountainous highlands. Establishing a chronological timeframe for these pieces in most cases is difficult, but one has been dated to 1500 BC. By 1500 BC the
Lapita The Lapita culture is the name given to a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by ...
culture, descendants of the second wave, would begin to expand and spread into the more remote islands. At around the same time, art began to appear in New Guinea, including the earliest examples of sculpture in Oceania. Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island would begin construction of nearly 900 moai (large stone statues). At about 1200 AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, would embark on another megalithic construction, building Nan Madol, a city of artificial islands and a system of canals. Hawaiian art includes wood carvings, feather work, petroglyphs, bark cloth (called kapa in Hawaiian and Tapa cloth, tapa elsewhere in the Pacific) and tattoos. Native Hawaiians had neither metal nor woven cloth.


Sport

Rugby union is one of the region's most prominent sports, and is the national sport of New Zealand, Samoa, Fiji and Tonga. The most popular sport in Australia is cricket, the most popular sport among Australian women is netball, while Australian rules football is the most popular sport in terms of spectatorship and television ratings. Rugby is the most popular sport among New Zealanders. In Papua New Guinea, the most popular sport is Rugby league. Fiji national rugby sevens team, Fiji's sevens team is one of the most successful in the world, as is New Zealand national rugby sevens team, New Zealand's. Australian rules football is the national sport in Nauru and is the most popular football code in Australia in terms of attendance. It has a large following in Papua New Guinea, where it is the second most popular sport after Rugby League. It attracts significant attention across New Zealand and the
Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arcti ...
. Currently
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fir ...

Vanuatu
is the only country in Oceania to call association football its national sport. However, it is also the most popular sport in
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese language, Gilbertese: '' ibaberikiKiribati''),
, Solomon Islands and
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
, and has a significant (and growing) popularity in Soccer in Australia, Australia. In 2006 Socceroo, Australia joined the Asian Football Confederation and qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, 2010, 2014 FIFA World Cup, 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cup, 2018 World Cups as an Asian entrant. Australia has hosted two Summer Olympics: 1956 Summer Olympics, Melbourne 1956 and 2000 Summer Olympics, Sydney 2000. Also, Australia has hosted five editions of the Commonwealth Games (1938 British Empire Games, Sydney 1938, 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, Perth 1962, 1982 Commonwealth Games, Brisbane 1982, 2006 Commonwealth Games, Melbourne 2006, 2018 Commonwealth Games, Gold Coast 2018). Meanwhile, New Zealand has hosted the Commonwealth Games three times: 1950 British Empire Games, Auckland 1950, 1974 British Commonwealth Games, Christchurch 1974 and 1990 Commonwealth Games, Auckland 1990. The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympics on a much smaller scale, with participation exclusively from countries around the Pacific. It is held every four years and began in 1963. Australia and New Zealand competed in the games for the first time in 2015.


Notes


See also

* Europeans in Oceania * Festival of Pacific Arts * Flags of Oceania * List of cities in Oceania * Oceanic cuisine * Oceania (journal) * Pacific Union * The Pacific Community * United Nations geoscheme for Oceania


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The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is "Australia and New Zealand". New Zealand is often considered part of Polynesia rather than
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( enviro ...
.
Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region.
{{Cite web , url=http://www.kinerja.or.id/pdf/8bbcd469-bc2c-4d89-bf63-c2d81804ae27.pdf , title=UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 21 TAHUN 2001 TENTANG OTONOMI KHUSUS BAGI PROVINSI PAPUA , date=12 July 2017 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170712195402/http://www.kinerja.or.id/pdf/8bbcd469-bc2c-4d89-bf63-c2d81804ae27.pdf , archive-date=12 July 2017 , access-date=16 March 2019 {{Cite web , url=http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=29965 , title=Papuan province changes name from West Irian Jaya to West Papua , date=7 February 2007 , publisher=Radio New Zealand International , access-date=27 December 2008
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
is often considered part of
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( enviro ...
and
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region includes the four independent countries of Fiji, V ...

Melanesia
. It is sometimes included in the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( Indonesian/ Malay: ''Kepulauan Melayu''; Tagalog: ''Kapuluang Malay''; Cebuano: ''Kapupud-ang Malay''; Javanese: ''Nusantara'') is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island ...

Malay Archipelago
of Southeast Asia.
On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror to Ngerulmud in the state of Melekeok, located {{convert, 20, km, 0, abbr=on northeast of Koror on Babeldaob, Babelthuap Island.
Fagatogo is the seat of government of American Samoa.
Christianity in its Global Context, 1970–2020 Society, Religion, and Mission
Center for the Study of Global Christianity
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Further reading

* {{Cite book , title=The Oxford Companion to Australian History , publisher=Oxford University Press, location=Melbourne , year=1998 , isbn=0-19-553597-9 , author=Davison, Graeme , author2=Hirst, John , author-link2=John Hirst (historian) , author3=Macintyre, Stuart , author-link3=Stuart Macintyre , ref= CITEREFDavison, Hirst and Macintyre * Frank Harary & Per Hage (1991) ''Exchange in Oceania: A Graph Theoretic Analysis'', Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, Oxford University Press. * Frank Harary & Per Hage (2007) ''Island Networks: Communication, Kinship, and Classification Structures in Oceania'', Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences, Cambridge University Press. * {{Cite book, first=James, last=Jupp, year=2001, title=The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins, publisher=Cambridge University Press, isbn=978-0-521-80789-0, ref=CITEREFJupp * {{Cite book , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=C2as0sWxFBAC , title=The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography , last1=Lewis , first1=Martin W. , last2=Wigen , first2=Kären E. , publisher=University of California Press , year=1997 , isbn=978-0-520-20743-1 , location=Berkeley , ref={{sfnref, Lewis & Wigen, The Myth of Continents, 1997 , author-link2=Kären Wigen * {{Cite book, author1=Teo, Hsu-Ming , author2=White, Richard , year=2003, title=Cultural history in Australia, publisher=University of New South Wales Press, isbn=978-0-86840-589-6, ref=CITEREFTeo


External links

{{sisterlinks, voy=Oceania * {{curlie, Regional/Oceania, Oceania
"Australia and Oceania"
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National Geographic
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