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The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; ch, Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; cal, Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an
unincorporated territory Under United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wash ...
and
commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
consisting of 14 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.Lin, Tom C.W.
Americans, Almost and Forgotten
107 California Law Review (2019)
The CNMI includes the 14 northernmost islands in the Mariana Archipelago; the southernmost island,
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
, is a separate U.S. territory. The
United States Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the . It is responsible for the management and conservation of most and , and the administration of programs relating to , , , territorial affairs, and s ...
cites a landmass of . According to the 2020 United States Census, 47,329 people were living in the CNMI at that time. The vast majority of the population resides on
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. Acc ...

Saipan
,
Tinian Tinian ( or ; old Japanese name: 天仁安島, ''Tenian-shima'') is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy ...

Tinian
, and
Rota Rota or ROTA may refer to: Places * Rota (island), in the Marianas archipelago * Rota (volcano), in Nicaragua * Rota, Andalusia, a town in Andalusia, Spain * Naval Station Rota, Spain People * Rota (surname), a surname (including a list of people ...
. The other islands of the Northern Marianas are sparsely inhabited; the most notable among these is
Pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
, which for various reasons over the centuries has experienced major population flux, but formerly had residents numbering in the thousands. The administrative center is
Capitol Hill Capitol Hill, in addition to being a metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric ...
, a village in northwestern
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. Acc ...

Saipan
. However, most publications consider Saipan to be the capital because the island is governed as a single municipality.


History


Arrival of humans

The Mariana Islands were the first islands settled by humans in
Remote OceaniaRemote Oceania is the part of Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 4 ...
. Incidentally it is also the first and the longest of the ocean-crossing voyages of the
Austronesian peoples The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eas ...
, and is separate from the later
Polynesian Polynesian is the adjectival form of Polynesia. It may refer to: * Polynesians, an ethnic group * Polynesian culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia * Polynesian mythology, the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia * Polyne ...
settlement of the rest of Remote Oceania. They were first settled around 1500 to 1400 BC by migrants departing from the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. This was followed by a second migration from the
Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolat ...
by the first millennium AD, and a third migration from
Island Southeast Asia Maritime Southeast Asia comprises the countries of Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north co ...
(likely the Philippines or eastern
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
) by 900 AD. After first contact with Spaniards, they eventually became known as the
Chamorros The Chamorro people (; also CHamoru) are the indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particul ...
, a Spanish word similar to ''Chamori'', the name of the indigenous caste system's higher division. The ancient people of the Marianas raised
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Ancient Roman architecture, Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even m ...

colonnade
s of megalithic capped pillars called
latte stone, Hagåtña, Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an Unincorporated_territories_of_the_United_States, organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean. It is the List of extreme points o ...
s upon which they built their homes. The Spanish reported that by the time of their arrival, the largest of these were already in ruins, and that the Chamorros believed the ancestors who had erected the pillars lived in an era when people possessed supernatural abilities. In 2013 archaeologists posited that the first people to settle in the Marianas may have made what was at that point the longest uninterrupted ocean-crossing voyage in human history. Archeological evidence indicates that
Tinian Tinian ( or ; old Japanese name: 天仁安島, ''Tenian-shima'') is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy ...

Tinian
may have been the first Pacific island to be settled.


Spanish possession

The Portuguese navigator
Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; pt, Fernão de Magalhães, ; es, link=no, Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information In ...

Ferdinand Magellan
, sailing under the Spanish flag, arrived in 1521. He and his crew were the first Europeans to arrive in the Mariana Islands. He landed on Guam, the southernmost island of the Marianas, and claimed the archipelago for Spain. The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and then helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash: in Chamorro tradition, little property was private and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, did not count as stealing. The Spanish did not understand this custom and fought the Chamorros until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago. Spain regarded the islands as annexed and later made them part of the
Spanish East Indies Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...
in 1565. In 1734, the Spanish built a royal palace, the Plaza de España, in Guam for the governor of the islands. The palace was largely destroyed during World War II, but portions of it remain. Guam operated as an important stopover between the Philippines and Mexico for
Manila galleon fil, Galyon ng Maynila , english_name = Manila Galleon , duration = From 1565 to 1815 (250 years) , venue = Between Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( f ...
carrying trading between Spanish colonies. In 1668, Father
Diego Luis de San Vitores Diego Luis de San Vitores (November 12, 1627 – April 2, 1672) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary who founded the first Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations b ...
renamed the islands ''Las Marianas'' in honor of his patroness the Spanish regent
Mariana of Austria Mariana of Austria ( es, Mariana de Austria) or Maria Anna (24 December 163416 May 1696) was the queen consort A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female ...

Mariana of Austria
(1634–1696), widow of
Felipe IV Philip IV ( es, Felipe, pt, Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), called the Great, was King of Spain from 1621 to his death and (as Philip III) King of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, includin ...

Felipe IV
(reigned 1621–1665). Most of the islands' native population (90–95%) died from European diseases carried by the Spaniards or married non-Chamorro settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers, primarily from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought to repopulate the islands. The Chamorro population gradually recovered, and Chamorro,
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
, and Refaluwasch languages and other ethnic groups remain in the Marianas. During the 17th century, Spanish colonists forcibly moved the Chamorros to Guam, to encourage assimilation and conversion to
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. By the time they were allowed to return to the Northern Marianas, many Carolinians from present-day eastern
Yap State The State of Yap, also known in the Yapese language Yapese is a language spoken by the people on the island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_isl ...
and western
Chuuk State Chuuk State (; also known as Truk) is one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The other states are Kosrae, Kosrae State, Pohnpei State, and Yap State. It consists of several island groups: * Chuuk Lagoon, Namoneas * F ...
had settled in the Marianas. Both languages, as well as English, are now official in the commonwealth.


Carolinian immigration

The Northern Marianas experienced an influx of immigration from the Carolines during the 19th century. Both this Carolinian subethnicity and Carolinians in the Carolines archipelago refer to themselves as the Refaluwasch. The indigenous Chamoru word for the same group of people is ''gu'palao''. They are usually referred to simply as "Carolinians", though unlike the other two monikers, this can also mean those who actually live in the Carolines and who may have no affiliation with the Marianas. The conquering Spanish did not focus attempts at cultural suppression against Carolinian immigrants, whose immigration they allowed during a period when the indigenous Chamoru majority was being subjugated with land alienation, forced relocations and internment. Carolinians in the Marianas continue to be fluent in the
Carolinian language Carolinian may refer to: * Something from or related to the Caroline Islands The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain ...
, and have maintained many of the cultural distinctions and traditions of their ethnicity's land of ancestral origin.


German possession and Japanese mandate

Following its loss during the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
of 1898,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
ceded Guam to the United States and sold the remainder of the
Marianas The Mariana Islands (; also the Marianas; in ChamorroChamorro may refer to: * Chamorro language, an Austronesian language indigenous to The Marianas * Chamorro people, the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific * Chamorro ...
(i.e., the Northern Marianas), along with the Caroline Islands, to
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany administered the islands as part of its colony of
German New Guinea German New Guinea (german: link=no, Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu: ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the List of islands by area, world's second-larges ...

German New Guinea
and did little in terms of development. Early in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
declared war on Germany and invaded the Northern Marianas. In 1919, the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
(LoN) awarded all of Germany's islands in the Pacific Ocean located north of the
Equator The Equator is a circle of latitude, about in circumference, that divides Earth into the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Southern Hemisphere, Southern hemispheres. It is an imaginary line located at 0 degrees latitude, halfway between the N ...

Equator
, including the Northern Marianas, under mandate to Japan. Under this arrangement, the Japanese thus administered the Northern Marianas as part of the
South Seas Mandate The South Seas Mandate, officially the Mandate for the German Possessions in the Pacific Ocean Lying North of the Equator, was a League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferre ...
. During the Japanese period,
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, Perennial plant, perennial grass (in the genus ''Saccharum'', tribe Andropogoneae) that is used for sugar Sugar industry, production. The plants are 2–6 m (6–20 ft) tall w ...

sugar cane
became the main industry of the islands.
Garapan Garapan (Old Japanese name: 柄帆町, ''Garapan-chō'') is the largest village and the center of the tourism industry on the island of Saipan, which is a part of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the U ...
on
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. Acc ...

Saipan
was developed as a regional capital, and numerous Japanese (including ethnic Koreans,
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
n, and
Taiwanese Taiwanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Taiwan (Formosa) * Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan * Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan * Taiwanese people, residents of Taiwan or people of Taiwanese descent * Taiwan ...

Taiwanese
) migrated to the islands. In the December 1939 census, the total population of the South Seas Mandate was 129,104, of whom 77,257 were Japanese (including ethnic Taiwanese and Koreans). On Saipan the pre-war population comprised 29,348 Japanese settlers and 3,926 Chamorro and Caroline Islanders;
Tinian Tinian ( or ; old Japanese name: 天仁安島, ''Tenian-shima'') is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy ...

Tinian
had 15,700 Japanese settlers (including 2,700 ethnic Koreans and 22 ethnic Chamorro).


World War II

On December 8, 1941, hours after the
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
, Japanese forces from the Marianas launched an
invasion of Guam The Battle of Guam (21 July–10 August 1944) was the American recapture of the Japanese occupation of Guam, Japanese-held island of Guam, a United States territory#Insular areas, U.S. territory in the Mariana Islands captured by Empire of Japan ...
. Chamorros from the Northern Marianas, which had been under Japanese rule for more than 20 years, were brought to Guam to assist the Japanese administration. This, combined with the harsh treatment of Guamanian Chamorros during the 31-month occupation, created a rift that would become the main reason Guamanians rejected the referendum on
reunification A political union is a type of state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily new ...
approved by the Northern Marianas in the 1960s. On June 15, 1944, the United States military invaded the Mariana Islands, starting the
Battle of Saipan The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana I ...
, which ended on July 9. Of the 30,000 Japanese troops defending Saipan, fewer than 1,000 remained alive at the battle's end. Many Japanese civilians were also killed, by disease, starvation, enemy fire, and suicide. Approximately 1,000 civilians committed suicide by jumping off the cliffs at Mt. Marpi or Marpi Point. U.S. forces then recaptured Guam on July 21, and invaded Tinian on July 24. A year later
Tinian Tinian ( or ; old Japanese name: 天仁安島, ''Tenian-shima'') is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy ...

Tinian
was the takeoff point for the ''
Enola Gay The ''Enola Gay'' () is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching aerial torpedo, torpedoes, or deploying air-l ...

Enola Gay
'', the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on
Hiroshima is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperi ...
.
Rota Rota or ROTA may refer to: Places * Rota (island), in the Marianas archipelago * Rota (volcano), in Nicaragua * Rota, Andalusia, a town in Andalusia, Spain * Naval Station Rota, Spain People * Rota (surname), a surname (including a list of people ...
was left untouched (and isolated) until the Japanese surrender in August 1945, owing to its military insignificance. The story of the holdouts on
Anatahan Anatahan is an island in the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and has one of the most active volcanoes of the archipelago. Formerly inhabited, the island currently does not have any population due to the always-present danger of Volc ...

Anatahan
was told in 1953 by
Josef von Sternberg Josef von Sternberg (; born Jonas Sternberg; 29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American filmmaker whose career successfully spanned the transition from the Silent film, silent to the Sound film, sound era, during which he worked w ...
in his film '' The Saga of Anatahan''. The war did not end for everyone with the signing of the armistice. The last group of
Japanese holdout Japanese holdouts ( ja, 残留日本兵, translit=Zanryū nipponhei, lit=remaining Japanese soldiers) were soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may als ...
s surrendered on Saipan on December 1, 1945. On Guam, Japanese soldier
Shoichi Yokoi was a sergeant in the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the World War II, Second World War, and was among the last three Japanese holdouts to be found after the end of hostilities in 1945. He was discovered in the jungles of Guam on 24 January ...
, unaware that the war had ended, hid in a jungle cave in the
Talofofo Talofofo ( ch, Talo fo' fo') is a village located in the southern part of the United States territory of Guam, on the east coast. The village center is located in the hills above the coast, while the smaller coastal community below the cliff i ...
area until 1972. Japanese nationals were eventually repatriated to the Japanese home islands.


United Nations trusteeship

After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Northern Marianas were administered by the United States pursuant to Security Council Resolution 21 as part of the United Nations
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to ...
, which assigned responsibility for defense and foreign affairs to the United States as trustee. Four referenda offering integration with Guam or changes to the islands' status were held in
1958 Events January * January 1 – The European Economic Community (EEC) comes into being. * January 3 – The West Indies Federation is formed. * January 4 ** Edmund Hillary's Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition completes the ...
,
1961 As ''MAD Magazine'' pointed out on its cover for the March 1961 issue, this was the first "upside-up" year — i.e., one in which the numerals that form the year look the same as when the numerals are rotated upside down, a strobogrammatic num ...
,
1963 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ ...
and
1969 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of th ...
. On each occasion, a majority voted in favor of integration with Guam, but this did not happen: Guam rejected integration in a 1969 referendum.Bendure, G. & Friary, N. (1988).
Micronesia:A travel survival kit
'' South Yarra, VIC: Lonely Planet.


Commonwealth

The people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence, but instead to forge closer links with the United States. Negotiations for commonwealth status began in 1972 and a covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the United States was approved in a 1975 referendum. A new government and constitution partially came into effect in on January 9, 1978 after being approved in a 1977 referendum. The United Nations approved this arrangement pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683. The Northern Mariana Islands came under U.S.
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
on November 4, 1986, and the islanders became US citizens."Proclamation 5564—United States Relations With the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands"
The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
Also on November 4, 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands constitution became fully effective under the Covenant. In May 1981, volcanic eruptions led to evacuation of the island of
Pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
. Most residents of Pagan have not yet returned to Pagan. The Chamorro-Carolinian Language Policy Commission was created in 1982 to carry out policies in support of the Chamorro and Carolinian languages and cultures. In December 1986, twenty percent of the homes on Saipan were destroyed due by Typhoon Kim, trees were stripped of foliage, thousands of coconut trees were knocked down, roads were blocked, and there was no electricity or public water supply for weeks. In April 1990, the inhabitants of the western coast of
Anatahan Anatahan is an island in the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and has one of the most active volcanoes of the archipelago. Formerly inhabited, the island currently does not have any population due to the always-present danger of Volc ...

Anatahan
were evacuated after
earthquake swarm In seismology Seismology (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the ...
s and active
fumaroles __NOTOC__ A fumarole (or ''fumerole'' – the word ultimately comes from the ''fumus'', "smoke") is an opening in a planet's which emits and es such as , , , and . The steam forms when superheated water boils as its pressure drops when it ...
indicated that an eruption might be imminent, but no eruption occurred at that time. A further earthquake swarm occurred in May 1992. The first historical eruption of Anatahan occurred in May 2003, when a large explosive eruption with a VEI of 4 took place forming a new crater inside the eastern
caldera A caldera is a large cauldron A cauldron (or caldron) is a large cookware and bakeware, pot (kettle) for cooking or boiling over an open fire, with a lid and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger and/or integral handles or feet. There is a r ...

caldera
and causing an ash plume high which impaired air traffic to Saipan and Guam. The Northern Mariana Islands does not have voting representation in the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
, but, since 2009, has been represented in the
U.S. House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unin ...
by a
delegate Delegate or delegates may refer to: * Delegate, New South Wales, a town in Australia * Delegate (CLI), a computer programming technique * Delegate (American politics), a representative in any of various political organizations * Delegate (United St ...
who may participate in debate but may not vote on the floor. The commonwealth has no representation in the
U.S. Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the ...
.


Geography

The Northern Mariana Islands, together with
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
to the south, compose the
Mariana Islands The Mariana Islands (; also the Marianas; in ChamorroChamorro may refer to: * Chamorro language, an Austronesian language indigenous to The Marianas * Chamorro people, the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific * Chamorr ...
archipelago. The southern islands are
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
, with level terraces and fringing
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a ver ...

coral
reefs. The northern islands are volcanic, with active
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
es on several islands, including
Anatahan Anatahan is an island in the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and has one of the most active volcanoes of the archipelago. Formerly inhabited, the island currently does not have any population due to the always-present danger of Volc ...

Anatahan
,
Pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
, and
Agrihan Agrihan (also spelled Agrigan) is an island in the Northern Mariana Islands ) , anthem_link = List of U.S. state songs , image_map = Northern Mariana Islands on the globe (Southeast Asia centered) (small islands magnified).svg , map_alt = ...
. The volcano on Agrihan,
Mount Agrihan Mount Agrihan is a stratovolcano A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic ga ...
, has the highest elevation at . An expedition organized by John D. Mitchler and Reid Larson made the first complete ascent to the summit of this peak on June 1, 2018. Anatahan Volcano is a small volcanic island north of Saipan. It is about long and wide. Anatahan began erupting from its east crater on May 10, 2003. It has since alternated between eruptive and calm periods. On April 6, 2005, an estimated of ash and rock were ejected, causing a large, black cloud to drift south over Saipan and Tinian. *Northernmost point – *Easternmost point – Farallon de Medinilla *Southernmost point – Puntan Malikok,
Rota Rota or ROTA may refer to: Places * Rota (island), in the Marianas archipelago * Rota (volcano), in Nicaragua * Rota, Andalusia, a town in Andalusia, Spain * Naval Station Rota, Spain People * Rota (surname), a surname (including a list of people ...
*Westernmost point – The islands lie in the Marianas tropical dry forests terrestrial ecoregion.


Climate

The Northern Mariana Islands have a
tropical rainforest climate A tropical rainforest climate or equatorial climate is a tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the . Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or hi ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
: Af) moderated by seasonal northeast
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
, with little seasonal temperature variation. The dry season runs from December to June; the rainy season runs from July to November and can include
typhoon A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort scale, strong winds, and ...

typhoon
s. The ''
Guinness Book of World Records ''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a reference book A reference work is a work, ...
'' has said Saipan has the most equable climate in the world.


Politics and government

The Northern Mariana Islands have a
multiparty In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and as ...
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
representative democratic system. They are a commonwealth of the United States. Federal funds to the commonwealth are administered by the
Office of Insular Affairs The Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the . It is responsible for the management and conservati ...
of the
U.S. Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. government. It is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resour ...
. Replicating the separation of powers elsewhere in the United States, the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
is headed by the
governor of the Northern Mariana Islands The following is a list of persons who served as Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking unde ...
;
legislative power A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure ...
is vested in the bicameral
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature The Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature is the territorial legislature of the U.S. commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; ...
and the
judicial power The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
is vested in the CNMI Supreme Court and the trial courts inferior to it. Some critics, including the author of the political website ''Saipan Sucks'', say that politics in the Northern Mariana Islands is often "more a function of family relationships and personal loyalties" where the size of one's extended family is more important than a candidate's personal qualifications. They charge that this is nepotism carried out within the trappings of democracy. In April 2012, anticipating a loss of funding by 2014, the commonwealth's Pension fund#Public vs. private pension funds, public pension fund declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The retirement fund is a defined benefit-type pension plan and was only partially funded by the government, with only $268.4 million in assets and $911 million in liability (financial accounting), liabilities. The plan experienced low investment returns and a benefit structure that had been increased without raises in funding. In August 2012, cries for impeachment arose, as the sitting governor Benigno Fitial was being held responsible for withholding payments from the pension fund, not paying the local utility (Commonwealth Utilities or "CUC") for government offices, cutting off funding to the only hospital in the Northern Marianas, interfering with the delivery of a subpoena to his attorney general, withholding required funds from the public schools, and for signing a sole source $190 million contract for power generation. Northern Mariana Islands’ delegation to the 2016 Republican National Convention boasted about being "the most Republican territory" in the U.S. As of 2017, the Republican Party of Northern Mariana Islands, Republican Party had large majorities in both the Northern Mariana Islands Senate and the Northern Mariana Islands House of Representatives.


Administrative divisions

The islands total . The table gives an overview, with the individual islands listed from north to south: Administratively, the CNMI is divided into four municipalities: The Northern Islands (north of Saipan) form the Northern Islands Municipality. The three main islands of the Southern Islands form the municipalities of
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. Acc ...

Saipan
, Tinian Municipality, Tinian, and
Rota Rota or ROTA may refer to: Places * Rota (island), in the Marianas archipelago * Rota (volcano), in Nicaragua * Rota, Andalusia, a town in Andalusia, Spain * Naval Station Rota, Spain People * Rota (surname), a surname (including a list of people ...
, with uninhabited Aguijan forming part of Tinian municipality. Because of volcanic threat, the northern islands have been evacuated. Human habitation was limited to Agrihan, Pagan, and Alamagan, but population varied due to various economic factors, including children's education. The 2020 census showed only seven residents in the Northern Islands Municipality, and the Northern Islands' mayor office is located in "exile" on Saipan. Saipan, Tinian, and Rota have the only ports and harbors and are the only permanently populated islands. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau counts the four municipalities of the Northern Mariana Islands as county equivalents.


Political status and autonomy

In 1947, the Northern Mariana Islands became part of the post–World War II United Nations
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to ...
(TTPI). The United States became the TTPI's administering authority under the terms of a trusteeship agreement. In 1976, Congress approved the mutually negotiated Covenant to establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America. The Covenant was codified on March 24, 1976, as Public Law 94-241. The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) government adopted its own constitution in 1977, and the new government took office in January 1978. Implementation of Covenant, which took effect on January 1, 1978, was completed on November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564; which placed into effect the Covenant With the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Compacts of Free Association With the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This allowed the CNMI to be represented to the United States Government in Washington, DC by a ''Resident Representative'', elected at-large by CNMI voters and whose office was paid for by the CNMI government. The Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 ("CNRA"), approved by the U.S. Congress on May 8, 2008, established a United States congressional delegations from the Northern Mariana Islands, CNMI delegate's seat; Democrat Gregorio Sablan was elected in 2008 United States House of Representatives elections, November 2008 as the first CNMI delegate and took office in the 111th Congress. Like the other five delegates, he or she can participate in debates and vote in committee but has no vote on the floor of the House of Representatives, and has no role in the U.S. Senate, but is equal to a Senator when serving on a conference committee. On December 22, 1990, the United Nations Trusteeship Council terminated the TTPI as it applied to the CNMI and five other of the TTPI's original seven districts (the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap)), this was acknowledged in United Nations Security Council Resolution 683 passed on the same day. Under the Covenant, in general, United States federal law applies to CNMI. However, the CNMI is outside the customs territory of the United States and, although the internal revenue code does apply in the form of a local income tax, the income tax system is largely locally determined. According to the Covenant, the federal minimum wage and federal immigration laws "will not apply to the Northern Mariana Islands except in the manner and to the extent made applicable to them by the Congress by law after termination of the Trusteeship Agreement." Local control of minimum wage was superseded by the United States Congress in 2007; it was slowly raised until in 2015 it reached parity with the 50 states. Initially under the Covenant a separate immigration system existed in the CNMI, and U.S. immigration laws did not apply. After reports surfaced of abusive practices for immigrant workers, on November 28, 2009, the CNRA unilaterally amended the Covenant to match US law; specifically, CNRA § 702(a) amended the Covenant to state that "the provisions of the 'immigration laws' (as defined in section 101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(17))) shall apply to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands." Further, under CNRA § 702(a), the "immigration laws," as well as the amendments to the Covenant, "shall...supersede and replace all laws, provisions, or programs of the Commonwealth relating to the admission of aliens and the removal of aliens from the Commonwealth." Transition to U.S. immigration laws began November 28, 2009.


Judicial system

Cases under federal law are heard by the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, which was established by act of Congress in 1977, and began operations in January 1978. The court sits on the island of
Saipan Saipan ( ch, Sa’ipan, formerly in es, Saipán, and in ja, 彩帆島, Saipan-tō) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a Commonwealth (U.S. insular area), commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. Acc ...

Saipan
, but may sit other places within the commonwealth. The district court has the same jurisdiction as all other United States district courts, including diversity jurisdiction and bankruptcy jurisdiction. Appeals are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Ninth Circuit. As a United States territorial court established under Congress's territorial power granted by Article IV of the United States Constitution, judges do not have lifetime appointments, unlike the Article III courts in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Cases under territorial law are heard by the Superior Court of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, with appeals heard by the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.


Citizenship

Article III of the Covenant conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents, which generally included all citizens of the CNMI, and established U.S. birthright citizenship for persons born in the CNMI.


Economy

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands benefits from its trading relationship with the federal government of the United States and cheap trained labor from Asia. Historically, the CNMI's economy has relied on tourism, mostly from Japan, and on the garment manufacturing sector. The economy has declined since quotas were lifted in 2005, eventually leading all the garment factories on Saipan to close by February 2009. Tourism also declined after 2005 when Japan Airlines stopped serving the Marianas. Agricultural production, primarily of tapioca, cattle, coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes and melons, exists, but is relatively unimportant in the economy, representing only 1.7% of its GDP as of 2016. Non-native islanders are not allowed to own land, but can lease it.


Labor controversies

The Northern Mariana Islands had successfully used its position as a free trade area with the U.S., while at the same time not being subject to the same labor laws. For example, the $3.05 per hour minimum wage in the commonwealth, which lasted from 1997 to 2007, was lower than in the U.S. and some other worker protections are weaker, leading to lower production costs. That allowed garments to be labeled "Made in USA" without having to comply with all U.S. labor laws. However, the U.S. minimum wage law signed by Presidency of George W. Bush, President George W. Bush on May 25, 2007, resulted in stepped increases in the Northern Marianas' minimum wage, which allowed it to reach the U.S. level in 2015. The first step (to $3.55) became effective July 25, 2007, and a yearly increase of $0.50 will take effect every May thereafter until the CNMI minimum wage equals the nationwide minimum wage. However, a law signed by Presidency of Barack Obama, President Obama in December 2009 delayed the yearly increase from May to September. In 2018 the minimum wage finally reached $7.25, matching the U.S. federal minimum wage. The island's exemption from U.S. labor laws had led to many alleged exploitations, including recent claims of sweatshops, child labor, child prostitution and forced abortions. An immigration system mostly outside of federal U.S. control (which ended on November 28, 2009) resulted in a large number of Chinese migrant workers (about 15,000 during the peak years) employed in the islands' garment trade. However, the lifting of World Trade Organization restrictions on Chinese imports to the U.S. in 2005 had put the commonwealth-based trade under severe pressure, leading to a number of recent factory closures. Adding to the U.S.-imposed scheduled wage increases, the garment industry became extinct by 2009.


Infrastructure

The islands have over 220 miles (350 km) of highways, three airports with paved runways (one about 9,800 feet [3,000 m] long; two around 6,600 feet [2,000 m]), three airports with unpaved runways, and one heliport. The main commercial airport is Saipan International Airport. Mail service for the islands is provided by the United States Postal Service, U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Each major island has its own ZIP code in the 96950–96952 range, and the USPS two-letter abbreviation for the CNMI is MP ("Marianas Pacific", New Mexico, NM and Michigan, MI being taken). "CM" has been used previously and is still used in some contexts, but can be confused with Cameroon. For phone service, the islands are included in the North American Numbering Plan, using area code 670. Television service is provided by KPPI-LP, Channel 7, which simulcasts Guam's American Broadcasting Company, ABC affiliate KTGM, as well as WSZE, Channel 10, which simulcasts Guam's NBC affiliate KUAM-TV. List of radio stations in the Northern Mariana Islands, About 10 radio stations broadcast within the CNMI. In 2012 Michael Calabrese, Daniel Calarco, and Colin Richardson of ''Slate (magazine), Slate'' stated that CNMI internet prices were five times those of Guam, and that the price per megabit increases if a customer chooses a higher level internet package due to the limited bandwidth.


Demographics

According to the 2020 census, the population of the CNMI was 47,329, down from 69,221 in 2000. The decrease was reportedly due to a combination of factors including the demise of the garment industry (the vast majority of whose employees were females from China), economic crises, and a decline in tourism, one of the CNMI's primary sources of revenue. Except for the United States Minor Outlying Islands, U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands are the second least populous sub-federal jurisdiction in the United States, next to American Samoa.


Languages

The official languages on the Northern Mariana Islands include English, Chamorro language, Chamorro, and Carolinian language, Carolinian. Few people still speak the nearly extinct Tanapag language. Many Languages of the Philippines, Philippine languages, Chinese, and other Languages of Oceania, Pacific island languages are also spoken. Spanish is still retained in surnames but is no longer commonly used, though it is still familiar to some elders as a third or fourth language.


Ethnic groups

* Asian (including Filipino, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Bangladeshi and other Asian) 49.9% * Chamorro, Carolinian, Palauan and Other Pacific Islander 34.9% * Multiracial 12.7% * Others 2.5%


Religion

Owing to the Spanish missionaries in the Marianas, a large majority of Chamorros and Carolinians practice
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. The Japanese occupation had the effect of creating a sizable Buddhist community which remained even after their departure. Due to influence of the United States, diverse denominations of Protestantism also entered the islands. Many people on the Northern Mariana Islands are Roman Catholic or have traditional beliefs. According to the Pew Research Center, 2010: * Roman Catholic Diocese of Chalan Kanoa, Roman Catholic 64.1% * Protestants 16% * Buddhists 10.6% * Folk religions 5.3% * Other Christians 1.2% * Other religions 1.1% * Unaffiliated 1.0% * Eastern Orthodox <1% * Hindu <1% * Muslim <1% * Jews <1% The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reported 865 members in a ward (LDS Church), ward (congregation) in the Northern Mariana Islands.


Education

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Public School System operates public schools in the commonwealth and there are numerous private schools. Northern Marianas College is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and offers a range of programs similar to other small U.S. community colleges.


Culture

Much of the Chamorro culture in the Mariana Islands was heavily influenced by the Spanish during the Spanish era, as well as by the Germans and Japanese. Respect is an important part of Chamorro culture, and one common display is the tradition of "manngingi'". This tradition has been around for centuries and involves an elder and a young Chamorro child. The child takes the hand of the elder, places it on their nose and says ''ñot'' to the men and ''ñora'' to the women with the elders responding ''diosti ayudi'' (from Spanish ''Señor'', ''Señora'', ''Dios Te Ayude''), meaning "God help you". The Carolinian people, Carolinian culture is very similar to the Chamorro culture with respect being very important. The Carolinian culture can be traced back to Yap and Chuuk Lagoon, Chuuk, where the Carolinians originated.


Cuisine

Much of Chamorro cuisine is influenced by various cultures. Examples of popular foods of foreign origin include various types of sweet or savory empanada, originally introduced from Spain, and pancit, a noodle dish from the Philippines. Archeological evidence reveals that rice has been cultivated in the Marianas since prehistoric times. Red rice made with Bixa orellana#Culinary uses, achoti is a distinct staple food that strongly distinguishes Chamorro cuisine from that of other Pacific islands. It is commonly served for special events, such as parties (gupot or "fiestas"), novenas, and high school or college graduations. Fruits such as breadfruit, lemmai (breadfruit), mango, mangga (mangoes), coconut, niyok (coconuts), and Averrhoa bilimbi, bilimbines (bilimbi, a fruit related to starfruit) are included in various local recipes. Korean, Chinese, Japanese, and American cuisine are also commonly available. Local specialities include kelaguen, a dish in which meat is cooked in whole or in part by the action of citric acid rather than heat; tinaktak, a meat dish made with coconut milk; and kå'du fanihi (flying fox/fruit bat soup). Fruit bats have become scarce in modern times on several islands, primarily due to the overharvesting of the species and loss of habitat; hunting them is now illegal even though poaching still occurs. The Marianas and the Hawaiian islands are the world's foremost consumers, per capita, of Spam (food), Spam, with Guam at the top of the list, and Hawaii second (details regarding the rest of the Marianas are often absent from statistics). Spam was introduced to the islands by the American military as war rations during the World War II era.


Cinema

A small independent cinema of Northern Mariana Islands, producing mostly documentary films, developed in the 21st century thanks to the efforts of the Commonwealth and of the Northern Marianas College. Films had already been shot in the islands in the 20th century by foreign producers. In 2002, a new § 2151 of the Commonwealth Code established within the Marianas Visitors Authority (MVA), a Commonwealth Film, Video and Media Office, also known as the Northern Mariana Islands Film Office, with the purpose of attracting foreign companies to produce movies in the Commonwealth and to develop a local cinema industry.


Sports

Team sports popular in the United States were introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands by American soldiers during World War II. Baseball is the islands' most popular sport. CNMI teams have made appearances in the Little League World Series (in the Little, Junior, Senior and Big league divisions) as well as winning gold medals in the Micronesian Games and South Pacific Games. Basketball and mixed martial arts are also popular in the islands, which hosted the official 2009 Oceania Basketball Tournament. Trench Wars is the CNMI's Mixed Martial Arts brand. Fighters from the CNMI have competed in the Pacific Xtreme Combat as well as the UFC. Other sports in the CNMI include Ultimate Frisbee, volleyball, tennis, soccer, outrigger sailing, softball, beach volleyball, rugby football, rugby, golf, boxing, kickboxing, tae kwon do, track and field, swimming, triathlon, and American football, football.


See also

* An Act to amend Public Law 93-435 with respect to the Northern Mariana Islands * Outline of the Northern Mariana Islands * Index of Northern Mariana Islands-related articles * National Register of Historic Places listings in the Northern Mariana Islands, List of National Register of Historic Places in the Northern Mariana Islands


References


Further reading

* ''The World Factbook'', 2000. * Land areas and population data from United States Census Bureau.
Northern Mariana Islands and constituent municipalities, United States Census Bureau


External links

; Government
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Official Website





CNMI Office of Resident Representative Pedro A. Tenorio




; General * [https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/islandareas/ ''U.S. Census Bureau: Island Areas Census 2000'']
Northern Mariana Islands
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. * * * ; News media
KSPN-TV Channel 2 News

''Saipan Tribune''

''Marianas Variety''

''The Pacific Times''

Food for Thought – Weekly commentary on CNMI society by KZMI and KCNM manager Harry Blalock
; Other
''The Insular Empire: America in the Mariana Islands'', PBS documentary film & website

Northern Mariana Islands Online Encyclopedia


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