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New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or modern Latin) is the revival of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical
nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, a ...

nomenclature
, such as in zoological and botanical
taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
and
international scientific vocabulary International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually). The name "international sci ...
, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. New Latin includes extensive new word formation. As a language for full expression in
prose Prose is a form of written or spoken language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions ...

prose
or
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language − such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre (poetry), metre ...

poetry
, however, it is often distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin.


Extent

Classicists Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world traditionally refers to the study of Ancient Greek literature, Classical Greek and Latin literature, Roman literature in their original languages of Anci ...

Classicists
use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
that developed in
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, during and after the Renaissance. The beginning of the period cannot be precisely identified; however, the spread of secular education, the acceptance of
humanistic Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanistic
literary norms, and the wide availability of Latin texts following the invention of
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
, mark the transition to a new era of scholarship at the end of the 15th century. The end of the New Latin period is likewise indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, and by 1900 it survived primarily in
international scientific vocabulary International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually). The name "international sci ...
and
taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
. The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among
linguists Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...

linguists
and
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves ...

scientist
s. New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers. This area consisted of most of Europe, including
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
and
Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to , , and , sometimes more narrowly to the , or more broadly to include , th ...

Scandinavia
; its southern border was the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
Sea, with the division more or less corresponding to the modern eastern borders of
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, the
Baltic state The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...
s,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
.
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
's acquisition of
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia. Nevertheless, the use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the cultural heritage of
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
and
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
, as well as
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic () was the first Slavic literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (S ...
languages. Though Latin and New Latin are considered dead (having no native speakers), large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of the lexicon can trace its origin to Latin, thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with relative ease as cognates are quite common.


History


Beginnings

New Latin was inaugurated as
Renaissance Latin Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
by the triumph of the
humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...

humanist
reform of Latin education, led by such writers as
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
,
More More or Mores may refer to: Computing * MORE (application), outline software for Mac OS * more (command), a shell command * MORE protocol, a routing protocol * Missouri Research and Education Network Music Albums * More! (album), ''More!'' (album ...

More
, and
Colet
Colet
.
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
had been the practical working language of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and often composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical (usually pre-Christian) authors. The humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, and to make Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century.


Height

The Protestant Reformation (1520–1580), though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation, coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all kinds of secular as well as religious subjects. The heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries (1500–1700), when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin tradition, it served as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
of science, education, and to some degree diplomacy in Europe. Classic works such as
Newton Newton most commonly refers to: * Isaac Newton (1642–1726/1727), English scientist * Newton (unit), SI unit of force named after Isaac Newton Newton may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Newton (film), ''Newton'' (film), a 2017 Indian fil ...

Newton
's ''
Principia Mathematica Image:Principia Mathematica 54-43.png, 500px, ✸54.43: "From this proposition it will follow, when arithmetical addition has been defined, that 1 + 1 = 2." – Volume I, 1st editionp. 379(p. 362 in 2nd edition; p. 360 in abridged v ...
'' (1687) were written in the language. Throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, and indeed, the pre-eminent subject for
elementary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on the location. ...

elementary education
in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
required Latin proficiency (obtained in local grammar schools) to obtain admittance as a student. Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and widely used between the 9th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility.Karin Friedrich et al., ''The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772'', Cambridge University Press, 2000,
Google Print, p. 88
/ref> Through most of the 17th century, Latin was also supreme as an international language of diplomatic correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster (1648). As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a wide variety of documents, ecclesiastical, legal, diplomatic, academic, and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki. As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, and was serviceable as an international auxiliary language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the Hanoverian king
George I of Great Britain George I (George Louis; ; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of G ...
(reigned 1714–1727), who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the Unit ...

Robert Walpole
, who knew neither German nor French.


Decline

By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages (already found earlier in literature and the
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
religious movement) had reached academia, and an example of the transition is Newton's writing career, which began in New Latin and ended in English (e.g. ''
Opticks ''Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light'' is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March Old Style and New Style dates, 1726/ ...

Opticks
'', 1704). A much earlier example is Galileo c. 1600, some of whose scientific writings were in Latin, some in Italian, the latter to reach a wider audience. By contrast, while German philosopher (1679–1754) popularized German as a language of scholarly instruction and research, and wrote some works in German, he continued to write primarily in Latin, so that his works could more easily reach an international audience (e.g., ''Philosophia moralis,'' 1750–53). Likewise, in the early 18th century, replaced Latin as a diplomatic language, due to the commanding presence in Europe of the France of
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
. At the same time, some (like King
Frederick William I of Prussia Frederick William I (german: Friedrich Wilhelm I.; 14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (german: Soldatenkönig), was the king in Prussia and elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740, as well as prince of N ...
) were dismissing Latin as a useless accomplishment, unfit for a man of practical affairs. The last international treaty to be written in Latin was the Treaty of Vienna in 1738; after the
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was the last Great Power conflict with the House of Bourbon, Bourbon-Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dynastic conflict at its heart. It occurred from 1740 to 1748 and marked the rise of Kingdom of Prussia, Prus ...
(1740–48) international diplomacy was conducted predominantly in French. A diminishing audience combined with diminishing production of Latin texts pushed Latin into a declining spiral from which it has not recovered. As it was gradually abandoned by various fields, and as less written material appeared in it, there was less of a practical reason for anyone to bother to learn Latin; as fewer people knew Latin, there was less reason for material to be written in the language. Latin came to be viewed as esoteric, irrelevant, and too difficult. As languages like French, Italian, German, and English became more widely known, use of a 'difficult' auxiliary language seemed unnecessary—while the argument that Latin could expand readership beyond a single nation was fatally weakened if, in fact, Latin readers did not compose a majority of the intended audience. As the 18th century progressed, the extensive literature in Latin being produced at the beginning slowly contracted. By 1800 Latin publications were far outnumbered, and often outclassed, by writings in the modern languages as impact of
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Latin literature lasted longest in very specific fields (e.g. botany and zoology) where it had acquired a technical character, and where a literature available only to a small number of learned individuals could remain viable. By the end of the 19th century, Latin in some instances functioned less as a language than as a code capable of concise and exact expression, as for instance in physicians' prescriptions, or in a botanist's description of a specimen. In other fields (e.g. anatomy or law) where Latin had been widely used, it survived in technical phrases and terminology. The perpetuation of
Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin, Liturgical Latin or Italianate Latin, is a form of Latin initially developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought and later used as a lingua franca by the Medieval Latin, Medieval and Earl ...
in the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
through the 20th century can be considered a special case of the technicalizing of Latin, and the narrowing of its use to an elite class of readers. By 1900, creative Latin composition, for purely artistic purposes, had become rare. Authors such as
Arthur Rimbaud Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (, ; 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet known for his transgressive and surreal themes, and his influence on modern literature and arts, prefiguring surrealism. Born in Charleville, he started ...

Arthur Rimbaud
and
Max Beerbohm Sir Henry Maximilian Beerbohm (24 August 1872 – 20 May 1956) was an English essayist, parodist A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, com ...

Max Beerbohm
wrote Latin verse, but these texts were either school exercises or occasional pieces. The last survivals of New Latin to convey non-technical information appear in the use of Latin to cloak passages and expressions deemed too indecent (in the 19th century) to be read by children, the lower classes, or (most) women. Such passages appear in translations of foreign texts and in works on folklore, anthropology, and psychology, e.g. Krafft-Ebing's ''
Psychopathia Sexualis ''Psychopathia Sexualis: eine Klinisch-Forensische Studie'' (''Sexual Psychopathy: A Clinical-Forensic Study'', also known as ''Psychopathia Sexualis, with Especial Reference to the Antipathetic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-forensic Study'') is an 1 ...
'' (1886).


Crisis and transformation

Latin as a language held a place of educational pre-eminence until the second half of the 19th century. At that point its value was increasingly questioned; in the 20th century,
educational philosophies The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education. The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Co ...
such as that of
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom ...
dismissed its relevance. At the same time, the
philological Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
study of Latin appeared to show that the traditional methods and materials for teaching Latin were dangerously out of date and ineffective. In secular academic use, however, New Latin declined sharply and then continuously after about 1700. Although Latin texts continued to be written throughout the 18th and into the 19th century, their number and their scope diminished over time. By 1900, very few new texts were being created in Latin for practical purposes, and the production of Latin texts had become little more than a hobby for Latin enthusiasts. Around the beginning of the 19th century came a renewed emphasis on the study of
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...
as the spoken language of the Romans of the 1st centuries BC and AD. This new emphasis, similar to that of the Humanists but based on broader linguistic, historical, and critical studies of Latin literature, led to the exclusion of Neo-Latin literature from academic studies in schools and universities (except for advanced historical language studies); to the abandonment of New Latin neologisms; and to an increasing interest in the reconstructed Classical pronunciation, which displaced the several regional pronunciations in Europe in the early 20th century. Coincident with these changes in Latin instruction, and to some degree motivating them, came a concern about lack of Latin proficiency among students. Latin had already lost its privileged role as the core subject of elementary instruction; and as education spread to the middle and lower classes, it tended to be dropped altogether. By the mid-20th century, even the trivial acquaintance with Latin typical of the 19th-century student was a thing of the past.


Relics

Ecclesiastical Latin Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin, Liturgical Latin or Italianate Latin, is a form of Latin initially developed to discuss Christian theology, Christian thought and later used as a lingua franca by the Medieval Latin, Medieval and Earl ...
, the form of New Latin used in the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
, remained in use throughout the period and after. Until the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
of 1962–65 all priests were expected to have competency in it, and it was studied in Catholic schools. It is today still the official language of the Church, and all Catholic priests of the
Latin liturgical rites Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
are required by canon law to have competency in the language. Use of Latin in the Mass, largely abandoned through the later 20th century, has recently seen a resurgence due in large part to
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ran ...

Pope Benedict XVI
's 2007 ''
motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
'' ''
Summorum Pontificum ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually bec ...
'' and its use by traditional Catholic priests and their organizations. New Latin is also the source of the
biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowl ...

biological
system of
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
and classification of living organisms devised by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Carl Linnaeus
, although the rules of the
ICZN The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * C ...
allow the construction of names that deviate considerably from historical norms. (See also
classical compound Classical and neoclassical compounds are compound word In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. ...
s.) Another continuation is the use of Latin names for the surface features of planets and planetary satellites (
planetary nomenclature, 1st edition (1881), predating IAU conventions Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, ...
), originated in the mid-17th century for toponyms. New Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialized fields such as
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ...

anatomy
and
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
; some of these words have become part of the normal, non-technical vocabulary of various European languages.


Pronunciation

New Latin had no single pronunciation, but a host of local variants or dialects, all distinct both from each other and from the historical pronunciation of Latin at the time of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. As a rule, the local pronunciation of Latin used sounds identical to those of the dominant local language; the result of a concurrently evolving pronunciation in the living languages and the corresponding spoken dialects of Latin. Despite this variation, there are some common characteristics to nearly all of the dialects of New Latin, for instance: * The use of a
sibilant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
fricative Fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pron ...
or
affricate An affricate is a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pr ...
in place of a stop for the letters ''c'' and sometimes ''g'', when preceding a front vowel. * The use of a sibilant fricative or affricate for the letter ''t'' when not at the beginning of the first syllable and preceding an unstressed ''i'' followed by a vowel. * The use of a labiodental fricative for most instances of the letter ''v'' (or consonantal ''u''), instead of the classical labiovelar approximant . * A tendency for medial ''s'' to be voiced to , especially between vowels. * The merger of ''æ'' and ''œ'' with ''e'', and of ''y'' with ''i''. * The loss of the distinction between short and long vowels, with such vowel distinctions as remain being dependent upon word-stress. The regional dialects of New Latin can be grouped into families, according to the extent to which they share common traits of pronunciation. The major division is between Western and Eastern family of New Latin. The Western family includes most Romance-speaking regions (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy) and the British Isles; the Eastern family includes Central Europe (Germany and Poland), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden). The Western family is characterized, ''inter alia'', by having a front variant of the letter ''g'' before the vowels ''æ, e, i, œ, y'' and also pronouncing ''j'' in the same way (except in Italy). In the Eastern Latin family, ''j'' is always pronounced , and ''g'' had the same sound (usually ) in front of both front and back vowels; exceptions developed later in some Scandinavian countries. The following table illustrates some of the variation of New Latin consonants found in various countries of Europe, compared to the Classical Latin pronunciation of the 1st centuries BC to AD. In Eastern Europe, the pronunciation of Latin was generally similar to that shown in the table below for German, but usually with for ''z'' instead of .


Orthography

New Latin texts are primarily found in early printed editions, which present certain features of spelling and the use of diacritics distinct from the Latin of antiquity, medieval Latin manuscript conventions, and representations of Latin in modern printed editions.


Characters

In spelling, New Latin, in all but the earliest texts, distinguishes the letter '''' from '''' and '''' from ''''. In older texts printed down to c. 1630, ''v'' was used in initial position (even when it represented a vowel, e.g. in ''vt'', later printed ''ut'') and ''u'' was used elsewhere, e.g. in ''nouus'', later printed ''novus''. By the mid-17th century, the letter ''v'' was commonly used for the consonantal sound of Roman V, which in most pronunciations of Latin in the New Latin period was (and not ), as in ''vulnus'' "wound", ''corvus'' "crow". Where the pronunciation remained , as after ''g'', ''q'' and ''s'', the spelling ''u'' continued to be used for the consonant, e.g. in ''lingua'', ''qualis'', and ''suadeo''. The letter ''j'' generally represented a consonantal sound (pronounced in various ways in different European countries, e.g. , , , ). It appeared, for instance, in ''jam'' "already" or ''jubet'' "orders" (earlier spelled ''iam'' and ''iubet''). It was also found between vowels in the words ''ejus'', ''hujus'', ''cujus'' (earlier spelled ''eius, huius, cuius''), and pronounced as a consonant; likewise in such forms as ''major'' and ''pejor''. ''J'' was also used when the last in a sequence of two or more ''is, e.g. ''radij'' (now spelled ''radii'') "rays", ''alijs'' "to others", ''iij'', the Roman numeral 3; however, ''ij'' was for the most part replaced by ''ii'' by 1700. In common with texts in other languages using the Roman alphabet, Latin texts down to c. 1800 used the letter-form ''ſ'' (the ''
long s The long s, , is an archaism, archaic form of the letter case, lower case letter . It replaced the single 's', or one or both of the letters 's' in a 'double s' sequence (e.g., "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "poſſeſs" or "poſseſs" fo ...

long s
'') for ''s'' in positions other than at the end of a word; e.g. ''ipſiſſimus''. The digraphs ''ae'' and ''oe'' were rarely so written (except when part of a word in all capitals, e.g. in titles, chapter headings, or captions); instead the ligatures ''æ'' and ''œ'' were used, e.g. ''Cæsar'', ''pœna''. More rarely (and usually in 16th- to early 17th-century texts) the
e caudata file:Sacrecon.png, 270px, Part of a Latin book published in Rome in 1632. ''E caudata'' is used in the words Sacrę, propagandę, prædictę, and grammaticę. The spelling grammaticæ, with ''æ'', is also used. The e caudata ("tailed e", from la, ...

e caudata
is found substituting for either.


Diacritics

Three kinds of diacritic were in common use: the acute accent ´, the grave accent `, and the circumflex accent ˆ. These were normally only marked on vowels (e.g. í, è, â); but see below regarding ''que''. The acute accent marked a stressed syllable, but was usually confined to those where the stress was not in its normal position, as determined by vowel length and syllabic weight. In practice, it was typically found on the vowel in the syllable immediately preceding a final
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
, particularly ''que'' "and", ''ve'' "or" and ''ne'', a question marker; e.g. ''idémque'' "and the same (thing)". Some printers, however, put this acute accent over the ''q'' in the enclitic ''que'', e.g. ''eorumq́ue'' "and their". The acute accent fell out of favor by the 19th century. The grave accent had various uses, none related to pronunciation or stress. It was always found on the preposition ''à'' (variant of ''ab'' "by" or "from") and likewise on the preposition ''è'' (variant of ''ex'' "from" or "out of"). It might also be found on the interjection ''ò'' "O". Most frequently, it was found on the last (or only) syllable of various adverbs and conjunctions, particularly those that might be confused with prepositions or with inflected forms of nouns, verbs, or adjectives. Examples include ''certè'' "certainly", ''verò'' "but", ''primùm'' "at first", ''pòst'' "afterwards", ''cùm'' "when", ''adeò'' "so far, so much", ''unà'' "together", ''quàm'' "than". In some texts the grave was found over the clitics such as ''que'', in which case the acute accent did not appear before them. The circumflex accent represented metrical length (generally not distinctively pronounced in the New Latin period) and was chiefly found over an ''a'' representing an ablative singular case, e.g. ''eâdem formâ'' "with the same shape". It might also be used to distinguish two words otherwise spelled identically, but distinct in vowel length; e.g. ''hîc'' "here" differentiated from ''hic'' "this", ''fugêre'' "they have fled" (=''fūgērunt'') distinguished from ''fugere'' "to flee", or ''senatûs'' "of the senate" distinct from ''senatus'' "the senate". It might also be used for vowels arising from contraction, e.g. ''nôsti'' for ''novisti'' "you know", ''imperâsse'' for ''imperavisse'' "to have commanded", or ''dî'' for ''dei'' or ''dii''.


Notable works (1500–1900)


Literature and biography

* 1511. '' Stultitiæ Laus'', essay by
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
. * 1516. ''
Utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct f ...


by
Thomas More Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian chur ...

Thomas More
* 1525 and 1538. ''Hispaniola'' and ''Emerita'', two comedies by Juan Maldonado. * 1546. ''Sintra'', a poem by . * 1602.
Cenodoxus
'', a play by
Jacob Bidermann Jacob Bidermann (1578 – August 20, 1639) was born in the Austrian (at that time) village of Ehingen, about 30 miles southwest of Ulm. He was a Jesuit priest and professor of theology, but is remembered mostly for his plays. He had a talent f ...
. * 1608.
Parthenica
'', two books of poetry by . * 1621.
Argenis
', a novel by . * 1626–1652.
Poems
' by
John Milton John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the under its Council of State and later under . He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best kno ...

John Milton
. * 1634. ''Somnium'', a scientific fantasy by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
. * 1741. ''Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum

a satire by
Ludvig Holberg Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (3 December 1684 – 28 January 1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Denmark-Norway, Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy. He was influenced ...

Ludvig Holberg
. * 1761. ''Slawkenbergii Fabella'', short parodic piece in
Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (24 November 171318 March 1768) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and an Anglican cleric. He wrote the novels ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'' and ''A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy'', and also publi ...

Laurence Sterne
's ''
Tristram ShandyTristram may refer to: Literature * the title character of ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'', a novel by Laurence Sterne * the title character of ''Tristram of Lyonesse'', an epic poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne *"Tristram ...
''. * 1767.
Apollo et Hyacinthus
',
intermezzo In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated conc ...

intermezzo
by
Rufinus Widl Father Rufinus Widl (26 September 1731 – 12 March 1798) was a Bavarian Benedictine monk and a lecturer at Salzburg University from 1767 until his death. Widl was born in Frauenwörth, Frauenchiemsee, Bavaria.Georgii Washingtonii, Americæ Septentrionalis Civitatum Fœderatarum Præsidis Primi, Vita
', biography of George Washington by Francis Glass.


Scientific works

* 1543. ''De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, De Revolutionibus Orbium Cœlestium'' by Nicolaus Copernicus * 1545. ''Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano), Ars Magna'' by Gerolamo Cardano, Hieronymus Cardanus * 1551–58 and 1587. ''Historia animalium (Gessner book), Historia animalium'' by Conrad Gessner. * 1600. ''De Magnete, De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus et de Magno Magnete Tellure'' by William Gilbert (astronomer), William Gilbert. * 1609. ''Astronomia nova'' by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
. * 1610. ''Sidereus Nuncius'' by Galileo Galilei. * 1620. ''Novum Organum'' by Francis Bacon]

* 1628. ''Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus'' by William Harvey

* 1659.
Systema Saturnium
' by Christiaan Huygens. * 1673.
Horologium Oscillatorium
' by Christiaan Huygens. Also a
Gallica
* 1687. ''Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'' by Isaac Newton

* 1703. ''Hortus Malabaricus'' by Hendrik van Rheede]

* 1735. ''Systema Naturae'' by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Carl Linnaeus


* 1737.
Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita
' by Leonhard Euler. * 1738.
Hydrodynamica, sive de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii
' by Daniel Bernoulli. *1747. ''Antilucretius'' by Cardinal de Polignac * 1748.
Introductio in analysin infinitorum
' by Leonhard Euler. * 1753. ''Species Plantarum'' by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Carl Linnaeus
. * 1758. ''Systema Naturae'' (10th ed.) by Carolus Linnaeus. * 1791.
De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari
' by Luigi Galvani, Aloysius Galvani. * 1801. ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' by Carl Gauss. * 1810. ''Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen'' by Robert Brown (Scottish botanist from Montrose), Robert Brown]

* 1830. ''Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum'' by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. * 1840. ''Flora Brasiliensis'' by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius]

* 1864.
Philosophia zoologica
' by Jan van der Hoeven. * 1889. ''Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita'' by Giuseppe Peano


Other technical subjects

* 1511–1516. ''De Orbe Novo Decades'' by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera. * 1514. ''De Asse et Partibus'' by Guillaume Budé. * 1524. ''De motu Hispaniæ'' by Juan Maldonado. * 1525. ''De subventione pauperum sive de humanis necessitatibus libri duo'' by Juan Luis Vives. * 1530. ''Syphilis, sive, De Morbo Gallico'' by Girolamo Fracastoro]
transcription
* 1531. ''De disciplinis libri XX'' by Juan Luis Vives. * 1552. ''Colloquium de aulica et privata vivendi ratione'' by . * 1553. ''Christianismi Restitutio'' by Michael Servetus. A mainly theological treatise, where the function of pulmonary circulation was first described by a European, more than half a century before Harvey. For the trinity, non-trinitarian message of this book Servetus was denounced by Calvin and his followers, condemned by the French Inquisition, and burnt alive just outside Geneva. Only three copies survived. * 1554. ''De naturæ philosophia seu de Platonis et Aristotelis consensione libri quinque'' by Sebastián Fox Morcillo. * 1582. ''Rerum Scoticarum Historia'' by George Buchanan
transcription
* 1587. ''Minerva sive de causis linguæ Latinæ'' by Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas. * 1589. ''De natura Novi Orbis libri duo et de promulgatione euangelii apud barbaros sive de procuranda Indorum salute'' by José de Acosta. * 1597. ''Disputationes metaphysicæ'' by Francisco Suárez. * 1599. ''De rege et regis institutione'' by Juan de Mariana. * 1604–1608. ''Historia sui temporis'' by Jacques Auguste de Thou, Jacobus Augustus Thuanus

* 1612. ''De legibus'' by Francisco Suárez. * 1615. ''De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas'' by Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault. * 1625. ''De jure belli ac pacis'' by Hugo Grotius.
Posner Collection facsimileGallica facsimile
* 1641. ''Meditations on First Philosophy, Meditationes de prima philosophia'' by René Descartes.
The Latin, French and English by John Veitch.
* 1642–1658. ''Elementa Philosophica'' by Thomas Hobbes. * 1652–1654. ''Oedipus Aegyptiacus, Œdipus Ægyptiacus'' by Athanasius Kircher. * 1655. '':commons:Novus Atlas Sinensis, Novus Atlas Sinensis'' by Martino Martini. * 1656. ''Flora Sinensis'' by Michael Boym. * 1657. ''Orbis Pictus, Orbis Sensualium Pictus'' by John Amos Comenius.
Hoole parallel Latin/English translation, 1777
* 1670. ''Tractatus Theologico-Politicus'' by Baruch Spinoza. * 1677. ''Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata'' by Baruch Spinoza. * 1725. ''Gradus ad Parnassum'' by Johann Joseph Fux. An influential treatise on musical counterpoint. * 1780. ''De rebus gestis Caroli V Imperatoris et Regis Hispaniæ'' and ''De rebus Hispanorum gestis ad Novum Orbem Mexicumque'' by Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. * 1891. ''De primis socialismi germanici lineamentis apud Lutherum, Kant, Fichte et Hegel'' by Jean Jaurès''


See also

* Binomial nomenclature * Botanical Latin * Classical compound * Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies * Romance languages, sometimes called Neo-Latin languages


Notes


Further reading

* Black, Robert. 2007. ''Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. * Bloemendal, Jan, and Howard B. Norland, eds. 2013. ''Neo-Latin Drama and Theatre in Early Modern Europe''. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. * Burnett, Charles, and Nicholas Mann, eds. 2005. ''Britannia Latina: Latin in the Culture of Great Britain from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century''. Warburg Institute Colloquia 8. London: Warburg Institute. * Butterfield, David. 2011. "Neo-Latin". In ''A Blackwell Companion to the Latin Language''. Edited by James Clackson, 303–18. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. * Churchill, Laurie J., Phyllis R. Brown, and Jane E. Jeffrey, eds. 2002. ''Women Writing in Latin: From Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe''. Vol. 3, Early Modern Women Writing Latin. New York: Routledge. * Coroleu, Alejandro. 2010. "Printing and Reading Italian Neo-Latin Bucolic Poetry in Early Modern Europe". ''Grazer Beitrage'' 27: 53–69. * de Beer, Susanna, K. A. E. Enenkel, and David Rijser. 2009. ''The Neo-Latin Epigram: A Learned and Witty Genre''. Supplementa Lovaniensia 25. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press. * De Smet, Ingrid A. R. 1999. "Not for Classicists? The State of Neo-Latin Studies". ''Journal of Roman Studies'' 89: 205–9. * Ford, Philip. 2000. "Twenty-Five Years of Neo-Latin Studies". ''Neulateinisches Jahrbuch'' 2: 293–301. * Ford, Philip, Jan Bloemendal, and Charles Fantazzi, eds. 2014. ''Brill’s Encyclopaedia of the Neo-Latin World''. Two vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. * Godman, Peter, and Oswyn Murray, eds. 1990. ''Latin Poetry and the Classical Tradition: Essays in Medieval and Renaissance Literature''. Oxford: Clarendon. * Haskell, Yasmin, and Juanita Feros Ruys, eds. 2010. ''Latin and Alterity in the Early Modern Period''. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 30. Tempe: Arizona Univ. Press * Helander, Hans. 2001. "Neo-Latin Studies: Significance and Prospects". ''Symbolae Osloenses'' 76.1: 5–102. * Jozef IJsewijn, IJsewijn, Jozef with Dirk Sacré. ''Companion to Neo-Latin Studies''. Two vols. Leuven University Press, 1990–1998. * Knight, Sarah, and Stefan Tilg, eds. 2015. ''The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin''. New York: Oxford University Press. * Miller, John F. 2003. "Ovid's Fasti and the Neo-Latin Christian Calendar Poem". ''International Journal of Classical Tradition'' 10.2:173–186. * Moul, Victoria. 2017. ''A Guide to Neo-Latin Literature''. New York: Cambridge University Press. * Tournoy, Gilbert, and Terence O. Tunberg. 1996. "On the Margins of Latinity? Neo-Latin and the Vernacular Languages". ''Humanistica Lovaniensia'' 45:134–175. * van Hal, Toon. 2007. "Towards Meta-neo-Latin Studies? Impetus to Debate on the Field of Neo-Latin Studies and its Methodology". ''Humanistica Lovaniensia'' 56:349–365. * Waquet, Françoise, ''Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries'' (Verso, 2003) ; translated from the French by John Howe.


External links


An Analytic Bibliography of On-line Neo-Latin Titles
— Bibliography of Renaissance Latin and Neo-Latin literature on the web.

— An essay on Neo-Latin literature by James Hankins from the I Tatti Renaissance Library website.
CAMENA
– Latin Texts of Early Modern Europe
Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature




at Bibliotheca Augustana * * * * * * {{Latin periods Latin language Forms of Latin, 6 New Latin-language literature History of literature Languages attested from the 16th century 16th-century establishments in Europe