HOME

TheInfoList





("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital =
Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its P ...
, largest_city =
Moncton Moncton (; ) is the largest urban centre in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the The Maritimes, Maritime Provinces. T ...

Moncton
, largest_metro =
Greater Moncton Greater Moncton () is the area encompassing Metro Moncton (Moncton, Riverview, New Brunswick, Riverview, and Dieppe, New Brunswick, Dieppe). Greater Moncton is also known as Greater Moncton Census Metropolitan Area, Moncton Metropolitan Area or Mon ...
, official_lang = , Premier =
Blaine Higgs Blaine Myron Higgs (born March 1, 1954) is a Canadians, Canadian politician who is the List of premiers of New Brunswick, 34th and current premier of New Brunswick since 2018 and leader of the New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party since 201 ...
, PremierParty = Progressive Conservatives , Viceroy =
Brenda Murphy Brenda Murphy (born 1958 or 1959) is a Canadians, Canadian activist and politician, who is the List of lieutenant governors of New Brunswick, 32nd and current Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, since September 8, 2019.Alexander Quon"Brenda Murp ...
, ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor , Legislature = Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick , area_rank = 11th , area_total_km2 = 72907 , area_land_km2 = 71450 , area_water_km2 = 1458 , PercentWater = 2.0 , population_demonym = New Brunswicker ''
: Néo-Brunswickois(e)''
, population_rank = 8th , population_total = 747101 , population_ref = , population_as_of = 2016 , population_est = 794300 , pop_est_as_of = Q4 2021 , pop_est_ref = , DensityRank = 4th , Density_km2 = 10.5 , GDP_year = 2017 , GDP_total = C$36.088 billion , GDP_rank = 9th , GDP_per_capita = C$42,606 , GDP_per_capita_rank = 11th , AdmittanceOrder = 1st, with
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
,
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, AdmittanceDate = July 1, 1867 , HouseSeats = 10 , SenateSeats = 10 , timezone1 = Atlantic , utc_offset1 = -04:00 , timezone1_DST = Atlantic DST , utc_offset1_DST = -03:00 , PostalAbbreviation = NB , PostalCodePrefix = E , iso_code = CA-NB , website = www.gnb.ca , flower = , tree =
Balsam fir ''Abies balsamea'' or balsam fir is a North American fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natur ...

Balsam fir
, bird =
Black-capped chickadee The black-capped chickadee (''Poecile atricapillus'') is a small, nonmigratory, North American songbird that lives in deciduous and mixed forests. It is a passerine bird in the tit family (biology), family, the Paridae. It is the state bird of Ma ...
, HDI_year=2019, HDI_rank=12th, HDI=0.898Very high New Brunswick (french: Nouveau-Brunswick, , locally ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
. It is one of the three
Maritime provinces The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of h ...
and one of the four
Atlantic provinces Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949, is the region of Eastern Canada comprising the four provinces and territories of Canada, ...

Atlantic provinces
. It is the only province with both French and English as its official languages. New Brunswick is bordered by
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
to the north,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
to the east, the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence The Gulf of St. Lawrence (French language, French: ''Golfe du Saint-Laurent'') is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about and conta ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
to the northeast, the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
to the southeast, and the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
to the west. New Brunswick is about 83% forested and its northern half is occupied by the
Appalachians The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...
. The province's climate is
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
with snowy winters and temperate summers. New Brunswick has a surface area of and 747,101 inhabitants (2016). Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas. New Brunswick's largest cities are
Moncton Moncton (; ) is the largest urban centre in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the The Maritimes, Maritime Provinces. T ...
and
Saint John Saint John or St. John sometimes refers to John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles ...
, while its capital is
Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its P ...
. In 1969, New Brunswick passed the Official Languages Act which began recognizing French as an official language, along with English. New Brunswickers have the right to receive provincial government services in the official language of their choice. About of the population are anglophone and are
francophone This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...
. New Brunswick is home to most of the cultural region of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
and most
Acadians The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French who settled in Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America North America is a continent ...
. New Brunswick's
variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
of French is called
Acadian French Acadian French (french: français acadien) is a variety of Canadian French, French originally associated with the Acadians of what is now the Maritimes in Canada. The language is spoken by the Acadian Francophone population of the Canadian provinc ...

Acadian French
and 7 regional accents can be found. New Brunswick was first inhabited by
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
like the
Miꞌkmaq The Miꞌkmaq (also ''Mi'gmaq'', ''Lnu'', ''Miꞌkmaw'' or ''Miꞌgmaw''; ; ) are a First Nations people of the Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, Northeastern Woodlands, indigenous to the areas now known as Canada's Atlantic Canada ...
and
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
. In 1604,
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
, the first
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ''metropole, metropol ...
, was founded with the creation of Port-Royal. For 150 years afterwards, Acadia changed hands a few times due to numerous conflicts between
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. From 1755 to 1764, the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
deported
Acadian The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link ...
s en masse, an event known as the
Great Upheaval The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians (French language, French: or ), was the Ethnic cleansing, forced removal by the British Empire, B ...
. This, along with the Treaty of Paris, solidified Acadia as British property. In 1784, following the arrival of many
loyalists Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. ...
fleeing the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, the colony of New Brunswick was officially created, separating it from what is now
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. In the early 1800s, New Brunswick prospered and the population grew rapidly. In 1867, New Brunswick decided to
confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...
with Nova Scotia and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
(now
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
and
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
) to form
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
. After
Confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
, shipbuilding and lumbering declined, and
protectionism Protectionism is the economic policy The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, nationalization, national o ...
disrupted trade with
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
. From the mid-1900s onwards, New Brunswick was one of the poorest regions of Canada, a fact eventually mitigated by transfer payments. As of 2002, the provincial
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%. A powerful corporate concentration of large companies in New Brunswick, including most newspapers, are owned by the
Irving Group of Companies The Irving Group of Companies is an informal name given to those companies owned and controlled by the descendants of Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, ...
. The province's 2019 output was CA$38.236 billion, which is 1.65% of Canada's
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
. Tourism accounts for 9% of the labour force either directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include the
Hopewell Rocks The Hopewell Rocks, also called the Flowerpots Rocks or simply The Rocks, are rock formations caused by tidal erosion in ''The Hopewell Rocks Ocean Tidal Exploration Site'' in New Brunswick. They stand 40–70 feet tall. They are located on th ...

Hopewell Rocks
,
Fundy National Park Fundy National Park is a National Parks of Canada, national park of Canada located on the Bay of Fundy, near the village of Alma, New Brunswick, Alma, New Brunswick. It was officially opened on 29 July 1950. The Park showcases a rugged coastline ...

Fundy National Park
,
Magnetic Hill A gravity hill, also known as a magnetic hill, mystery hill, mystery spot, gravity road, or anti-gravity hill, is a place where the layout of the surrounding land produces an optical illusion, making a slight downhill slope appear to be an uphill ...
,
Kouchibouguac National Park Kouchibouguac National Park () is located on the east coast of New Brunswick in Kouchibouguac, New Brunswick, Kouchibouguac and was established in 1969. The park includes barrier islands, sand dunes, lagoons, salt marshes and forests. It provi ...

Kouchibouguac National Park
and Roosevelt Campobello International Park.


Toponymy

After the founding in 1784, the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
,
King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
,
King of Ireland Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North C ...
, and
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. Prior to European arrival, Indigenous tribes did not leave a written record, but their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Bouctouche,
Memramcook Memramcook, sometimes also spelled Memramcouke or Memramkouke, is a village in Westmorland County, New Brunswick Westmorland County (2016 population: 149,623) is a List of counties of New Brunswick, county in New Brunswick, a province of Canad ...
, Petitcodiac,
Quispamsis Quispamsis (, sometimes shortened to ) is a Kings County suburb of Saint John, New Brunswick Saint John is a seaport city of the Atlantic Ocean located on the Bay of Fundy in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. Saint John is the oldes ...
, Richibucto and
Shediac Shediac (informal French ''Shédiac'') is a Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian town in Westmorland County, New Brunswick, Westmorland County, New Brunswick. The town is known as the "Lobster Capital of the World" and hosts an annual ...
.


History


Indigenous societies

Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the
Maliseet The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of indigenous peoples in Canada, Canadian indigenous peoples, disti ...
, and the
Passamaquoddy The Passamaquoddy (''Peskotomuhkati'' or ''Pestomuhkati'' in the Passamaquoddy language Malecite–Passamaquoddy (also known as Maliseet–Passamaquoddy) is an endangered Algonquian languages, Algonquian language spoken by the Maliseet and Pass ...
.


European settlements


French colony

The first documented European visits were by
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
in 1534. In 1604, a party including
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain (; c. 13 August 1567 Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date nor his place of birth. – 25 Decemb ...
visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (french: Fête de la Saint-Jean-Baptiste, la Saint-Jean, Fête nationale du Québec), also known in English as ''St John the Baptist Day'', is a holiday celebrated on June 24 in the Canadian province The provinces and t ...
. Now
Saint John Saint John or St. John sometimes refers to John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles ...
, this was later the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement eventually extended up the river to the site of present-day
Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its P ...
. Other settlements in the southeast extended from
Beaubassin Beaubassin was an important Acadian village and trading centre on the Isthmus of Chignecto in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. The area was a significant place in the Geopolitics, geopolitical struggle between the British and French empires. I ...
, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, and up the Petitcodiac,
Memramcook Memramcook, sometimes also spelled Memramcouke or Memramkouke, is a village in Westmorland County, New Brunswick Westmorland County (2016 population: 149,623) is a List of counties of New Brunswick, county in New Brunswick, a province of Canad ...
, and Shepody Rivers. By the early 1700s, the French settlements formed a part of
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country pri ...

Acadia
, a colonial division of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Quebec and Maine. The British conquest of most of the Acadian peninsula occurred during the
Queen Anne's War Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain Ann ...
, and was formalized in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. After the war, French Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean (
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
) and Île-Royale (
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia ) , image_map = No ...

Cape Breton Island
). The ownership of continental Acadia (New Brunswick) remained disputed, with an informal border on the
Isthmus of Chignecto The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Canadian Maritimes, Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia that connects the Nova Scotia peninsula with North America. The isthmus separates the waters of Chignecto Bay, a sub-bas ...
. In an effort to limit British expansion into continental Acadia, the French built
Fort Beauséjour Fort Beauséjour (), Fort Cumberland from 1755, is a large, five- bastioned fort A fortification is a military construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organ ...

Fort Beauséjour
at the isthmus in 1751. From 1749 to 1755, the British engaged in a campaign to consolidate its control over Nova Scotia. The resulting conflict led to an
Acadian Exodus The Acadian Exodus (also known as the Acadian migration) happened during Father Le Loutre's War Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War a ...
to French-controlled territories in North America, including portions of continental Acadia. In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour, severing the Acadian supply lines to Nova Scotia, and Île-Royale. Unable to make most of the Acadians sign an unconditional oath of allegiance, British authorities undertook a campaign to expel the Acadians in the initial periods of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...

Seven Years' War
.


British colony

Continental Acadia was eventually incorporated into the British colony of Nova Scotia, with nearly all of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
being surrendered to the British with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Acadians that returned from exile discovered several thousand immigrants, mostly from New England, on their former lands. Some settled around Memramcook and along the Saint John River. In 1766, settlers from Pennsylvania founded Moncton, and English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. However, settlement of the area remained slow in the mid-18th century. After the American Revolution, about 10,000
loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdo ...
refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, ("hope restored"). The number reached almost 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten eventually returning to America. New Brunswick was founded in 1784 upon the partition of Nova Scotia into two areas which became the Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In the same year, New Brunswick formed its first elected assembly. In 1785, Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city. The population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, which was bolstered by the
Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, also known as the Elgin–Marcy Treaty, was a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign state ...
of 1854 and demand from the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes and produced over 500 vessels. In 1848, responsible home government was granted, and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties largely organised along religious and ethnic lines. The first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed increasingly in the 1860s. Many felt the American Civil War to be the result of weak central government and wished to avoid such violence and chaos. The 1864 Charlottetown Conference was intended to discuss a Maritime Union, but concerns over possible conquest by the Americans, coupled with a belief that Britain was unwilling to defend its colonies against an American attack, led to a request from the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
(now Ontario and Quebec) to expand the meeting's scope. In 1866 the United States cancelled the Reciprocity Treaty, leading to loss of trade with New England and prompting a desire to build trade within British North America, and Fenian raids increased support for union. On 1 July 1867, New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation along with Nova Scotia and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
.


Modern New Brunswick

Confederation brought into existence the Intercolonial Railway in 1872, a consolidation of the existing Nova Scotia Railway, European and North American Railway, and Grand Trunk Railway. In 1879 John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942), Conservatives enacted the National Policy which called for high tariffs and opposed free trade, disrupting the trading relationship between the Maritimes and
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
. The economic situation was worsened by the decline of the wooden ship building industry. The railways and tariffs did foster the growth of new industries in the province such as textile manufacturing, iron mills, and sugar refineries, many of which eventually failed to compete with better capitalized industry in central Canada. In 1937 New Brunswick had the highest infant mortality and illiteracy rates in Canada. At the end of the Great Depression the New Brunswick standard of living was much below the Canadian average. In 1940 the Rowell–Sirois Commission reported that the federal government attempts to manage the depression illustrated grave flaws in the Canadian constitution. While the federal government had most of the revenue gathering powers, the provinces had many expenditure responsibilities such as healthcare, education, and welfare, which were becoming increasingly expensive. The Commission recommended the creation of equalization payments, implemented in 1957. After Canada joined World War II, 14 NB army units were organized, in addition to The Royal New Brunswick Regiment, and first deployed in the Italian campaign (World War II), Italian campaign in 1943. After the Normandy landings they redeployed to northwestern Europe, along with The North Shore (New Brunswick) Regiment, The North Shore Regiment. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, a training program for ally pilots, established bases in Moncton, Chatham, New Brunswick, Chatham, and Pennfield Ridge, New Brunswick, Pennfield Ridge, as well as a military typing school in Saint John. While relatively unindustrialized before the war, New Brunswick became home to 34 plants on military contracts from which the province received over $78 million. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, who had promised no conscription, asked the provinces if they would release the government of said promise. New Brunswick voted 69.1% yes. The policy was not implemented until 1944, too late for many of the conscripts to be deployed. There were 1808 NB fatalities among the armed forces. The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers to the south. The population of French origin grew dramatically after Confederation, from about 16 per cent in 1871 to 34 per cent in 1931. Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in Francophone areas was less developed than elsewhere. In 1960 Premier Louis Robichaud embarked on the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program, in which education, rural road maintenance, and healthcare fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province, rather than the former county-based system. In 1969 the Robichaud government adopted the Official Languages Act making the province officially bilingual and establishing the right of New Brunswickers to obtain provincial government services in the official language of their choice. In 1982 at the request of the government of Richard Hatfield, this right became part of the ''Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms'' and therefore part of the Constitution of Canada. The flag of New Brunswick, based on the coat of arms, was adopted in 1965. The conventional heraldic representations of a lion and a ship represent colonial ties with Europe, and the importance of shipping at the time the coat of arms was assigned.


Geography

Roughly square, New Brunswick is bordered on the north by Quebec, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Bay of Fundy, and on the west by the US state of Maine. The southeast corner of the province is connected to Nova Scotia at the isthmus of Chignecto. Glaciation has left much of New Brunswick's uplands with only shallow, acidic soils which have discouraged settlement but which are home to enormous forests.


Climate

New Brunswick's climate is more severe than that of the other Maritime provinces, which are lower and have more shoreline along the moderating sea. New Brunswick has a humid continental climate, with slightly milder winters on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coastline. Elevated parts of the far north of the province have a subarctic climate. Evidence of Global warming, climate change in New Brunswick can be seen in its more intense precipitation events, more frequent winter Thaw (weather), thaws, and one quarter to half the amount of snowpack. Today the sea level is about higher than it was 100 years ago, and it is expected to rise twice that much again by the year 2100.


Flora and fauna

Most of New Brunswick is forested with secondary forest or tertiary forest. At the start of European settlement, the Maritimes were covered from coast to coast by a forest of mature trees, giants by today's standards. Today less than one per cent of old-growth New England/Acadian forests, Acadian forest remains, and the World Wide Fund for Nature lists the Acadian Forest as endangered. Following the frequent large scale disturbances caused by settlement and timber harvesting, the Acadian forest is not growing back as it was, but is subject to borealization. This means that exposure-resistant species that are well adapted to the frequent large-scale disturbances common in the boreal forest are increasingly abundant. These include jack pine, Abies balsamea, balsam fir, Picea mariana, black spruce, Betula papyrifera, white birch, and Populus, poplar. Forest ecosystems support large carnivores such as the bobcat, Canada lynx, and American black bear, black bear, and the large herbivores moose and white-tailed deer. Fiddlehead fern, Fiddlehead greens are harvested from the Matteuccia, Ostrich fern which grows on riverbanks. Pedicularis furbishiae, Furbish's lousewort, a Perennial plant, perennial Herbaceous plant, herb Endemism, endemic to the shores of the upper Saint John River, is an endangered species threatened by habitat destruction, riverside development, forestry, littering and recreational use of the riverbank. Many wetlands are being disrupted by the highly invasive Introduced species Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife.


Geology

Bedrock types range from 1 billion to 200 million years old. Much of the bedrock in the west and north derives from ocean deposits in the Ordovician that were subject to Fold (geology), folding and Igneous rock, igneous Intrusive rock, intrusion and that were eventually covered with lava during the Paleozoic, peaking during the Acadian orogeny. During the Carboniferous period, about 340 million years ago, New Brunswick was in the Maritimes Basin, a sedimentary basin near the equator. Sediments, brought by rivers from surrounding highlands, accumulated there; after being compressed, they produced the Albert oil shales of southern New Brunswick. Eventually, sea water from the Panthalassa, Panthalassic Ocean invaded the basin, forming the Windsor Sea. Once this receded, Conglomerate (geology), conglomerates, sandstones, and shales accumulated. The rust colour of these was caused by the oxidation of iron in the beds between wet and dry periods. Such late Carboniferous rock formed the
Hopewell Rocks The Hopewell Rocks, also called the Flowerpots Rocks or simply The Rocks, are rock formations caused by tidal erosion in ''The Hopewell Rocks Ocean Tidal Exploration Site'' in New Brunswick. They stand 40–70 feet tall. They are located on th ...

Hopewell Rocks
, which have been shaped by the extreme tidal range of the Bay of Fundy. In the early Triassic, as Pangea drifted north it was rent apart, forming the rift valley that is the Bay of Fundy. Magma pushed up through the cracks, forming basalt columns on Grand Manan.


Topography

New Brunswick lies entirely within the Appalachian Mountains, Appalachian Mountain range. The List of rivers of New Brunswick, rivers of New Brunswick drain into either the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence The Gulf of St. Lawrence (French language, French: ''Golfe du Saint-Laurent'') is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about and conta ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
to the east or the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
to the south. These watersheds include lands in Quebec and Maine. New Brunswick and the rest of the Maritime Peninsula was covered by thick layers of ice during the last glacial period (the Wisconsinian glaciation). It cut U-shaped valleys in the Saint John and Nepisiguit River valleys and pushed granite boulders from the Miramichi highlands south and east, leaving them as Glacial erratic, erratics when the ice receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, along with deposits such as the eskers between Woodstock and St George, which are today sources of sand and gravel.


Demographics


Population

The four Atlantic Provinces are Canada's least populated, with New Brunswick the Population of Canada by province and territory, third-least populous at 747,101 in 2016. The Atlantic provinces also have higher rural populations. New Brunswick was largely rural until 1951; since then, the rural-urban split has been roughly even. Population density in the Maritimes is above average among Canadian provinces, which reflects their small size and the fact that they do not possess large, unpopulated hinterlands, as do the other seven provinces and three territories. New Brunswick's 107 municipalities cover of the province's land mass but are home to of its population. The three major urban areas are in the south of the province and are Greater Moncton, population 126,424, Greater Saint John, population 122,389, and Greater Fredericton, population 85,688.


Ethnicity and language

In the 2001 census, the most commonly reported ethnicities were British people, British 40%, French Canadian and Acadians, Acadian 31%, Irish People, Irish 18%, other European 7%,
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
3%, Asian Canadian 2%. Each person could choose more than one ethnicity. According to the Canadian Constitution, both English and French are the official languages of New Brunswick, making it the only officially bilingual province. Government and public services are available in both English and French. For education, English-language and French-language systems serve the two linguistic communities at all levels. Anglophone New Brunswickers make up roughly two-thirds of the population, while about one-third are Francophone. Recently there has been growth in the numbers of people reporting themselves as bilingual, with 34% reporting that they speak both English and French. This reflects a trend across Canada.


Religion

In the 2011 census, 84% of provincial residents reported themselves as Christian: 52% were Roman Catholicism in Canada, Roman Catholic, 8% Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches, Baptist, 8% United Church of Canada, 7% Anglican Church of Canada, Anglican and 9% other Christians, Christian. 15% percent of residents reported no religion.


Economy

As of October 2017, seasonally adjusted employment is 73,400 for the goods-producing sector and 280,900 for the services-producing sector. Those in the goods-producing industries are mostly employed in manufacturing or construction, while those in services work in social assistance, trades, and health care. A large portion of the economy is controlled by the
Irving Group of Companies The Irving Group of Companies is an informal name given to those companies owned and controlled by the descendants of Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, ...
, which consists of the holdings of the family of K. C. Irving. The companies have significant holdings in agriculture, forestry, food processing, freight transport (including railways and trucking), media, Oil refinery, oil, and shipbuilding. The United States is the province's largest export market, accounting for 92% of a foreign trade valued in 2014 at almost $13 billion, with refined petroleum making up 63% of that, followed by seafood products, pulp, paper and sawmill products and non-metallic minerals (chiefly potash). The value of exports, mostly to the United States, was $1.6 billion in 2016. About half of that came from lobster. Other products include salmon, crab, and herring. In 2015, spending on non-resident tourism in New Brunswick was $441 million, which provided $87 million in tax revenue.


Primary sector

A large number of residents from New Brunswick are employed in the primary sector of industry. More than 13,000 New Brunswickers work in agriculture, shipping products worth over $1 billion, half of which is from crops, and half of that from potatoes, mostly in the Saint John River valley. McCain Foods is one of the world's largest manufacturers of frozen potato products. Other products include apples, cranberries, and maple syrup. New Brunswick was in 2015 the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada. The value of the livestock sector is about a quarter of a billion dollars, nearly half of which is dairy. Other sectors include poultry, fur, and goats, sheep, and pigs. About 85 to 90% of New Brunswick is forested. Historically important, it accounted for more than 80% of exports in the mid-1800s. By the end of the 1800s the industry, and shipbuilding, were declining due to external economic factors. The 1920s saw the development of a pulp and paper industry. In the mid-1960s, forestry practices changed from the controlled harvests of a commodity to the cultivation of the forests. The industry employs nearly 12,000, generating revenues around $437 million. Mining was historically unimportant in the province, but has grown since the 1950s. The province's GDP from the Mining and Quarrying industry in 2015 was $299.5 million. List of mines in New Brunswick, Mines in New Brunswick produce lead, zinc, copper, and potash.


Education

Public education primary education, elementary and secondary education in the province is administered by the provincial Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (New Brunswick), Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. New Brunswick has a parallel system of Anglophone and Francophone state school, public schools. In the anglophone system, approximately 27 per cent of the students are enrolled in a French immersion programs. The province also operates five public tertiary education, post-secondary institutions, including four public universities and one college (Canada), college. Four public universities operate campuses in New Brunswick, including the oldest English-language university in the country, the University of New Brunswick. Other English-language public universities include Mount Allison University and St. Thomas University (New Brunswick), St. Thomas University. Université de Moncton is the province's only French-language university. All four universities offer undergraduate education, undergraduate, and postgraduate education. Additionally, the Université de Moncton and the University of New Brunswick also provide Professional development, professional programs. Public colleges in the province are managed as a part of the New Brunswick Community College (NBCC) system, except for the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, New Brunswick College of Craft & Design, which has operated through the Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour since 1938. In addition to public institutions, the province is also home to several private vocational schools, such as the Moncton Flight College; and universities, the largest being Crandall University.


Government

Under Canadian federalism, power is divided between federal and provincial governments. Among areas under federal jurisdiction are citizenship, foreign affairs, national defence, fisheries, criminal law, indigenous policies, and many others. Provincial jurisdiction covers public lands, health, education, and local government, among other things. Jurisdiction is shared for immigration, pensions, agriculture, and welfare. The parliamentary system of government is modelled on the British Westminster system. Forty-nine representatives, nearly always members of political party, political parties, are elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. The head of government is the Premier of New Brunswick, normally the leader of the party or coalition with the most seats in the legislative assembly. Governance is handled by the Executive Council (Commonwealth countries), executive council (Cabinet (government), cabinet), with about 32 ministries. Ceremonial duties of the Monarchy in New Brunswick are mostly carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick. Under amendments to the province's Legislative Assembly Act in 2007, a provincial election is held every four years. The two largest political parties are the New Brunswick Liberal Association and the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick. Since the 2018 New Brunswick general election, 2018 election, minor parties are the Green Party of New Brunswick and the People's Alliance of New Brunswick.


Judiciary

The Appellate court, Court of Appeal of New Brunswick is the highest provincial court. It hears appeals from: * The Court of Queen's Bench of New Brunswick: has jurisdiction over family law and major criminal and civil cases and is divided accordingly into two divisions: Family and Trial. It also hears administrative tribunals. * The Probate Court of New Brunswick: has jurisdiction over estates of deceased persons. * The Provincial Court of New Brunswick: nearly all cases involving the Criminal Code (Canada), criminal code start here. The system consists of eight Judicial Districts, loosely based on the counties. The Chief Justice of New Brunswick serves at the apex of this court structure.


Administrative divisions

Historically List of counties of New Brunswick, the province was divided into counties with elected governance, but this was abolished in 1966. While county governments have been abolished in New Brunswick, counties continue to be used as census divisions by Statistics Canada, and as an organizational unit, along with parishes, for registration of real-estate and its taxation. Counties continue to figure into the sense of identity of many New Brunwickers. Counties are further subdivided into List of parishes in New Brunswick, 152 parishes, which also lost their political significance in 1966 but are still used as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada. Ninety-two per cent of the land in the province, inhabited by about 35% of the population, is under provincial administration and has no local, elected representation. The 51% of the province that is Crown land is administered by the Department of Natural Resources and Energy Development (New Brunswick), Department of Natural Resources and Energy Development. Most of the province is administrated as a Local service district (New Brunswick), local service district (LSD), an unincorporated unit of local governance. As of 2017, there are 237 LSDs. Services, paid for by property taxes, include a variety of services such as fire protection, solid waste management, street lighting, and dog regulation. LSDs may elect advisory committees and work with the Department of Local Government (New Brunswick), Department of Local Government to recommend how to spend locally collected taxes. In 2006 there were three rural communities. This is a relatively new type of entity; to be created, it requires a population of 3,000 and a tax base of $200 million. In 2006 there were 101 municipalities. Regional Service Commissions, which number 12, were introduced in 2013 to regulate regional planning and solid waste disposal, and provide a forum for discussion on a regional level of police and emergency services, climate change adaptation planning, and regional sport, recreational and cultural facilities. The commissions' administrative councils are populated by the mayors of each municipality or rural community within a region.


Provincial finances

In 2015, New Brunswick had the most poorly-performing economy of any Canadian province, with a per capita income of $28,000. The government has historically run at a large deficit. With about half of the population being rural, it is expensive for the government to provide education and health services, which account for 60 per cent of government expenditure. Thirty-six per cent of the provincial budget is covered by federal cash transfers. The government has frequently attempted to create employment through subsidies, which has often failed to generate long-term economic prosperity and has resulted in bad debt, examples of which include Bricklin SV-1, Bricklin, Atcon, and the Marriott call centre in Fredericton. According to a 2014 study by the Atlantic Institute for Market Studies, the large public debt is a very serious problem. Government revenues are shrinking because of a decline in federal transfer payments. Though expenditures are down (through government pension reform and a reduction in the number of public employees), they have increased relative to GDP, necessitating further measures to reduce debt in the future. In the 2014–15 fiscal year, provincial debt reached $12.2 billion or 37.7 per cent of nominal GDP, an increase over the $10.1 billion recorded in 2011–12. The debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to fall to 36.7% in 2019–20.


Infrastructure


Energy

Publicly owned NB Power operates 13 of List of power stations in New Brunswick, New Brunswick's generating stations, deriving power from fuel oil and diesel (1497 MW), hydro (889 MW), nuclear (660 MW), and coal (467 MW). There were 30 active natural gas production sites in 2012.


Transportation

The Department of Transportation and Infrastructure (New Brunswick), Department of Transportation and Infrastructure maintains government facilities and the province's highway network and ferries. The Trans-Canada Highway is not under federal jurisdiction, and traverses the province from Edmundston following the Saint John River Valley, through Fredericton, Moncton, and on to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.


Rail

Via Rail's Ocean (train), Ocean service, which connects Montreal to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Halifax, is currently the oldest continuously operated passenger route in North America, with stops from west to east at Campbellton station, Campbellton, Charlo station, Charlo, Jacquet River station, Jacquet River, Petit Rocher station, Petit Rocher, Bathurst station (New Brunswick), Bathurst, Miramichi station, Miramichi, Rogersville station, Rogersville, Moncton station, Moncton, and Sackville station, Sackville. Canadian National Railway operates freight services along the same route, as well as a subdivision from Moncton to Saint John. The New Brunswick Southern Railway, a division of J. D. Irving Limited, together with its sister company Eastern Maine Railway (1995), Eastern Maine Railway form a continuous main line connecting Saint John and Brownville Junction, Maine, Brownville Junction,
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
.


Culture

There are about 61 List of historic places in New Brunswick, historic places in New Brunswick, including Fort Beauséjour, Kings Landing Historical Settlement and the Village Historique Acadien. Established in 1842, the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John was designated as the Provincial museums of Canada, provincial museum of New Brunswick. The province is also home to a List of museums in New Brunswick, number of other museums in addition to the provincial museum.


Arts

New Brunswick is home to a number of individuals that work as musicians, in the performing arts, and/or the visual arts. Music of New Brunswick includes artists such as Henry Burr, Roch Voisine, Lenny Breau, and Édith Butler. Symphony New Brunswick, based in Saint John, tours extensively in the province. Symphony New Brunswick based in
Saint John Saint John or St. John sometimes refers to John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles ...
and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada (based in Moncton), tours nationally and internationally. Theatre New Brunswick (based in Fredericton), tours plays around the province. Canadian playwright Norm Foster (playwright), Norm Foster saw his early works premiere with Theatre New Brunswick. Other live theatre troops include the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in Caraquet, and Live Bait Theatre in Sackville. The refurbished Imperial Theatre, Saint John, Imperial and Capitol Theatre (Moncton), Capitol Theatres are found in Saint John and Moncton, respectively; the more modern The Playhouse (Fredericton), Playhouse is in Fredericton.


Visual arts

Mount Allison University in Sackville began offering classes in 1854. The program came into its own under John A. Hammond, from 1893 to 1916. Alex Colville and Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there, and both Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt (painter), Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The university also opened an art gallery in 1895 and is named for its patron, John Owens of Saint John. The art gallery at Mount Allison University is presently the oldest university museum, university-operated art gallery in Canada. Modern New Brunswick artists include landscape painter Jack Humphrey, sculptor Claude Roussel, and Miller Brittain. The province is also home to the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, which was designated as the provincial art gallery in 1994.


Literature

Julia Catherine Beckwith, born in Fredericton, was Canada's first published novelist. Poet Bliss Carman and his cousin Charles G. D. Roberts were some of the first Canadians to achieve international fame for letters. Antonine Maillet was the first non-European winner of France's Prix Goncourt. Other modern writers include Alfred Bailey (poet), Alfred Bailey, Alden Nowlan, John Thompson (poet), John Thompson, Douglas Lochhead, K. V. Johansen, David Adams Richards, and France Daigle. A recent New Brunswick Lieutenant-Governor, Herménégilde Chiasson, is a poet and playwright. ''The Fiddlehead'', established in 1945 at University of New Brunswick, is Canada's oldest literary magazine.


Media


News

New Brunswick has four daily newspapers: the ''Times & Transcript'', serving eastern New Brunswick; the ''Telegraph-Journal'', based in Saint John and distributed province-wide; ''The Daily Gleaner'', based in Fredericton; and ''L'Acadie Nouvelle'', based in Caraquet. The three English-language dailies and the majority of the weeklies are owned and operated by Brunswick News—which is privately owned by James K. Irving. Due to its dominant position, critics have accused Brunswick News of being biased towards the Irving Group of Companies, noting its reluctance to publish stories that are critical of the group. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has anglophone television and radio operations in Fredericton. Télévision de Radio-Canada is based in Moncton. CTV Television Network, CTV and Global Television Network, Global also operate stations in New Brunswick, which operate largely as sub-feeds of their stations in Halifax as part of regional networks.


Radio

There are 34 radio stations licensed in New Brunswick, broadcasting in English or French.


See also

*Outline of New Brunswick *Symbols of New Brunswick


References


External links


Official site of Tourism New Brunswick
{{La Francophonie New Brunswick, 1867 establishments in Canada Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Provinces of Canada States and territories established in 1867 The Maritimes Atlantic Canada 1784 establishments in the British Empire French-speaking countries and territories English-speaking countries and territories