In

topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing ...

and related areas of mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ...

, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter $\backslash mathcal(x)$ for a point $x$ in a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called poi ...

is the collection of all neighbourhood
A neighbourhood (British English, Irish English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area, ...

s of $x.$
Definitions

Neighbourhood of a point or set An of a point (orsubset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset o ...

) $x$ in a topological space $X$ is any open subset
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line.
In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are su ...

$U$ of $X$ that contains $x.$
A is any subset $N\; \backslash subseteq\; X$ that contains open neighbourhood of $x$;
explicitly, $N$ is a neighbourhood of $x$ in $X$ if and only if
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false.
The connective is bic ...

there exists some open subset $U$ with $x\; \backslash in\; U\; \backslash subseteq\; N$.
Equivalently, a neighborhood of $x$ is any set that contains $x$ in its topological interior.
Importantly, a "neighbourhood" does have to be an open set; those neighbourhoods that also happen to be open sets are known as "open neighbourhoods."
Similarly, a neighbourhood that is also a closed (respectively, compact, connected, etc.) set is called a (respectively, , , etc.).
There are many other types of neighbourhoods that are used in topology and related fields like functional analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined ...

.
The family of all neighbourhoods having a certain "useful" property often forms a neighbourhood basis, although many times, these neighbourhoods are not necessarily open. Locally compact space In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which ...

s, for example, are those spaces that, at every point, have a neighbourhood basis consisting entirely of compact sets.
Neighbourhood filter
The neighbourhood system for a point (or non-empty
In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in othe ...

subset) $x$ is a filter
Filter, filtering or filters may refer to:
Science and technology
Computing
* Filter (higher-order function), in functional programming
* Filter (software), a computer program to process a data stream
* Filter (video), a software component that ...

called the The neighbourhood filter for a point $x\; \backslash in\; X$ is the same as the neighbourhood filter of the singleton set
In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set or one-point set, is a set with exactly one element. For example, the set \ is a singleton whose single element is 0.
Properties
Within the framework of Zermeloâ€“Fraenkel set theory, the ...

$\backslash .$
Neighbourhood basis

A or (or or ) for a point $x$ is a filter base of the neighbourhood filter; this means that it is a subset $$\backslash mathcal\; \backslash subseteq\; \backslash mathcal(x)$$ such that for all $V\; \backslash in\; \backslash mathcal(x),$ there exists some $B\; \backslash in\; \backslash mathcal$ such that $B\; \backslash subseteq\; V.$ That is, for any neighbourhood $V$ we can find a neighbourhood $B$ in the neighbourhood basis that is contained in $V.$ Equivalently, $\backslash mathcal$ is a local basis at $x$ if and only if the neighbourhood filter $\backslash mathcal$ can be recovered from $\backslash mathcal$ in the sense that the following equality holds: (See Chapter 2, Section 4) $$\backslash mathcal(x)\; =\; \backslash left\backslash \backslash !\backslash !\backslash ;.$$ A family $\backslash mathcal\; \backslash subseteq\; \backslash mathcal(x)$ is a neighbourhood basis for $x$ if and only if $\backslash mathcal$ is a cofinal subset of $\backslash left(\backslash mathcal(x),\; \backslash supseteq\backslash right)$ with respect to thepartial order
In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set. A poset consists of a set together with a binary ...

$\backslash supseteq$ (importantly, this partial order is the superset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset o ...

relation and not the subset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset o ...

relation).
Neighbourhood subbasis

A at $x$ is a family $\backslash mathcal$ of subsets of $X,$ each of which contains $x,$ such that the collection of all possible finite intersections of elements of $\backslash mathcal$ forms a neighbourhood basis at $x.$Examples

If $\backslash R$ has its usual Euclidean topology then the neighborhoods of $0$ are all those subsets $N\; \backslash subseteq\; \backslash R$ for which there exists somereal number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one- dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Ever ...

$r\; >\; 0$ such that $(-r,\; r)\; \backslash subseteq\; N.$ For example, all of the following sets are neighborhoods of $0$ in $\backslash R$:
$$(-2,\; 2),\; \backslash ;;\; href="/html/ALL/l/2,2.html"\; ;"title="2,2">2,2$$
but none of the following sets are neighborhoods of $0$:
$$\backslash ,\; \backslash ;\; \backslash Q,\; \backslash ;\; (0,2),\; \backslash ;\; [0,\; 2),\; \backslash ;\; [0,\; 2)\; \backslash cup\; \backslash Q,\; \backslash ;\; (-2,\; 2)\; \backslash setminus\; \backslash left\backslash $$
where $\backslash Q$ denotes the rational numbers.
If $U$ is an open subset of a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called poi ...

$X$ then for every $u\; \backslash in\; U,$ $U$ is a neighborhood of $u$ in $X.$
More generally, if $N\; \backslash subseteq\; X$ is any set and $\backslash operatorname\_X\; N$ denotes the topological interior of $N$ in $X,$ then $N$ is a neighborhood (in $X$) of every point $x\; \backslash in\; \backslash operatorname\_X\; N$ and moreover, $N$ is a neighborhood of any other point.
Said differently, $N$ is a neighborhood of a point $x\; \backslash in\; X$ if and only if $x\; \backslash in\; \backslash operatorname\_X\; N.$
Neighbourhood bases
In any topological space, the neighbourhood system for a point is also a neighbourhood basis for the point. The set of all open neighbourhoods at a point forms a neighbourhood basis at that point.
For any point $x$ in a metric space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general settin ...

, the sequence of open balls around $x$ with radius $1/n$ form a countable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbe ...

neighbourhood basis $\backslash mathcal\; =\; \backslash left\backslash $. This means every metric space is first-countable
In topology, a branch of mathematics, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base ...

.
Given a space $X$ with the indiscrete topology In topology, a topological space with the trivial topology is one where the only open sets are the empty set and the entire space. Such spaces are commonly called indiscrete, anti-discrete, concrete or codiscrete. Intuitively, this has the consequ ...

the neighbourhood system for any point $x$ only contains the whole space, $\backslash mathcal(x)\; =\; \backslash $.
In the weak topology
In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space. The term is most commonly used for the initial topology of a ...

on the space of measures on a space $E,$ a neighbourhood base about $\backslash nu$ is given by
$$\backslash left\backslash $$
where $f\_i$ are continuous bounded functions from $E$ to the real numbers and $r\_1,\; \backslash dots,\; r\_n$ are positive real numbers.
Seminormed spaces and topological groups
In a seminormed space, that is a vector space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set (mathematics), set whose elements, often called ''vector (mathematics and physics), vectors'', may be Vector addition, added together and Scalar multiplication, mu ...

with the topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing ...

induced by a seminorm, all neighbourhood systems can be constructed by translation
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between ''transl ...

of the neighbourhood system for the origin,
$$\backslash mathcal(x)\; =\; \backslash mathcal(0)\; +\; x.$$
This is because, by assumption, vector addition is separately continuous in the induced topology. Therefore, the topology is determined by its neighbourhood system at the origin. More generally, this remains true whenever the space is a topological group
In mathematics, topological groups are logically the combination of groups and topological spaces, i.e. they are groups and topological spaces at the same time, such that the continuity condition for the group operations connects these two st ...

or the topology is defined by a pseudometric.
Properties

Suppose $u\; \backslash in\; U\; \backslash subseteq\; X$ and let $\backslash mathcal$ be a neighbourhood basis for $u$ in $X.$ Make $\backslash mathcal$ into adirected set
In mathematics, a directed set (or a directed preorder or a filtered set) is a nonempty set A together with a reflexive and transitive binary relation \,\leq\, (that is, a preorder), with the additional property that every pair of elements has ...

by partially ordering it by superset inclusion $\backslash ,\backslash supseteq.$ Then $U$ is a neighborhood of $u$ in $X$ if and only if there exists an $\backslash mathcal$-indexed net $\backslash left(x\_N\backslash right)\_$ in $X\; \backslash setminus\; U$ such that $x\_N\; \backslash in\; N\; \backslash setminus\; U$ for every $N\; \backslash in\; \backslash mathcal$ (which implies that $\backslash left(x\_N\backslash right)\_\; \backslash to\; u$ in $X$).
See also

* * * * * * *References

Bibliography

* * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Neighbourhood System General topology