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The
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...
system in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government. These
negotiation Negotiation is a dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English l ...
s took place between the governing National Party, the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
, and a wide variety of other political organisations. Negotiations took place against a backdrop of political violence in the country, including allegations of a state-sponsored third force destabilising the country. The negotiations resulted in South Africa's first non-racial
election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative dem ...

election
, which was won by the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
.


Background

Apartheid was a system of
racial discrimination Racial discrimination is any discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discrim ...
and
segregationSegregation may refer to: Separation of people * Geographical segregation, rates of two or more populations which are not homogenous throughout a defined space *Educational segegration * Housing segregation * Racial segregation, separation of huma ...
by the South African government. It was formalised in 1948, forming a framework for political and economic dominance by the
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
population and severely restricting the political rights of the
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
majority. Between 1960 and 1990, the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
and other mainly black opposition political organisations were banned. As the National Party cracked down on black opposition to apartheid, most leaders of ANC and other opposition organisations were either killed, imprisoned, or went into exile. However, increasing local and international pressure on the government, as well as the realisation that apartheid could neither be maintained by force forever nor overthrown by the opposition without considerable suffering, eventually led both sides to the negotiating table. The Tripartite Accord, which brought an end to the
South African Border War The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely Asymmetric warfare, asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa) ...
in neighbouring Angola and Namibia, created a window of opportunity to create the enabling conditions for a negotiated settlement, recognized by
Niel Barnard Lukas Daniel Barnard (born 1949), known as Niël Barnard, is a former head of South Africa's National Intelligence Service (South Africa), National Intelligence Service and was notable for his behind-the-scenes role in preparing former president ...
of the National Intelligence Service.


Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith

On 4 January 1974,
Harry Schwarz Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, statesman and long-time Internal resistance to South African apartheid, political opposition leader against apartheid in South Africa, who eventually served as the ...
, leader of the liberal-reformist wing of the
United PartyUnited Party is a term used various political parties: *United Party (Gambia) *United Party (Kenya) *United Party (Papua New Guinea) *United Party for National Development, Zambia *United Party of Canada Defunct parties of the name include: *Un ...
, met with Gatsha (later Mangosuthu) Buthelezi, Chief Executive Councillor of the black homeland of
KwaZulu KwaZulu was a semi-independent bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (South Africa), National ...

KwaZulu
and signed a five-point plan for racial peace in South Africa, which came to be known as the Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith. The declaration stated that "the situation of South Africa in the world scene as well as internal community relations requires, in our view, an acceptance of certain fundamental concepts for the economic, social, and constitutional development of our country." It called for negotiations involving all peoples, in order to draw up constitutional proposals stressing opportunity for all with a
Bill of Rights A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose is to protect those rights against Civil and political rights, infringement fr ...
to safeguard these rights. It suggested that the federal concept was the appropriate framework for such changes to take place. It also affirmed that political change must take place through non-violent means. The declaration was the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa that affirmed to these principles. The commitment to the peaceful pursuit of political change was declared at a time when neither the National Party nor the African National Congress was looking to peaceful solutions or dialogue. The declaration was heralded by the English speaking press as a breakthrough in race relations in South Africa. Shortly after it was issued, the declaration was endorsed by several chief ministers of the black homelands, including
Cedric Phatudi Dr Cedric Namedi Phatudi (27 May 1912 – 7 October 1987) was the Chief Minister of Lebowa, one of the South African bantustans. Early life Born in Ga-Mphahlele, the son of the chief of the Mphahlele tribe. He earned his basic education in miss ...
(
Lebowa Lebowa was a bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (South Africa), National Party administrati ...
),
Lucas Mangope Kgosi Lucas Manyane Mangope (27 December 1923 – 18 January 2018) was the leader of the Bantustan (homeland) of Bophuthatswana. The territory he ruled over was distributed between the Orange Free State - what is now Free State (province), Free St ...
(
Bophuthatswana Bophuthatswana (, meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana ( tn, Riphaboliki ya Bophuthatswana; af, Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bant ...
) and Hudson Nisanwisi (
Gazankulu Gazankulu was a bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (South Africa), National Party administr ...
). Despite considerable support from black leaders, the English speaking press and liberal figures such as
Alan Paton Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author and internal resistance to apartheid, anti-apartheid activist. His works include the novels ''Cry, the Beloved Country'' and ''Too Late the Phalarope''. Family P ...

Alan Paton
, the declaration saw staunch opposition from the National Party, the Afrikaans press and the conservative wing of Harry Schwarz's United Party.


Early contact

The very first meetings between the South African Government and
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
were driven by the National Intelligence Service (NIS) under the leadership of
Niel Barnard Lukas Daniel Barnard (born 1949), known as Niël Barnard, is a former head of South Africa's National Intelligence Service (South Africa), National Intelligence Service and was notable for his behind-the-scenes role in preparing former president ...
and his Deputy Director General,
Mike Louw Mike is a masculine given name. It is also encountered as an abbreviation or shorthand for Michael. Notable people with the name include: People *Mike Adenuga, Nigerian billionaire businessman *Mike Affleck, American football player *Mike Akiu ...
. These meetings were secret in nature and were designed to develop an understanding about whether there were sufficient common grounds for future peace talks. As these meetings evolved, a level of trust developed between the key actors (Barnard, Louw, and Mandela). To facilitate future talks while preserving secrecy needed to protect the process, Barnard arranged for Mandela to be moved off
Robben Island Robben Island ( af, Robbeneiland) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll ...

Robben Island
to
Pollsmoor Prison Pollsmoor Prison, officially known as Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison, is located in the Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad ; Xhosa language, Xhosa: ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in South Africa, after Johannesburg, ...
in 1982. This provided Mandela with more comfortable lodgings, but also gave easier access in a way that could not be compromised. Barnard therefore brokered an initial agreement in principle about what became known as "talks about talks." It was at this stage that the process was elevated from a secret engagement to a more public engagement. The first less-tentative meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came while P. W. Botha was
State President The State President of the Republic of South Africa ( af, Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics o ...
. In November 1985, Minister
Kobie Coetsee Hendrik Jacobus Coetsee (19 April 1931 – 29 July 2000), known as Kobie Coetsee, was a South African lawyer, National Party (South Africa), National Party politician and administrator as well as a negotiator during the country's transition to un ...
met Mandela in the hospital while Mandela was being treated for prostate surgery. Over the next four years, a series of tentative meetings took place, laying the groundwork for further contact and future negotiations, but little real progress was made and the meetings remained secret until several years later. As the secret talks bore fruit and the political engagement started to take place, the National Intelligence Service withdrew from centre stage in the process and moved to a new phase of operational support work. This new phase was designed to test public opinion about a negotiated solution. Central to this planning was an initiative that became known in Security Force circles as the Dakar Safari, which saw a number of prominent Afrikaner opinion-makers engage with the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
in Dakar, Senegal, and
Leverkusen Leverkusen (, ) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine. To the south, Leverkusen borders the city of Cologne and to the north is the States of Germany, state capital Düsseldorf. With about 161,000 inhabitan ...

Leverkusen
, Germany at events organized by the Institute for Democratic Alternatives in South Africa. The operational objective of this meeting was not to understand the opinions of the actors themselves—that was very well known at this stage within strategic management circles—but rather to gauge public opinion about a movement away from the previous security posture of confrontation and repression to a new posture based on engagement and accommodation.


Unbanning of opposition organisations and the release of Mandela

When F.W. de Klerk became president in 1989, he was able to build on the previous secret negotiations with the imprisoned Mandela. The first significant steps towards formal negotiations took place in February 1990 when, in his speech at the opening of Parliament, de Klerk announced the repeal of the ban on the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
(ANC) and other banned organisations, as well as the release of ANC leader Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison.


Initial negotiations


Groote Schuur Minute

The negotiations began with a meeting between the African National Congress and the South African government on 4 May 1990 at the presidential residence,
Groote Schuur Groote Schuur (, Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle ...
. This resulted in the ''Groote Schuur Minute'', a commitment between the two parties towards the resolution of the existing climate of violence and intimidation as well as the removal of practical obstacles to negotiation including immunity from prosecution for returning exiles and the release of political prisoners.


Pretoria Minute

On 6 August 1990, the South African government and the African National Congress extended the consensus to include several new points. This ''Pretoria Minute'' included the suspension of the armed struggle by the ANC and its military wing
Umkhonto we Sizwe uMkhonto we Sizwe (, meaning "Spear of the Nation"; abbreviated MK) was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), co-founded by Nelson Mandela in the wake of the Sharpeville massacre. Its mission was to fight against the Governm ...
as well as bring the state of emergency to an end.


National Peace Accord

The ''National Peace Accord'' of 14 September 1991 was a critical step toward formal negotiations. It was signed by representatives of twenty-seven political organisations and national and homeland governments, and prepared the way for the CODESA negotiations.


CODESA I

The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), under the chairmanship of the judges Michael Corbett, Petrus Shabort, and Ismail Mahomed, began with a plenary session on 20 December 1991, almost two years after the unbanning of political parties and the release of Nelson Mandela. The first session lasted a few days and working groups were appointed to deal with specific issues. These working groups continued their negotiations over the next month. The negotiations took place at the World Trade Centre in .


CODESA participants

Nineteen groups were represented at CODESA, including the South African government, the National Party, the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
, the
Inkatha Freedom Party The Inkatha Freedom Party ( zu, IQembu leNkatha yeNkululeko, IFP) is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a part ...
, the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
, the
South African Communist Party The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party A communist party is a that seeks to realize the goals of . The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ' (1848) by and . As a , the communist party guides t ...
, the
South African Indian Congress The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) was an organisation founded in 1921 in Natal NATAL or Natal may refer to: Places * Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, a city in Brazil * Natal, South Africa (disambiguation), a region in South Africa ** Natalia ...
, the Coloured Labour Party, the Indian National People's Party and Solidarity Party, and the leaders of the nominally independent
bantustans A Bantustan (also known as Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styling, Bantu k ...
of
Transkei Transkei (, meaning ''the area beyond he riverKei''), officially the Republic of Transkei ( xh, iRiphabliki yeTranskei), was an unrecognised state in the southeastern region of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of So ...
,
Ciskei Ciskei (, or ) was a nominally independent state—a Bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (So ...
,
Bophuthatswana Bophuthatswana (, meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana ( tn, Riphaboliki ya Bophuthatswana; af, Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bant ...
, and
Venda Venda () was a Bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (South Africa), National Party administr ...

Venda
. The right-wing white
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...
and the left-wing
Pan Africanist Congress The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (known as the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)) is a South African national liberation Pan-Africanist Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity betwee ...
(PAC) boycotted CODESA. Inkatha Freedom Party leader
Mangosuthu Buthelezi Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in ...
personally didn't participate because his demands for additional delegations of the homeland
KwaZulu KwaZulu was a semi-independent bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (South Africa), National ...

KwaZulu
and the Zulu king
Goodwill Zwelithini King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu (27 July 1948 – 12 March 2021) was the reigning King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given t ...
were declined. The IFP was therefore represented by Frank Mdlalose at CODESA. In the period between CODESA I and CODESA II in early 1992, the National Party lost three by-elections to the Conservative Party. De Klerk announced that a "whites only"
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
would be held on the issue of reforms and negotiation. The result of the March 17, 1992 referendum was a landslide victory for the "yes" side, with over 68% of the voters voting for a continuation of the reforms and negotiations. In April 1992, Pan African Congress President Clarence Makwetu addressed the PAC Annual Congress and declared that his party was now not opposed to participating in the negotiations, so long they were held in a "neutral venue under a neutral chairman."


CODESA II and the breakdown of negotiations

CODESA II (the second plenary session) took place in May 1992. In June 1992, the
Boipatong massacre The Boipatong massacre took place on the night of 17 June 1992 in the township of Boipatong Boipatong Vanderbijlpark is a township ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. Whi ...
took place, with 45 residents of
Boipatong Boipatong Vanderbijlpark is a township (South Africa), township in Gauteng, South Africa. It was established in 1955 in South Africa, 1955 to house black residents who worked in Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging. Boipatong means "the place of hiding ...
killed by mainly-Zulu hostel dwellers. Mandela accused De Klerk's government of complicity in the attack and withdrew the ANC from the negotiations, leading to the end of CODESA II. The ANC instead took to the streets with a programme of " rolling mass action," which met with tragedy in the
Bisho massacre The Bisho massacre occurred on 7 September 1992 in Bhisho, Bisho, in the then nominally independent Bantustan, homeland of Ciskei which is now part of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. Twenty-eight African National Congress supporters and one sol ...
in September 1992, when the army of the nominally independent
homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languag ...
of
Ciskei Ciskei (, or ) was a nominally independent state—a Bantustan A Bantustan (also known as Bantu peoples, Bantu homeland, Black people, black homeland, Khoisan, black state or simply homeland; ) was a territory that the National Party (So ...
opened fire on protest marchers, killing 29. This brought a new urgency to the search for a political settlement.


Resumption of negotiations

During the negotiations, De Klerk's government pushed for a two-phase transition with an appointed transitional government with a rotating presidency. The ANC pushed instead for a transition in a single stage to majority rule. Other sticking points included minority rights, decisions on a unitary or federal state, property rights, and indemnity from prosecution for politically motivated crimes. Following the collapse of CODESA II, bilateral negotiations between the ANC and the NP became the main negotiation channel. Two key negotiators were
Cyril Ramaphosa Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is t ...

Cyril Ramaphosa
of the ANC, and
Roelf Meyer Roelof Petrus Meyer (born 16 July 1947) is a South African politician and businessman. Originally a member of the National Party (South Africa), National Party, he is known for his prominent role in the Negotiations to end apartheid in South Afri ...
of the National Party, who formed a close friendship. It was
Joe Slovo Joe Slovo (born Yossel Mashel Slovo; 23 May 1926 – 6 January 1995) was a South African politician, and an opponent of the apartheid system. A Marxist-Leninist, he was a long-time leader and theorist in the South African Communist Par ...
, leader of the
South African Communist Party The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party A communist party is a that seeks to realize the goals of . The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ' (1848) by and . As a , the communist party guides t ...
, who in 1992 proposed the breakthrough "sunset clause" for a coalition government for the five years following a democratic election, including guarantees and concessions to all sides. In the course of the negotiating and reshaping process, the government under De Klerk also had detainees released who were classified as political prisoners at that time. Among those released in 1992 were convicts facing
capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

capital punishment
such as Barend Strydom and from opposite ends of the political spectrum.


Record of understanding

On 26 September 1992, the government and the ANC agreed on a ''Record of Understanding''. This dealt with a constitutional assembly, an interim government, political prisoners, hostels, dangerous weapons, mass action, and restarted the negotiation process after the failure of CODESA.


Multiparty Negotiating Forum

On 1 April 1993, the ''Multiparty Negotiating Forum'' (MPNF) gathered for the first time. In contrast to CODESA, the white right (the Conservative Party and the Afrikaner Volksunie), the Pan Africanist Congress, the KwaZulu homeland government. and delegations of traditional leaders initially participated in the Multiparty Negotiating Forum. Following the Record of Understanding, the two main negotiating parties, the ANC and the NP, agreed to reach bilateral consensus on issues before taking them to the other parties in the forum. This put considerable pressure on the other parties to agree with the consensus or be left behind. In protest at the perceived sidelining of the mainly-
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP),
Mangosuthu Buthelezi Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in ...
took the IFP out of the MPNF and formed the ''Concerned South Africans Group'' (COSAG; later renamed the Freedom Alliance) together with traditional leaders, homeland leaders, and white right-wing groups. A period of brinkmanship followed, with the IFP remaining out of the negotiations until within days of the election on 27 April 1994. Buthelezi was convinced to give up the
boycott A boycott is an act of nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achiev ...

boycott
of the elections, after
Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African Internal resistance to apartheid, anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and Philanthropy, philanthropist who served as President of South Afr ...

Mandela
offered the Zulu king,
Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu (27 July 1948 – 12 March 2021) was the reigning King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given t ...
, a guarantee of special status of the Zulu monarchy and to Buthelezi, the promise that foreign mediators would examine Inkatha's claims to more autonomy in the Zulu area. This was managed with the help of a foreign team led by former U.S. Secretary of State
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (Unite ...

Henry Kissinger
and former
British Foreign Secretary The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, also referred to as the foreign secretary, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom, with overall responsibil ...
Lord Carrington Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Baron Carington of Upton, (6 June 1919 – 9July 2018) was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Secretary of State for Defence, de ...
. On 10 April 1993, the assassination of
Chris Hani Chris Hani (28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993), born Martin Thembisile Hani was the leader of the South African Communist Party The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party A communist party is a that seeks to real ...
, leader of the SACP and a senior ANC leader by white right-wingers again brought the country to the brink of disaster, but ultimately proved a turning point, after which the main parties pushed for a settlement with increased determination. The sometimes is considered as an event which led to a shift of power in favour of the ANC because of Nelson Mandela's handling of the situation. The negotiations were dramatically interrupted in June 1993, when the right-wing
Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (), meaning ''Afrikaner Resistance Movement'', commonly known by its abbreviation AWB, is an Afrikaner nationalism, Afrikaner nationalist, Neo-Nazism, neo-Nazi, and White supremacy, white supremacist political pa ...

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging
stormed the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, breaking through the glass front of the building with an armoured car and briefly taking over the negotiations chamber. The MPNF ratified the
interim ConstitutionA provisional constitution, interim constitution or transitional constitution is a constitution intended to serve during a transitional period until a permanent constitution is adopted. The following countries currently have, or have had in the past, ...
in the early hours of the morning of 18 November 1993. Thereafter, the
Transitional Executive Council The Transitional Executive Council (TEC) was a multiparty body in South Africa that was established by law to facilitate the transition to democracy, in the lead-up to the country's South African general election, 1994, first non-racial election i ...
(TEC) oversaw the run-up to a democratic election.


Elections

The election held on 27 April 1994 resulted in the ANC winning 62% of the vote and Nelson Mandela becoming president, with De Klerk and
Thabo Mbeki Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (; born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second president of post-apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set o ...

Thabo Mbeki
as deputies. The National Party, with 20% of the vote, joined the ANC in a Government of National Unity.


Aftermath

Transitional politics continued after the election with a new
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
finally agreed in 1995 and the
Truth and Reconciliation Commission A truth and reconciliation commission A is an official body tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government or other actors, in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past. Truth and Reconciliation Commission may a ...
dealing with politically motivated crimes committed during the apartheid era.


References

{{Nelson Mandela Democratization Events associated with apartheid Negotiation Nelson Mandela Peace processes