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Mustafa Abdul Jalil ( ar, مصطفى عبد الجليل; also transcribed ''Abdul-Jelil, Abd-al-Jalil'', ''Abdel-Jalil'', ''Abdeljalil'' or ''Abdu Al Jeleil''; born 1952) is a
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
n politician who was the Chairman of the
National Transitional Council The National Transitional Council of Libya ( ar, المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي ' ), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the ''de facto'' government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War ...
from 5 March 2011 until its dissolution on 8 August 2012. This position meant he was ''de facto''
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
during a transitional period after the fall of
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
's government in the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...
, and until the handover of power to the
General National Congress The General National Congress or General National Council (GNC; ar, المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber language, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the Legislature, legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the ...
. Before the war, Abdul Jalil served as Minister of Justice (officially, the Secretary of the General People's Committee of Justice) under Colonel
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
. He was noted in some news media for his stance against various
human rights Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for ...
violations in Libya, although Diana West accused him of intransigence during the Bulgarian nurses affair.


Career

After graduating from the department of Shari'a and Law in the Arabic Language and Islamic Studies faculty of
University of Libya The University of Libya ( ar, الجامعة الليبية) was a public university based in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. The university was established in 1955 and disestablished in 1973, when its colleges were split into two new universities: ...
in 1975, Abdul Jalil was initially "assistant to the Secretary of the Public Prosecutor" in Beida, before being appointed a
judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

judge
in 1978. Abdul Jalil was a judge "known for ruling consistently against the regime," before becoming justice minister in 2007. In January 2010 he attempted to resign on national television over the government's failure to release political prisoners. His resignation was rejected. He resigned on 21 February 2011 after being sent to Benghazi to negotiate the release of hostages taken by rebels, being the first senior official to do so. In classified US diplomatic cables leaked by the website
WikiLeaks WikiLeaks () is an international non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or ...
, he is described as open and cooperative. Following his resignation from Gaddafi's government in protest at its actions during the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...
, a bounty of 500,000
dinars The dinar () is the principal currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray c ...
, roughly 400,000
USD The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
, was announced for his capture.


Stances noted in the media


Pre-2011 protests

In August 2010, a representative of
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the ...
praised the fact that Abdul Jalil had "reportedly taken a strong stance against arbitrary arrests and prolonged detention without trial", commenting that: In a paper published in November 2010,
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at th ...

Amnesty International
stated similarly, that:
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the ...
made the same observations in its submission to the 2010
Universal Periodic ReviewThe Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a mechanism of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations a ...
(UPR) of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
Human Rights Council The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), CDH is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. The Council has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a United Nations Regiona ...
. L'Express noted that before being named a minister of justice of Libya in 2007, he was the president of the Libyan Court of Appeal. The paper opined that Abdul Jalil was responsible for the "intransigence" of the court in confirming the death sentences in the "Bulgarian nurses" HIV trial under Gaddafi.


2011 protests and civil war

During the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...
he was dispatched by Gaddafi's son to Benghazi to allegedly "negotiate the release of hostages taken by Islamists". On 21 February, the privately owned '' Quryna'' newspaper reported that he had resigned over "the excessive use of violence against anti-government protesters". On 22 February, he claimed in an interview with Swedish newspaper ''
Expressen ''Expressen'' ("The Express") is one of two nationwide evening newspapers in Sweden, the other being '' Aftonbladet''. ''Expressen'' was founded in 1944; its symbol is a wasp A wasp is any insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Lati ...
'' that he had proof Gaddafi had personally ordered the 1988
Lockerbie bombing Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian: ''Frangford am Maa'', " Frank ford on the Main"), is the most populous city in the German st ...
. To date, he has not revealed this proof. On 24 February, the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
reported that, at a meeting of
opposition Opposition may refer to: Arts and media * Opposition (Altars EP), ''Opposition'' (Altars EP), 2011 EP by Christian metalcore band Altars * The Opposition (band), a London post-punk band * ''The Opposition with Jordan Klepper'', a late-night tele ...
politicians, former military officers and tribal leaders the eastern city of Beida, Abdul Jalil said there would be no talks with the Libyan leader and called for him to step down immediately. On 5 March,
Reuters Reuters (, ) is an international owned by . It employs around 2,500 journalists and 600 s in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters is one of the largest news agencies in the world. The agency was established in in 1851 by the German-born . ...
reported that Abdul Jalil claimed to have "official contacts with European and Arab (countries)" and that "some countries will announce their recognition" of the National Transitional Council "soon". On 9 March, Abdul Jalil called for the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya. As the Battle of Tripoli tilted in favor of forces answering to the NTC, Abdul Jalil said on 24 August that democratic elections would be held in eight months. He also said that Gaddafi and his sons, once captured, would be tried in Libya prior to being sent to
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital ...

The Hague
for trial at the
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizatio ...

International Criminal Court
.


Efforts to form an interim government

On 24 February 2011, opposition politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of Beida. The meeting was chaired by Abdul Jalil, who quit the government a few days before. The delegates stressed the importance of the national unity of Libya and stated that Tripoli is the capital city. They discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya. The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Gaddafi era flag of the
Kingdom of Libya The Kingdom of Libya ( ar, المملكة الليبية, lit=Libyan Kingdom, translit=Al-Mamlakah Al-Lībiyya; it, Regno di Libia; ber, ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ), known as the United Kingdom of Libya until 1963, came into exi ...
(1951–1969). On 25 February 2011,
Al Jazeera Al Jazeera ( ar, الجزيرة, translit-std=DIN, translit=al-jazīrah, , literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّ ...
reported that talks are taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era. On 26 February, it was reported that Abdul Jalil was leading the process of forming an interim government, to be based in Benghazi. Abdul Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya, he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli is the capital. The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Ali Suleiman Aujali Ali Suleiman Aujali ( ar, علي الأوجلي, alternatively transliterated Ojli and Adjali) is a Libyan diplomat who was nominated for Libya's minister of foreign affairs, but resigned on 2 January 2013 without being sworn in. Early life and ...
. The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, Ibrahim Dabbashi, has stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle". The members of the new interim government were to be announced on 27 February 2011 at a press conference in the city of Benghazi. Some of the portfolios were to be left vacant for representatives for areas that were still controlled by the Gaddafi-led government. The proposed interim government aims to remain in power for three months after which elections will be held. The new interim government is to include both civilians and persons from the military. Abdul Jalil was stated to be the head of the National Transitional Council in the Council's founding statement of 5 March 2011.


Assassination of Abdul Fatah Younis

An email from Sidney Blumenthal to Hillary Clinton states that "in July and August 2011 NTC security officers discovered evidence that Younis was in secret contact with Saif al Islam Qaddafi. In response to this report a sensitive source stated that Jalil ordered NTC security officers to assassinate Younis while en route to a meeting at NTC headquarters. Jalil then reported that Younis had been killed by Islamist
dissident A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established Political system, political or Organized religion, religious system, doctrine, belief, policy, or institution. In a religious context, the word has been used since the 18th century, and ...
s among his troops." The same email to Clinton also states that " Zidan's efforts are complicated by the ongoing legal problems of former National Transitional Council (NTC) leader Mustafa Abdul-Jalil, who will be questioned by both military and civilian prosecutors regarding his role in the July 2011 assassination of General Abdel-Fattah Younis, Gadhafi's former interior minister and one of the first major
defectors In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, changing sides in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state. More broadly, it involves abandoning a person, cause, or ...
from the old
regime In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social sc ...

regime
. Jalil and 10 other NTC officials have been charged with Younis' death, though none have been arrested".


See also

*
General People's Committee of Libya The General People's Committee ( ar, اللجنة الشعبية العامة, ''al-lajna ash-sha'biyya al-'āmma''), often abbreviated as the GPCO, was the executive branch of government during the era of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. It served as ...


References


External links


Profile
at NTC
Libya crisis: Profile of NTC Chair Mustafa Abdul Jalil
''
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signali ...

BBC News
'', 22 August 2011 * *
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
collected news and commentary at ''
The Times of India ''The Times of India'' (also known by its abbreviation 'TOI') is an Indian English-language daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is of ...
'' , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Abdul Jalil, Mustafa 1952 births Bayda, Libya Date of birth missing (living people) Heads of state of Libya Government ministers of Libya Libyan Sunni Muslims
Living people Related categories * :Year of birth missing (living people) / :Year of birth unknown * :Date of birth missing (living people) / :Date of birth unknown * :Place of birth missing (living people) / :Place of birth unknown * :Year of death mi ...
Members of the National Transitional Council People of the First Libyan Civil War University of Libya alumni Justice ministers of Libya