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Mullum Mullum Creek is a
creek A creek is a stream that is usually smaller than a river Creek may refer to: People * Muscogee, also known as Creek, Native Americans * Murder of Amber Creek, Amber Creek (1982–1997), American murder victim * Mitch Creek (born 1992), Austral ...

creek
in the outer eastern
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
s of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia) Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a in southeastern . It is the second-smallest state with a of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bord ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. It is the main watercourse of the Mullum Mullum Valley, a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
and
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Australia. The river originates approximately east of the Melbourne central business district and flows towards it and out into Port Phillip Bay. T ...

Yarra Valley
. For tens of thousands of years it was used as a
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
and
tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back Paleolithic, hun ...

tool
source
sustainably Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere The biosphere (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

sustainably
by the
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often ...
people,
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
of the Kulin nation, who spoke variations of the
Woiwurrung The Woiwurrung, also spelt Woi Wurrung, Woiwurrong, Woiworung, Wuywurung, are an Aboriginal Australian people of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin people, Kulin alliance. The Woiwurrung people's territory in Central Victoria (Austral ...
language group. It is one of the only watercourses lying within urban metropolitan Melbourne that is surrounded by native and regenerated bushland for almost its entire length, and is a significant remnant ecosystem in Melbourne. Around 80,000 people live in the creek's catchment area. The remnant bushland across its length provides habitat for significant species such as
platypus The platypus (''Ornithorhynchus anatinus''), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, egg-laying mammal Endemic (ecology), endemic to Eastern states of Australia, eastern Australia, ...

platypus
,
rakali The rakali (''Hydromys chrysogaster)'', also known as the rabe or water-rat, is an Fauna of Australia#Placental mammals, Australian native rodent first described in 1804. The change to the aboriginal name Rakali was intended to foster a positive ...
,
koalas The koala or, inaccurately, koala bear (''Phascolarctos cinereus''), is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. It is the only Extant taxon, extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relative ...

koalas
,
powerful owl The powerful owl (''Ninox strenua''), a species of owl native to south-eastern and eastern Australia, is the largest owl on the continent. It is found in coastal areas and in the Great Dividing Range, rarely more than inland. The International ...
,
nankeen night heron The nankeen night heron (''Nycticorax caledonicus'') is a heron that belongs to the genus Nycticorax and the family Ardeidae. Due to its distinctive reddish-brown colour, it is also commonly referred to as the rufous night heron. It is primarily no ...
,
white-winged chough The white-winged chough (''Corcorax melanorhamphos'') is one of only two surviving members of the Australian mud-nest builders family, Corcoracidae, and is the Monotypic taxon, only member of the genus ''Corcorax''. It is native to southern and e ...
and
yellow-tailed black cockatoo The yellow-tailed black cockatoo (''Zanda funerea'') is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of Australia measuring in length. It has a short crest on the top of its head. Its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow ...

yellow-tailed black cockatoo
. In recent decades the creek and valley have been central in many of the issues in Melbourne's eastern suburbs, such as; residential
housing estate A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex or housing development) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Popular throughout the United States an ...
s, regeneration of native vegetation and most recently,
Tollway A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road (almost always a controlled-access highway in the present day) for which a fee (or ''Toll (fee), toll'') is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically i ...
construction. The Eastlink Tollway passes underneath the valley through 1.5-km of tunnels to avoid disturbing the remnant ecosystem through the Mullum Mullum Gorge, however through Ringwood, it crosses the creek above ground, resulting in the relocation of the creek through this area.


Etymology

''Mullum Mullum'' is adapted from
Woiwurrung The Woiwurrung, also spelt Woi Wurrung, Woiwurrong, Woiworung, Wuywurung, are an Aboriginal Australian people of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin people, Kulin alliance. The Woiwurrung people's territory in Central Victoria (Austral ...
language and is thought to mean "place of many big birds" and led many historians to conclude that it meant "Place of Eagles". Many other interpretations have been suggested including; "place of many big swifts" or "place of many big owls" perhaps in reference to the powerful owls of the valley. Some historians suspect ''Mullum Mullum'' to be a mistranslation of another Wurundjeri expression ''Ballum Ballum'' meaning "place of many butterflies". Around the higher grassy woodlands there are large numbers of
butterfly Butterflies are insect Insects (from Latin ') are pancrustacean Hexapoda, hexapod invertebrates of the class (biology), class Insecta. They are the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three ...

butterfly
and
moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The g ...

moth
species breeding in the grasslands, many of which have not yet been documented.Friends of the Mullum Mullum Valley
/ref>


Geography and ecology

The creek flows for through the Mullum Mullum Valley travelling west and then north where it flows into the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
. It passes through many of Melbourne's eastern suburbs including;
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...
,
Ringwood Ringwood is a market town in south-west Hampshire, England, located on the River Avon, Hampshire, River Avon, close to the New Forest, northeast of Bournemouth and southwest of Southampton. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxon England, Angl ...
,
Mitcham Mitcham is an area within the London Borough of Merton The London Borough of Merton () is a in south-west , . The borough was formed under the in 1965 by the merger of the , the and the , all formerly within . The main commercial centres ...
, Donvale, East Doncaster, western
Warrandyte Warrandyte is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, 24 km north-east of Melbourne's Melbourne City Centre, Central Business District. Its Local government areas of Victoria, local government area is the City of ...
and Templestowe. It is most often a slight green/brown colour due to the riverbed silt, during heavy rainfall it appears light brown. Its geography is generally divided up into 4 sections; The High Plateau Tract, The Mullum Mullum Gorge, The Valley Tract and The Plains Tract.''Physiography of Victoria'' E. Sherbon Hills, Whitcombe & Tombs Pty. Ltd., 1960.


High Plateau Tract

''Through:
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...
,
Ringwood Ringwood is a market town in south-west Hampshire, England, located on the River Avon, Hampshire, River Avon, close to the New Forest, northeast of Bournemouth and southwest of Southampton. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxon England, Angl ...
'' A ring of high forested hills that separates the
Dandenong Dandenong is a suburb of Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...
Valley from the
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Australia. The river originates approximately east of the Melbourne central business district and flows towards it and out into Port Phillip Bay. T ...

Yarra Valley
is the source of the Mullum Mullum Creek. The high plateau is formed by the Wicklow Ridge to Reagh's Hill in the east, Bedford Road and
Maroondah Highway Maroondah Highway (also known as Whitehorse Road from Deepdene, Victoria, Deepdene to Mitcham, Victoria, Mitcham) is a major east-west thoroughfare in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, and a highway connecting the north-eastern fringes of Melbo ...
in the south, and the Loughnan's Hill, Wonga Road ridge to the west. Commencing in Croydon south of Birt's Hill behind the Yarra Valley School, the Mullum Mullum Creek flows south downstream passing remnant
orchards An orchard is an intentional plantation of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree ...

orchards
, bushland and parks through Ringwood and past Eastland Shopping Centre. Native hyacinth orchids and small grass trees are present in these remnant forests. The
otter Otters are carnivorous mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mam ...

otter
-like
rakali The rakali (''Hydromys chrysogaster)'', also known as the rabe or water-rat, is an Fauna of Australia#Placental mammals, Australian native rodent first described in 1804. The change to the aboriginal name Rakali was intended to foster a positive ...
feeds in the stream here. Grassy, sedgy woodlands here are home to many undocumented species of butterflies as well as birds and
possums Possum may refer to: Animals * Phalangeriformes, or possums, any of a number of arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi ** Common brushtail possum (''Trichosurus vulpecula''), a common possum in Australian urban a ...

possums
. Drier mixed species forests gradually give way to swamp gums and
manna gum ''Eucalyptus viminalis'', commonly known as the manna gum, white gum or ribbon gum, is a species of small to very tall tree that is Endemism, endemic to south-eastern Australia. It has smooth bark, sometimes with rough bark near the base, lance-s ...
s as the creek heads south. Near New Street, the creek once turned and flowed south of Maroondah Highway down the now dry bed of the upper Heatherdale Creek and into the
Dandenong Creek The Dandenong Creek (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australian ...
and
Port Philip Bay Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay on the central coast of southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait via a short, narr ...
, but a natural 'river capture' has now taken the waters of the creek and diverted them through a narrow gap in the hills to the north and the Yarra River.


Mullum Mullum Gorge

''Through:
Ringwood Ringwood is a market town in south-west Hampshire, England, located on the River Avon, Hampshire, River Avon, close to the New Forest, northeast of Bournemouth and southwest of Southampton. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxon England, Angl ...
,
Mitcham Mitcham is an area within the London Borough of Merton The London Borough of Merton () is a in south-west , . The borough was formed under the in 1965 by the merger of the , the and the , all formerly within . The main commercial centres ...
, Park Orchards, Donvale'' With the extra captured water, the Mullum Mullum Creek has carved a steep "V" shaped gorge with rocky cascades. Here in the damp shadows, tall old growth riparian forests provide habitat for koalas and native birds species. Maidenhair ferns and tree ferns thrive. The drier hillsides are home to native orchids and echidnas. Passing under the steep bushland escarpment below Poynton Avenue in Ringwood, the rocky cascades and fern covered banks of the Mullum Mullum gorge become apparent. Tall manna gum woodlands, some with treefern understorey, are home to tawny frogmouths and sugar gliders. Near Schwerkolt Cottage, the rocky cascades are bordered by drier open grassy woodlands, rare Valley Heathy Forest rich with native orchids, particularly near Antonio Park, Yarran Dheran, the Hillcrest area at Mitcham, and the Chaim Court bushland and pipe-track at Donvale. The tall ancient manna gum forests near Whitefriars College are home to ducks (who nest on the tops of old stags) crimson rosellas, galahs and other parrots (who nest in old hollows), rare large powerful owls and rainbow lorikeets. Pied cormorants and night herons cruise the creek pools. Rakali and the occasional
platypus The platypus (''Ornithorhynchus anatinus''), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, egg-laying mammal Endemic (ecology), endemic to Eastern states of Australia, eastern Australia, ...

platypus
, fish for Common galaxias, galaxias, Gudgeon (fish), gudgeon and freshwater yabby, yabbies. There are signs of wombat diggings on the hill face but they are rarely seen. The occasional swamp wallaby and eastern grey kangaroo visit the gorge. In warm weather skinks, blue tongue lizards and copperhead snakes can be seen. Other rarely seen species include marbled geckos and white-lipped snakes.


Valley Tract

''Through: Donvale, Doncaster East, Victoria, Doncaster East,
Warrandyte Warrandyte is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, 24 km north-east of Melbourne's Melbourne City Centre, Central Business District. Its Local government areas of Victoria, local government area is the City of ...
'' At Park Road in Park Orchards the valley begins to open up. Here many small tributaries join the Mullum Mullum Creek. Loughnan's Creek connects to Loughie's Bushland and B.J. Hubbard Bushland Reserves in Ringwood North, and many green corridors and urban pathways link to the Mullum Mullum Creek bushland parks on the west. Pockets of good bushland such as the girl guides camp in McGowans Road provide refuge to koalas and tawny frogmouths. Rare Eucalyptus melliodora, yellow box open woodlands with kangaroo grass understorey to the east help protect the resident kangaroos and the breeding white-winged choughs. The higher ground in Park Orchards provides views to the dividing ranges and Mount Macedon and glimpses of the Yarra Valley to the north. Old gold mines in this area are home to bat colonies. The rural areas of Park Orchards, the bushland from Tindalls Road to Reynolds Road, the Currawong Bush Park, the regenerated bushland near Larnoo Drive at Donvale all provide wonderful bushland habitat and a very significant linear open space. Small tributaries with wetlands, ferns and growling grass frogs link to the Mullum at Currawong Bush Park. Kangaroos, koalas and echidnas are permanent residents in the area, and platypus live in the Creek. The last major tributary, that forms the valley of the Green Gully Linear Park, joins the Mullum Mullum Creek, near Tikalara Park, just opposite the new parklands within the subdivision as the end of Blackburn Road.


Plains Tract

''Through: Doncaster East, Victoria, Doncaster East, Templestowe'' North of the Route 2, Melbourne, Heidelberg-Warrandyte Road the creek slowly winds its way towards the Yarra River in Templestowe. Where the Mullum Mullum meets the Yarra, is also where Wurundjeri and European Cultures meet. Tikalara Park, the next stage of the Yarra Valley Metropolitan Park upstream from Petty's Orchard, is particularly a place of significance for the Wurundjeri. Here ancient scar trees and scatter sites provide physical evidence to support the documented evidence that this area was a clan meeting place of the Wurundjeri. Pontville homestead on the Mullum Mullum Creek near the Yarra River is a site of state historic significance for its associations with early European settlement, and it is a known site of conflict between European and Wurundjeri cultures. The plains where the Mullum Mullum flows into the Yarra are home to kangaroos, Wallaby, wallabies, wombats and is a known platypus breeding ground. The Australian Platypus Conservancy has been studying the significant population of platypus in this area, and their research has confirmed that the Mullum Mullum Creek provides habitat for the highest density of platypus in the whole of the Yarra River catchment.


Settlements

Approximately 70–80,000 people live in the creek's catchment area. The settlements located along its course are listed below, from downstream to upstream; *Eastern Templestowe, Victoria, Templestowe - 4,000 *Western
Warrandyte Warrandyte is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, 24 km north-east of Melbourne's Melbourne City Centre, Central Business District. Its Local government areas of Victoria, local government area is the City of ...
- 6,800 *Doncaster East, Victoria, Doncaster East - 26,700 *Park Orchards, Victoria, Park Orchards - 3,500 * Donvale - 11,600 *Eastern
Mitcham Mitcham is an area within the London Borough of Merton The London Borough of Merton () is a in south-west , . The borough was formed under the in 1965 by the merger of the , the and the , all formerly within . The main commercial centres ...
- 8,000 *
Ringwood Ringwood is a market town in south-west Hampshire, England, located on the River Avon, Hampshire, River Avon, close to the New Forest, northeast of Bournemouth and southwest of Southampton. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxon England, Angl ...
- 15,200 *
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...
- 22,000 *Croydon Hills, Victoria, Croydon Hills - 5,400


History

The creek and valley is hypothesised to have been used by
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
as a route from modern day Melbourne to
Warrandyte Warrandyte is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, 24 km north-east of Melbourne's Melbourne City Centre, Central Business District. Its Local government areas of Victoria, local government area is the City of ...
. Early European settlement occupied well watered open grassy woodlands on either side of the ridge lines, along the main roads and railway lines, and the more open valleys. Orchards were established on the higher plateaus of Ringwood, Croydon, Park Orchards, and Templestowe. The natural significance of the valley was recognised early by Naturalists who made excursions to Mitcham to see the remarkable bushlands and rich wildflower displays. In the 1920s and the 1930s it was proposed that the Mullum Mullum Valley should become protected bush parkland, but the remnant bushlands were not threatened by development, the scenery was not spectacular and society at the time had other priorities. After World War II, more people made excursions and day trips to Mitcham, and to Loughnan's Hill and Louhnan's Lake in Ringwood North to enjoy the views and the wonderful bushlands. By 1946, local town planning schemes again proposed protection of this bushland as parkland, but local planning schemes were being brought together under the MMBW Metropolitan Planning Scheme. In 1954, this scheme first proposed a series of "parkway" roads along our creek valleys, which were made obsolete in the 1969 Melbourne transport plan. Many local residents who chose, in the 1930s and 1940s, to establish their residences next to these bushland, have been fighting for more than 50 years to protect these bushlands from development.


Parklands and recreation

Parks Victoria operate several areas of designated parkland adjoining the Mullum Mullum Creek. Much of this parkland, particularly in the Open Valley Tract was replanted and regenerated, whilst other areas are remnant native bushland. The Mullum Mullum Creek Trail runs through much of this parkland giving cyclists through access to the entire valley. Below is a list of parks adjoining the creek in order from its origin to where it flows into the Yarra River. Adjoining geographic features are shown in bold.Melway Edition 36, 2006 * Douglas Maggs Reserve (playground) * Peter Vergers Reserve (tennis) * Mullum Mullum Reserve Ringwood (football, cricket, playground) * Ringwood Lake * Schwerkolt Cottage (local museum & gardens) * Yarran Dheran * Hillcrest Reserve * Walert Creek * Buck Reserve (pony club & horse trails) * Mullum Mullum Creek Linear Park - upper section * Mullum Mullum Reserve Donvale (hockey, bowls, tennis) * Currawong Bush Park (wildlife enclosure, education centre) * Mullum Mullum Creek Linear Park - lower section * Mullum Mullum Wetlands * Deep Creek Reserve (baseball) * Domain Wetlands * Tikalara Park * Yarra River Most of these parklands contain paths or trails, many of which are shared use (pedestrian/cycling). The Mullum Mullum Creek Linear Park follows the course of the creek in the Open Valley Tract between Doncaster East and Donvale, this is where the Mullum Mullum Creek Trail runs beside the creek. Bicycle trails upstream include the Mullum Mullum Valley Path through the gorge and a trail through Ringwood into Croydon beside the creek.


Crossings

There are many crossings of the Mullum Mullum Creek including around 15 footbridges, many of which are not included in this list as they are only small local pedestrian bridges: * The Parkway - local single lane bridge * Manna Gum Bridge - main road & footbridge * Reynolds Road - main road * Donvale Pony Club Footbridge * Tindals Road - secondary road * Park Road - secondary road & footbridge * Heads Road - local street (single lane) * EastLink, Melbourne, EastLink - tollway tunnel * Quarry Road - local street (single lane) * Yarran Dheran footbridges * Deep Creek Road - secondary road * EastLink, Melbourne, EastLink - tollway bridges (Ringwood Interchange) * Ringwood Bypass - main road * Oliver Street - local street * Oban Road - secondary road * Kalinda Road - local street


Tollway tunnels

From 2006–2008 EastLink, Melbourne, Eastlink was built, a major tollway servicing Melbourne's eastern and south-eastern suburbs. Eastlink crosses the Mullum Mullum Creek and Valley in Ringwood and Donvale. During the planning stages several proposals were considered for how this crossing would be made, some of which included a 3 km tunnel to go under the entire valley and a surface freeway requiring the destruction of the natural environment. The state government decided on a compromise and two 1.5-km tunnels were subsequently built under the creek and valley. The eastbound tunnel was named after the creek, the other being named after Nellie Melba, Dame Nellie Melba. The irony of the situation was that the primary reason this section of the creek was in so natural a state was that it had been protected from other development through the land having been reserved for the section of the proposed F35 Scoresby Freeway (Renamed Eastlink) to join the end of the Eastern Freeway (Melbourne), Eastern Freeway under the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan.


Pollution

The Mullum Mullum Creek suffers from many of the problems inherent in the development of urban environments and pollution in and around the creek is unfortunately quite prominent. Two of the most significant problems affecting the creek is sewage spills after heavy rain and leakage of septic tank, septic tank effluent from residential properties into watercourses and subsequently, the creek itself. This is a problem that extends to the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
and has become a major issue affecting the ecology of central
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia) Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a in southeastern . It is the second-smallest state with a of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bord ...
and state politics. In 2005, three kayakers contracted leptospirosis and suffered bouts of delusion and lung hemorrhaging after swallowing Yarra river water. Tests were conducted in the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
and the Mullum Mullum Creek and the levels of many pathogens were found to have breached local and international standards for recreational water. This is documented in a 2007 report by Environment Protection Authority (Victoria), EPA Victoria in which levels of Human faecal matter and Escherichia coli, E. coli were recorded and documented.EPA Victoria
/ref> Other major pollutants entering the creek via stormwater drains and surface runoff include dog feces, Cigarette, cigarette butts, packaging and other post-consumer waste.


Solid pollution

In terms of hard pollution, plastics like bags and packaging are most common, they catch in the trees at the high-water mark on the creek banks, tires are also particularly common as well as other car parts such as batteries and pieces of metal. Large pieces of concrete somehow find their way into the creek at various locations and sit amongst the rocks almost blending in if it weren't for the exposed aggregate. Clothing is also common, particularly synthetic items such as gloves, shoes and bags, while clothing such as shirts made from organic materials break down into the environment.


Other information

Many surrounding features, structures and parks borrow their names from the creek: *Parks :Mullum Mullum Creek Linear Park :Mullum Mullum Reserve Ringwood :Mullum Mullum Reserve Donvale *Trails & Pathways :Mullum Mullum Creek Trail :Mullum Mullum Valley Path *Roads :EastLink, Melbourne, Mullum Mullum Tunnel :Mullum Place *Geographic :Mullum Mullum Wetlands


References


External links


Maps of significant bushland in the valley



Riverbasin.org
{{Authority control Rivers of Victoria (Australia) Port Phillip and Western Port catchment Rivers of Port Phillip (region) Tributaries of the Yarra River Remnant urban bushland