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Michael Faraday (; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves ...

scientist
who contributed to the study of
electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnet ...

electromagnetism
and
electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the branch of concerned with the relationship between electrical potential, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable , with either electrical potential as an outcome of a particular chemical change, or vic ...

electrochemistry
. His main discoveries include the principles underlying
electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force In electromagnetism and electronics, electromotive force (emf, denoted \mathcal and measured in volts) is the electrical action produced by a non-electrical sour ...

electromagnetic induction
,
diamagnetism Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in th ...
and
electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms ...

electrolysis
. Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the
magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in the plane can be visualised as a collection of arrows with ...
around a
conductor Conductor or conduction may refer to: Music * Conductor (music), a person who leads a musical ensemble like, for example, an orchestra. * Conductor (album), ''Conductor'' (album), an album by indie rock band The Comas * Conduction, a type of ...
carrying a
direct current Direct current (DC) is one-directional flow Flow may refer to: Science and technology * Flow (fluid) or fluid dynamics, the motion of a gas or liquid * Flow (geomorphology), a type of mass wasting or slope movement in geomorphology * Flow (mathe ...
that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the
electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the in ...
in physics. Faraday also established that
magnetism Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials. A moving charge i ...

magnetism
could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.. the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His
invention An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or ...

invention
s of formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that
electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...

electricity
became practical for use in technology. As a chemist, Faraday discovered
benzene Benzene is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organi ...

benzene
, investigated the
clathrate hydrate Clathrate hydrates, or gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, f ...
of chlorine, invented an early form of the
Bunsen burner A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a kind of gas burner used as laboratory equipment; it produces a single open gas flame, and is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion. The gas can be natural gas (which is mainly methane) or ...

Bunsen burner
and the system of
oxidation number The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any su ...
s, and popularised terminology such as "
anode An anode is an electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivit ...

anode
", "
cathode A cathode is the from which a leaves a polarized electrical device. This definition can be recalled by using the ''CCD'' for ''Cathode Current Departs''. A conventional current describes the direction in which positive charges move. Electrons ha ...
", "
electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between tha ...

electrode
" and "
ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
". Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of ...
at the
Royal Institution The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution
, a lifetime position. Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language; his mathematical abilities, however, did not extend as far as
trigonometry Trigonometry (from ', "triangle" and ', "measure") is a branch of that studies relationships between side lengths and s of s. The field emerged in the during the 3rd century BC from applications of to . The Greeks focused on the , while ...

trigonometry
and were limited to the simplest algebra.
James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classica ...

James Clerk Maxwell
took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of
lines of force A line of force in Faraday Michael Faraday (; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, ...
, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."The_Scientific_Papers_of_ The_Scientific_Papers_of_James_Clerk_Maxwell
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Volume 1">James Clerk Maxwell">The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell
Volume 1p. 360; Courier Dover 2003,
The International System of Units">SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad. Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Arthur Schopenhauer and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time." C. N. R. Rao, Rao, C.N.R. (2000). ''Understanding Chemistry''. Universities Press. . p. 281.


Personal life


Early life

Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in
Newington Butts Newington Butts is a former hamlet, now an area of the London Borough of Southwark, that gives its name to a segment of the A3 road running south-west from the Elephant and Castle junction. The road continues as Kennington Park Road leading to Ke ...
,
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Surrey
(which is now part of the
London Borough of Southwark The London Borough of Southwark ( ) in south London South London is the southern part of London, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its w ...
). His family was not well off. His father, James, was a member of the
Glasite The Glasites or Glassites were a small Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critici ...
sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790 from
Outhgill Outhgill is a hamlet in Mallerstang, Cumbria, England. It lies about 5 miles south of Kirkby Stephen. It is the main hamlet in the dale of Mallerstang (a civil parish) which retains the Norsemen, Norse pattern of its original settlement: a series ...
in
Westmorland Westmorland (; formerly also spelt ''Westmoreland'';R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British IslesVision of Britain/ref> even older spellings are ''Westmerland'' and ''Westmereland''; the people of Westmorland are known as Westmerians) is ...
, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith. Michael was born in the autumn of that year. The young Michael Faraday, who was the third of four children, having only the most basic school education, had to educate himself. At the age of 14 he became an apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street. During his seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including
Isaac Watts Isaac Watts (17 July 1674 – 25 November 1748) was an English Christian minister (Congregational), hymn A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a d ...

Isaac Watts
's ''The Improvement of the Mind'', and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein. He also developed an interest in science, especially in electricity. Faraday was particularly inspired by the book ''Conversations on Chemistry'' by
Jane Marcet Jane Marcet (née Haldimand) (1 January 1769 – 28 June 1858) was an English salonnière of Swiss origin, and an innovative writer of popular, explanatory science books. She also broke ground with ''Conversations on Political Economy'' (1816), ...
.


Adult life

In 1812, at the age of 20 and at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist
Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish people, Cornish chemist and inventor who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp. He is also remembered for isolating, by using electricity, a series of ...

Humphry Davy
of the
Royal Institution The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution
and the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many of the tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance, who was one of the founders of the
Royal Philharmonic Society The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813. It was originally formed in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. ...
. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable. In 1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with
nitrogen trichloride Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemica ...

nitrogen trichloride
, he decided to employ Faraday as an assistant. Coincidentally one of the Royal Institution's assistants, John Payne, was sacked and Sir Humphry Davy had been asked to find a replacement; thus he appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution on 1 March 1813. Very soon Davy entrusted Faraday with the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, and they both were injured in an explosion of this very sensitive substance. Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800–1879) on 12 June 1821. They met through their families at the Sandemanian church, and he confessed his faith to the Sandemanian congregation the month after they were married. They had no children. Faraday was a devout Christian; his Sandemanian denomination was an offshoot of the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
. Well after his marriage, he served as
deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

deacon
and for two terms as an
elder An elder is someone with a degree of seniority or authority. Elder or elders may refer to: Positions Administrative * Elder (administrative title), a position of authority Cultural * American Indian elder, a person who has and transmits cul ...
in the meeting house of his youth. His church was located at Paul's Alley in the
Barbican A barbican (from fro, barbacane) is a fortified outpost or fortified gateway, such as at an outer defense perimeter of a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes. In the Middle Ages, ba ...
. This meeting house relocated in 1862 to
Barnsbury Barnsbury is an area of north London North London is an informally and inexactly defined part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. ...
Grove,
Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Islington High Street, High Street to Highbury Fields, ...
; this North London location was where Faraday served the final two years of his second term as elder prior to his resignation from that post. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."


Later life

In June 1832, the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
granted Faraday an honorary
Doctor of Civil Law Doctor of Civil Law (DCL; la, Legis Civilis Doctor or Juris Civilis Doctor) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees. At Oxford, the degre ...
degree. During his lifetime, he was offered a
knighthood A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...
in recognition for his services to science, which he turned down on religious grounds, believing that it was against the word of the Bible to accumulate riches and pursue worldly reward, and stating that he preferred to remain "plain Mr Faraday to the end". Elected a member of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
in 1824, he twice refused to become
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
. He became the first
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of ...
at the
Royal Institution The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution
in 1833. In 1832, Faraday was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
. He was elected a foreign member of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic co ...
in 1838. In 1840, he was elected to the
American Philosophical Society The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 in Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community ...
. He was one of eight foreign members elected to the
French Academy of Sciences The French Academy of Sciences (French: ''Académie des sciences'') is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipli ...
in 1844. In 1849 he was elected as associated member to the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, which two years later became the
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences ( nl, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The academy is housed i ...
and he was subsequently made foreign member. Faraday suffered a nervous breakdown in 1839 but eventually returned to his investigations into electromagnetism. In 1848, as a result of representations by the
Prince Consort A prince consort is the husband of a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety o ...

Prince Consort
, Faraday was awarded a
grace and favour ''Grace & Favour'' (American title: ''Are You Being Served? Again!'') is a British sitcom and a Spin-off (media), spin-off of ''Are You Being Served?'' that aired on BBC One, BBC1 for two series from 1992 to 1993 and marked the return of ''Are Y ...
house in
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
in Middlesex, free of all expenses and upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday House, and now No. 37 Hampton Court Road. In 1858 Faraday retired to live there. Having provided a number of various service projects for the British government, when asked by the government to advise on the production of chemical weapons for use in the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
(1853–1856), Faraday refused to participate citing ethical reasons. Faraday died at his house at
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
on 25 August 1867, aged 75. He had some years before turned down an offer of burial in
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
upon his death, but he has a memorial plaque there, near
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
's tomb. Faraday was interred in the
dissenters A dissenter (from the Latin ''dissentire'', "to disagree") is one who dissents (disagrees) in matters of opinion, belief, etc. Usage in Christianity Dissent from the Anglican church In the social and religious history of England and Wales, and, b ...
' (non-
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
) section of
Highgate Cemetery Highgate Cemetery is a place of burial in north London North London is the northern part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The c ...

Highgate Cemetery
West.


Scientific achievements


Chemistry

Faraday's earliest chemical work was as an assistant to
Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish people, Cornish chemist and inventor who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp. He is also remembered for isolating, by using electricity, a series of ...

Humphry Davy
. Faraday was specifically involved in the study of
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
; he discovered two new compounds of chlorine and
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
. He also conducted the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon that was first pointed out by
John Dalton John Dalton (; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...

John Dalton
. The physical importance of this phenomenon was more fully revealed by Thomas Graham and Joseph Loschmidt. Faraday succeeded in liquefying several gases, investigated the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of these heavy glasses subsequently became historically important; when the glass was placed in a magnetic field Faraday determined the rotation of the plane of polarisation of light. This specimen was also the first substance found to be repelled by the poles of a magnet. Faraday invented an early form of what was to become the
Bunsen burner A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a kind of gas burner used as laboratory equipment; it produces a single open gas flame, and is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion. The gas can be natural gas (which is mainly methane) or ...

Bunsen burner
, which is in practical use in science laboratories around the world as a convenient source of heat. Faraday worked extensively in the field of chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as
benzene Benzene is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organi ...

benzene
(which he called bicarburet of hydrogen) and liquefying gases such as chlorine. The liquefying of gases helped to establish that gases are the vapours of liquids possessing a very low boiling point and gave a more solid basis to the concept of molecular aggregation. In 1820 Faraday reported the first synthesis of compounds made from carbon and chlorine, C2Cl6 and , and published his results the following year. Faraday also determined the composition of the chlorine
clathrate hydrate Clathrate hydrates, or gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, f ...
, which had been discovered by Humphry Davy in 1810. Faraday is also responsible for discovering the laws of electrolysis, and for popularizing terminology such as
anode An anode is an electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivit ...

anode
,
cathode A cathode is the from which a leaves a polarized electrical device. This definition can be recalled by using the ''CCD'' for ''Cathode Current Departs''. A conventional current describes the direction in which positive charges move. Electrons ha ...
,
electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between tha ...

electrode
, and
ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
, terms proposed in large part by
William Whewell William Whewell ( ; 24 May 17946 March 1866) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Eng ...

William Whewell
. Faraday was the first to report what later came to be called metallic
nanoparticles A nanoparticle or ultrafine particle is usually defined as a particle of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...

nanoparticles
. In 1847 he discovered that the optical properties of gold
colloid A colloid is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically combined. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are r ...

colloid
s differed from those of the corresponding bulk metal. This was probably the first reported observation of the effects of
quantum In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...

quantum
size, and might be considered to be the birth of
nanoscience Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...
.


Electricity and magnetism

Faraday is best known for his work regarding electricity and magnetism. His first recorded experiment was the construction of a
voltaic pile The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reaction A che ...

voltaic pile
with seven coins, stacked together with seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water. With this pile he decomposed (first letter to Abbott, 12 July 1812). In 1821, soon after the Danish physicist and chemist
Hans Christian Ørsted Hans Christian Ørsted ( , ; often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 17779 March 1851) was a Danish physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge ...

Hans Christian Ørsted
discovered the phenomenon of
electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electric charge, electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnet ...

electromagnetism
, Davy and British scientist
William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston (; 6 August 1766 – 22 December 1828) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, ...

William Hyde Wollaston
tried, but failed, to design an . Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called "electromagnetic rotation". One of these, now known as the
homopolar motor 250px, DIY simple homopolar motor made with a drywall screw, a battery cell, a wire, and a disk magnet. The magnet is on the screw head. The screw and magnet make contact with the bottom of the battery cell and are held together by the magnet's at ...

homopolar motor
, caused a continuous circular motion that was engendered by the circular magnetic force around a wire that extended into a pool of
mercury Mercury usually refers to: * Mercury (planet) Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman g ...

mercury
wherein was placed a magnet; the wire would then rotate around the magnet if supplied with current from a chemical battery. These experiments and inventions formed the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. In his excitement, Faraday published results without acknowledging his work with either Wollaston or Davy. The resulting controversy within the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
strained his mentor relationship with Davy and may well have contributed to Faraday's assignment to other activities, which consequently prevented his involvement in electromagnetic research for several years. From his initial discovery in 1821, Faraday continued his laboratory work, exploring electromagnetic properties of materials and developing requisite experience. In 1824, Faraday briefly set up a circuit to study whether a magnetic field could regulate the flow of a current in an adjacent wire, but he found no such relationship. This experiment followed similar work conducted with light and magnets three years earlier that yielded identical results. During the next seven years, Faraday spent much of his time perfecting his recipe for optical quality (heavy) glass, borosilicate of lead, which he used in his future studies connecting light with magnetism. In his spare time, Faraday continued publishing his experimental work on optics and electromagnetism; he conducted correspondence with scientists whom he had met on his journeys across Europe with Davy, and who were also working on electromagnetism. Two years after the death of Davy, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered
electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force In electromagnetism and electronics, electromotive force (emf, denoted \mathcal and measured in volts) is the electrical action produced by a non-electrical sour ...

electromagnetic induction
, recording in his laboratory diary on 28 October 1831 he was; "making many experiments with the great magnet of the Royal Society". Faraday's breakthrough came when he wrapped two insulated coils of wire around an iron ring, and found that upon passing a current through one coil, a momentary current was induced in the other coil. This phenomenon is now known as mutual induction. The iron ring-coil apparatus is still on display at the Royal Institution. In subsequent experiments, he found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire an electric current flowed in that wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field; this relation was modelled mathematically by
James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classica ...

James Clerk Maxwell
as Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four
Maxwell equations Maxwell's equations are a set of coupled partial differential equation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), s ...
, and which have in turn evolved into the generalization known today as field theory. Faraday would later use the principles he had discovered to construct the electric
dynamo A dynamo is an that creates using a . Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later devices were based, including the , the , and the . Today, the simple ...

dynamo
, the ancestor of modern power generators and the electric motor. In 1832, he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating the fundamental nature of electricity; Faraday used " static",
batteries Battery may refer to: Energy source * Electric battery, an electrochemical device to provide electrical power ** Automotive battery, a device to provide power to certain functions of an automobile ** List of battery types * Energy storage, inclu ...
, and " animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of electrostatic attraction,
electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms ...

electrolysis
,
magnetism Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For in ...

magnetism
, etc. He concluded that, contrary to the scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory. Faraday instead proposed that only a single "electricity" exists, and the changing values of quantity and intensity (current and voltage) would produce different groups of phenomena. Near the end of his career, Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor. This idea was rejected by his fellow scientists, and Faraday did not live to see the eventual acceptance of his proposition by the scientific community. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields; that conceptual model was crucial for the successful development of the electromechanical devices that dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Diamagnetism

In 1845, Faraday discovered that many materials exhibit a weak repulsion from a magnetic field: a phenomenon he termed
diamagnetism Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in th ...
. Faraday also discovered that the plane of
polarization Polarization or polarisation may refer to: In the physical sciences *Polarization (waves), the ability of waves to oscillate in more than one direction, in particular polarization of light, responsible for example for the glare-reducing effect of ...
of linearly polarized light can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned with the direction in which the light is moving. This is now termed the
Faraday effect The Faraday effect or Faraday rotation, sometimes referred to as the magneto-optic Faraday effect (MOFE), is a physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), ...

Faraday effect
. In Sept 1845 he wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in ''illuminating a magnetic curve'' or '' line of force'' and in ''magnetising a
ray of light ''Ray of Light'' is the seventh studio album packaged in book form, like a photograph album An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc (CD), Phonograph record, vinyl, audio tape, or another medium ...
''". Later on in his life, in 1862, Faraday used a spectroscope to search for a different alteration of light, the change of spectral lines by an applied magnetic field. The equipment available to him was, however, insufficient for a definite determination of spectral change.
Pieter Zeeman Pieter Zeeman (; 25 May 1865 – 9 October 1943) was a Dutch physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. ...

Pieter Zeeman
later used an improved apparatus to study the same phenomenon, publishing his results in 1897 and receiving the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics for his success. In both his 1897 paper and his Nobel acceptance speech, Zeeman made reference to Faraday's work.


Faraday cage

In his work on static electricity,
Faraday's ice pail experiment Faraday's ice pail experiment is a simple electrostatics Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at Rest (physics), rest. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials, such as amber, attract lightwe ...
demonstrated that the charge resided only on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields emanating from them cancel one another. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a
Faraday cage A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by accelerating electric charge Electric charge is the physical ...

Faraday cage
. In January 1836, Faraday had put a wooden frame, 12ft square, on four glass supports and added paper walls and wire mesh. He then stepped inside and electrified it. When he stepped out of his electrified cage, Faraday had shown that electricity was a force, not an imponderable fluid as was believed at the time.


Royal Institution and public service

Faraday had a long association with the
Royal Institution of Great Britain The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution of Great Britain
. He was appointed Assistant Superintendent of the House of the Royal Institution in 1821. He was elected a member of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
in 1824. In 1825, he became Director of the Laboratory of the Royal Institution. Six years later, in 1833, Faraday became the first
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of ...
at the
Royal Institution of Great Britain The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution of Great Britain
, a position to which he was appointed for life without the obligation to deliver lectures. His sponsor and mentor was
John 'Mad Jack' Fuller John Fuller (20 February 1757 – 11 April 1834), better known as "Mad Jack" Fuller (although he himself preferred to be called "Honest John" Fuller), was Squire of the hamlet of Brightling, in Sussex, and politician who sat in the House of Common ...
, who created the position at the Royal Institution for Faraday. Beyond his scientific research into areas such as chemistry, electricity, and magnetism at the
Royal Institution The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution
, Faraday undertook numerous, and often time-consuming, service projects for private enterprise and the British government. This work included investigations of explosions in coal mines, being an
expert witness An expert witness, particularly in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written ...
in court, and along with two engineers from
Chance Brothers Chance Brothers and Company was a glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, ...
c.1853, the preparation of high-quality optical glass, which was required by Chance for its lighthouses. In 1846, together with
Charles Lyell Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who demonstrated the power of known natural causes in explaining the earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astro ...

Charles Lyell
, he produced a lengthy and detailed report on a serious
explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume Volume is a expressing the of enclosed by a . For example, the space that a substance (, , , or ) or occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the , the . The volum ...

explosion
in the colliery at
Haswell, County Durham Haswell is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated 9.8 kilometers (6.09 miles) east of the city of Durham, England, Durham, 14.46 kilometers (8.98 miles) south of the city of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, Sunderland and 5.02 kilometers ...
, which killed 95 miners. Their report was a meticulous
forensic investigation Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowl ...
and indicated that
coal dustCoal dust is a fine powdered form of coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements; chief ...
contributed to the severity of the explosion. The first-time explosions had been linked to dust, Faraday gave a demonstration during a lecture on how ventilation could prevent it. The report should have warned coal owners of the hazard of coal dust explosions, but the risk was ignored for over 60 years until the 1913 . As a respected scientist in a nation with strong maritime interests, Faraday spent extensive amounts of time on projects such as the construction and operation of
lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple ...

lighthouse
s and protecting the bottoms of ships from
corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecu ...

corrosion
. His workshop still stands at
Trinity Buoy Wharf Trinity Buoy Wharf is the site of a lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disp ...
above the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse where he carried out the first experiments in electric lighting for lighthouses. Faraday was also active in what would now be called
environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several oth ...
, or engineering. He investigated industrial pollution at
Swansea Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal City status in the United Kingdom, city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, second-largest city of Wales. It forms a Principal areas of Wales, principal area, officially known as the City ...

Swansea
and was consulted on air pollution at the
Royal Mint The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to stud ...
. In July 1855, Faraday wrote a letter to ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' on the subject of the foul condition of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
, which resulted in an often-reprinted cartoon in ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat), a strike made using the hand closed into a fist * Punch (drink), a wide assortment of drinks, non-alcoholic or alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice Punch may also refer to: Places * Pun ...
''. (See also
The Great Stink The Great Stink was an event in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city st ...
). Faraday assisted with the planning and judging of exhibits for the
Great Exhibition opens the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 M ...
of 1851 in London. He also advised the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...

National Gallery
on the cleaning and protection of its art collection, and served on the National Gallery Site Commission in 1857. Education was another of Faraday's areas of service; he lectured on the topic in 1854 at the Royal Institution, and in 1862 he appeared before a Public Schools Commission to give his views on education in Great Britain. Faraday also weighed in negatively on the public's fascination with
table-turning Table-turning (also known as table-tapping, table-tipping or table-tilting) is a type of séance A séance or seance (; ) is an attempt to communicate with spirit In folk beliefIn folkloristics, folk belief or folk-belief is a broad genre o ...
,
mesmerism Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (''Lebensmagnetismus'') possessed by all living things, including humans, an ...
, and s, and in so doing chastised both the public and the nation's educational system. Before his famous Christmas lectures, Faraday delivered chemistry lectures for the City Philosophical Society from 1816 to 1818 in order to refine the quality of his lectures. Between 1827 and 1860 at the
Royal Institution The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often the Royal Institution, abbreviated 'Ri' or 'RI') is an organisation for scientific education and research, based in the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London Ci ...

Royal Institution
in London, Faraday gave a series of nineteen
Christmas lectures The Royal Institution Christmas Lectures are a series of lectures on a single topic each, which have been held at the Royal Institution in London each year since 1825, missing 1939–1942 because of the Second World War. The lectures present scie ...
for young people, a series which continues today. The objective of Faraday's Christmas lectures was to present science to the general public in the hopes of inspiring them and generating revenue for the Royal Institution. They were notable events on the social calendar among London's gentry. Over the course of several letters to his close friend Benjamin Abbott, Faraday outlined his recommendations on the art of lecturing: Faraday wrote "a flame should be lighted at the commencement and kept alive with unremitting splendour to the end". His lectures were joyful and juvenile, he delighted in filling soap bubbles with various gasses (in order to determine whether or not they are magnetic) in front of his audiences and marveled at the rich colors of polarized lights, but the lectures were also deeply philosophical. In his lectures he urged his audiences to consider the mechanics of his experiments: "you know very well that ice floats upon water ... Why does the ice float? Think of that, and philosophise". His subjects consisted of Chemistry and Electricity, and included: 1841 The Rudiments of Chemistry, 1843 First Principles of Electricity, 1848 The Chemical History of a Candle, 1851 Attractive Forces, 1853 Voltaic Electricity, 1854 The Chemistry of Combustion, 1855 The Distinctive Properties of the Common Metals, 1857 Static Electricity, 1858 The Metallic Properties, 1859 The Various Forces of Matter and their Relations to Each Other.


Commemorations

A statue of Faraday stands in
Savoy Place Savoy Place is a large red brick building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, a ...
, London, outside the
Institution of Engineering and Technology The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution. The IET was formed in 2006 from two separate institutions: the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), dating back to 1871, and the ...
. The Michael Faraday Memorial, designed by
brutalist Brutalist architecture, also called New Brutalism, is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of ...
architect
Rodney Gordon Rodney H Gordon (2 February 1933 – 30 May 2008) was an English architect. He was the primary architect of the Tricorn Centre, Portsmouth, and Trinity Square, Gateshead. Architecturally, his works were primarily in concrete; he was said to be a ...
and completed in 1961, is at the Elephant & Castle gyratory system, near Faraday's birthplace at
Newington Butts Newington Butts is a former hamlet, now an area of the London Borough of Southwark, that gives its name to a segment of the A3 road running south-west from the Elephant and Castle junction. The road continues as Kennington Park Road leading to Ke ...
, London. Faraday School is located on
Trinity Buoy Wharf Trinity Buoy Wharf is the site of a lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disp ...
where his workshop still stands above the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse. Faraday Gardens is a small park in Walworth, London, not far from his birthplace at Newington Butts. It lies within the local council ward of Faraday in the
London Borough of Southwark The London Borough of Southwark ( ) in south London South London is the southern part of London, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its w ...
. Michael Faraday Primary school is situated on the Aylesbury Estate in Walworth. A building at London South Bank University, which houses the institute's electrical engineering departments is named the Faraday Wing, due to its proximity to Faraday's birthplace in
Newington Butts Newington Butts is a former hamlet, now an area of the London Borough of Southwark, that gives its name to a segment of the A3 road running south-west from the Elephant and Castle junction. The road continues as Kennington Park Road leading to Ke ...
. A hall at Loughborough University was named after Faraday in 1960. Near the entrance to its dining hall is a bronze casting, which depicts the symbol of an electrical transformer, and inside there hangs a portrait, both in Faraday's honour. An eight-story building at the University of Edinburgh's science & engineering campus is named for Faraday, as is a recently built hall of accommodation at Brunel University, the main engineering building at Swansea University, and the instructional and experimental physics building at Northern Illinois University. The former UK Faraday Station in Antarctica was named after him. Streets named for Faraday can be found in many British cities (e.g., London, Fife, Swindon, Basingstoke, Nottingham, Whitby, Kirkby, Crawley, Newbury, Berkshire, Newbury,
Swansea Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal City status in the United Kingdom, city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, second-largest city of Wales. It forms a Principal areas of Wales, principal area, officially known as the City ...

Swansea
, Aylesbury and Stevenage) as well as in France (Paris), Germany (Berlin-Dahlem (Berlin), Dahlem, Hermsdorf, Thuringia, Hermsdorf), Canada (Quebec City, Quebec; Deep River, Ontario, Deep River, Ontario; Ottawa, Ontario), the United States (Reston, Virginia, Reston, Virginia), and New Zealand (Hawke's Bay Region, Hawke's Bay). A Royal Society of Arts blue plaque, unveiled in 1876, commemorates Faraday at 48 Blandford Street in London's Marylebone district. From 1991 until 2001, Faraday's picture featured on the reverse of Series E £20 Banknotes of the pound sterling, banknotes issued by the Bank of England note issues, Bank of England. He was portrayed conducting a lecture at the Royal Institution with the magneto-electric spark apparatus. In 2002, Faraday was ranked number 22 in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote. The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion derives its name from the scientist, who saw his faith as integral to his scientific research. The logo of the institute is also based on Faraday's discoveries. It was created in 2006 by a $2,000,000 Grant (money), grant from the John Templeton Foundation to carry out academic research, to foster understanding of the interaction between science and religion, and to engage public understanding in both these subject areas. The Faraday Institution, an independent energy storage research institute established in 2017, also derives its name from Michael Faraday. The organisation serves as the UK's primary research programme to advance battery science and technology, education, public engagement and market research. Faraday's life and contributions to electromagnetics was the principal topic of the tenth episode, titled "The Electric Boy", of the 2014 American science documentary series, ''Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey'', which was broadcast on Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox and the National Geographic Channel. Aldous Huxley, the literary giant who was also the grandson of T. H. Huxley, the grandnephew of Matthew Arnold, the brother of Julian Huxley, and the half-brother of Andrew Huxley, was well-versed in science. He wrote about Faraday in an essay entitled, ''A Night in Pietramala'': “He is always the natural philosopher. To discover truth is his sole aim and interest…even if I could be Shakespeare, I think I should still choose to be Faraday.” Calling Faraday her "hero", in a speech to the Royal Society, Margaret Thatcher declared: “The value of his work must be higher than the capitalisation of all the shares on the Stock Exchange!”. She borrowed his bust from the Royal Institution and had it placed in the hall of 10 Downing Street.


Awards named in Faraday's honour

In honor and remembrance of his great scientific contributions, several institutions have created prizes and awards in his name. This include: * The Institution of Engineering and Technology, IET Faraday Medal * The Royal Society of London Michael Faraday Prize * The Institute of Physics Michael Faraday Medal and Prize * The Royal Society of Chemistry Faraday Lectureship Prize


Gallery

File:M Faraday Lab H Moore.jpg, Michael Faraday in his laboratory, c. 1850s. File:Royal Institution - Michael Faraday's study.jpg , Michael Faraday's study at the Royal Institution. File:Michael Faradays Flat at Royal Institution.jpg , Michael Faraday's flat at the Royal Institution. File:Harriett Moore small.jpg, Artist Harriet Jane Moore who documented Faraday's life in watercolours.


Bibliography

Faraday's books, with the exception of ''Chemical Manipulation'', were collections of scientific papers or transcriptions of lectures.#Hamilton, Hamilton, p. 220 Since his death, Faraday's diary has been published, as have several large volumes of his letters and Faraday's journal from his travels with Davy in 1813–1815. *
2nd ed. 18303rd ed. 1842
* ; vol. iii. Richard Taylor and William Francis, 1855 * * * * – published in eight volumes; see also th
2009 publication
of Faraday's diary * * – volume 2, 1993; volume 3, 1996; volume 4, 1999 *
Course of six lectures on the various forces of matter, and their relations to each other
London; Glasgow: R. Griffin, 1860. * s:The Liquefaction of Gases, The Liquefaction of Gases, Edinburgh: W.F. Clay, 1896.
The letters of Faraday and Schoenbein 1836–1862. With notes, comments and references to contemporary letters
London: Williams & Norgate 1899.
Digital edition
by the University and State Library Düsseldorf)


See also

* Air conditioning * Faraday (unit), Faraday (Unit of electrical charge) * Forensic engineering * Nikola Tesla * Snowball, Snowball formation * Tetrachloroethylene * Timeline of hydrogen technologies * Timeline of low-temperature technology * Zeeman effect


References


Sources

* * * *


Further reading


Biographies

* * * * The British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association (1931). ''Faraday''. Edinburgh: R. & R. Clark, Ltd. * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Biographies


Biography at The Royal Institution of Great Britain

Faraday as a Discoverer by John Tyndall, Project Gutenberg
(downloads)


The Life and Discoveries of Michael Faraday
by J. A. Crowther, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920


Others

* * *
Complete Correspondence of Michael Faraday
Searchable full texts of all letters to and from Faraday, based on the standard edition by Frank James
Video Podcast
with Sir John Cadogan talking about Benzene since Faraday
The letters of Faraday and Schoenbein 1836–1862. With notes, comments and references to contemporary letters (1899)
full downloa
PDF

Faraday School, located on Trinity Buoy Wharf
at the New Model School Company Limited's website * , Chemical Heritage Foundation {{DEFAULTSORT:Faraday, Michael Michael Faraday, 1791 births 1867 deaths 18th-century English people 19th-century English scientists 19th-century British physicists 19th-century British chemists Experimental physicists Optical physicists English chemists English inventors English physicists Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows of the Royal Society Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences Honorary members of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences People from Elephant and Castle People associated with electricity Burials at Highgate Cemetery English Protestants Members of the French Academy of Sciences Members of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Recipients of the Copley Medal Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Royal Medal winners Glasites Writers about religion and science Magneticians