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In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
, meronymy (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
μέρος, ''méros'', "part", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is a
semantic relation Contemporary ontologies share many structural similarities, regardless of the language in which they are expressed. Most ontologies describe individuals (instances), classes (concepts), attributes, and relations. Overview Common components of ...
between a meronym denoting a part and a holonym denoting a whole. In simpler terms, a meronym is in a ''part-of'' relationship with its holonym. For example, ''finger'' is a meronym of ''hand'' which is its holonym. Similarly, ''engine'' is a meronym of ''car'' which is its holonym. Holonymy (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
ὅλος, ''hólos'', "whole", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is the converse of meronymy. A closely related concept is that of
mereology In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, a ...
, which specifically deals with part–whole relations and is used in
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
. It is formally expressed in terms of
first-order logic First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. First-order logic uses Quantificat ...
. A meronymy can also be considered a
partial order upright=1.15, Fig.1 The set of all subsets of a three-element set \, ordered by set inclusion">inclusion Inclusion or Include may refer to: Sociology * Social inclusion, affirmative action to change the circumstances and habits that leads to s ...
. A meronym refers to a ''part''. A
hyponym In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
refers to a ''type''. For example, a meronym of ''tree'' is ''bark'' or ''leaf'' (a part of tree), but a hyponym of ''tree'' is ''pine tree'' or ''oak tree'' (a type of tree).


See also

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Has-a In database designDatabase design is the organization of data according to a database model. The designer determines what data must be stored and how the data elements interrelate. With this information, they can begin to fit the data to the databa ...
*
Hyponymy and hypernymy In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "under", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is a semantics, semantic relation between a hyponym denoting a subtype and a hypernym or hyperonym denoting a supertype. In oth ...
*
Is-a In knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence ...
*
Synecdoche A synecdoche ( , from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...


References

Semantic relations {{semantics-stub sv:Meronymi