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Melbourne ( ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and most-populous city of the
Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aust ...
of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, and the second-most populous city in both
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Oceania
. Its name generally refers to a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...

metropolitan area
known as Greater Melbourne, comprising an
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number o ...
of 31 local municipalities, although the name is also used specifically for the local municipality of
City of Melbourne The City of Melbourne is a Local government in Australia, local government area in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, located in the Melbourne city centre, central city area of Melbourne. In 2018 the city has an area of and had a p ...

City of Melbourne
based around its central business area. The city occupies much of the northern and eastern coastlines of
Port Phillip Bay Port Phillip ( Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign ...

Port Phillip Bay
and spreads into the
Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is ...

Mornington Peninsula
and the
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclope ...

hinterland
s towards the
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a Peren ...

Yarra Valley
, the
Dandenong Dandenong is a suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as ...

Dandenong
and
Macedon RangesThe Macedon Ranges is a region in Central Victoria, known for its expansive native forests, vibrant arts scene, thriving food and wine industries (including weekly farmers' markets) and natural attractions such as Hanging Rock and Mount Macedon. I ...
. It has a population over 5 million (19% of the population of Australia, as per 2020), mostly residing to the east side of the city centre, and its inhabitants are commonly referred to as "Melburnians". Home to
Aboriginal peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the b ...
for over 40,000 years, the Melbourne area served as a popular meeting place for local
Kulin nation The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before History of Australia (1788–1850), British colonisation. They include the Aborig ...
clans, ''Naarm'' being the traditional
Boon wurrung Boon may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Boon (game), a trick-taking card game * ''Boon'' (novel), a 1915 satirical work by H. G. Wells * ''Boon'' (TV series), a British television series starring Michael Elphick * The Ultimate Boon ...
name for Port Phillip Bay. A short-lived
penal settlement A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to ...
was built at Port Phillip, then part of the
British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, in 1803, but it was not until 1835, with the arrival of free settlers from
Van Diemen’s Land Van Diemen's Land was the name of the British crown colony and a name for the island of Tasmania. The name of the colony was changed to Tasmania in 1856. History Exploration The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first known European to l ...
(modern-day
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
), that Melbourne was founded. It was incorporated as a
Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...

Crown
settlement in 1837, and named after the then British Prime Minister,
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime mini ...

William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
. In 1851, four years after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. During the 1850s
Victorian gold rush The Victorian gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious ...
, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises. After the
federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of fo ...
in 1901, it served as the interim seat of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
of the new nation until
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social de ...
in the
Asia-Pacific The Asia-Pacific is the part of the world In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been conceptualized differently in dif ...

Asia-Pacific
region and ranks 23rd globally in the 2021
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World ...
. Melbourne is home to many of Australia's best-known
landmark A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:7 ...

landmark
s, such as the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
, the
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and list of most visited art museums in the world, most visited art ...
and the
World Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
-listed
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and ...

Royal Exhibition Building
. Noted for its cultural heritage, the city gave rise to
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an Australian rules football playing field, oval field, o ...
,
Australian impressionism , ''Golden Summer, Eaglemont'', 1889 Image:Tom Roberts - Shearing the rams - Google Art Project.jpg, 300px, Tom Roberts, ''Shearing the Rams'', 1890 The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. It has latterly bee ...
and
Australian cinema The cinema of Australia had its beginnings with the 1906 production of '' The Story of the Kelly Gang'', the earliest feature film A feature film, or feature-length film, is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time ...

Australian cinema
, and has more recently been recognised as a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
City of Literature UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of the wider Creative Cities Network. The ''Network'' was launched in 2004, and now has member cities in seven creative fields. The other creative fields are: Crafts and Folk Art, Design A design i ...
and a global centre for
street art , Lower East Side, New York City (1982) Street art is visual art created in public locations for public visibility. It has been associated with the terms "independent art", "post-graffiti", "neo-graffiti" and guerrilla art. Street art has evolv ...
,
live music A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes then called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or musical band, band. Concerts are held in ...
and theatre. It hosts major annual international events, such as the
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contine ...
and the
Australian Open The Australian Open is a tennis Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (Types of tennis match#Singles, singles) or between two teams of two players each (Types of tennis match#Doubles, double ...
, and also hosted the
1956 Summer Olympics The 1956 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad) were an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhoo ...
and the
2006 Commonwealth Games The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, was an international International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: M ...
. Melbourne consistently ranked as the world's most liveable city for much of the 2010s.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population ...

Melbourne Airport
, also known as the Tullamarine Airport, is the second-busiest airport in Australia, and the
Port of Melbourne The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia. It is located in Melbourne, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria, and covers an area at the mouth of the Yarra River, downstream of Bolte B ...
is the nation's busiest seaport. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is
Flinders Street station Flinders Street railway station is located on the corner of Flinders and Swanston streets in the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and of ...
and its main
regional rail Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are public transport, passenger rail transport, rail services that operate between towns and cities. These trains operate with more stops over shorter distances than inter-city rail ...
and road coach terminus is
Southern Cross station Southern Cross railway station (until 13 December 2005 known as Spencer Street station) is a major railway station in Docklands, Victoria, Docklands, Melbourne. It is on Spencer Street, Melbourne, Spencer Street, between Collins Street, Melbourn ...
. It also has Australia's most extensive freeway network and the largest urban tram network in the world.


History


Early history and foundation

Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
have lived in the Melbourne area for at least 40,000 years. When European settlers arrived in the 19th century, at least 20,000
Kulin people The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before British colonisation. They include the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander p ...
from three distinct language groups — the
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Is ...
, Bunurong and
Wathaurong The Wathaurong nation, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people living in the area near Melbourne, Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula in the state of Victoria, Australia, Victoria. They are p ...
— resided in the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the
Kulin nation The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before History of Australia (1788–1850), British colonisation. They include the Aborig ...
alliance and a vital source of food and water.Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, ''People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days'', Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 In June 2021, the boundaries between the land of two of the
traditional owner Native title is the designation given to the common law doctrine of Aboriginal title Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty S ...
groups, the Wurundjeri and Bunurong, were agreed after being drawn up by the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Council. The borderline runs across the city from west to east, with the
CBD CBD commonly refers to: * Cannabidiol, a cannabinoid found in cannabis * Central business district, the commercial center of a city CBD may also refer to: Biology and chemistry * Chemical bath deposition, a technique for depositing thin films onto ...
,
Richmond Richmond may refer to: People * Richmond (surname) * Earl of Richmond * Duke of Richmond * Richmond C. Beatty (1905–1961), American academic, biographer and critic * Richmond Avenal, character in British sitcom List of The IT Crowd characters#R ...
and Hawthorn included in Wurundjeri land, and Albert Park, St Kilda and
CaulfieldCaulfield may refer to: Places *Caulfield, Victoria, suburb in Melbourne, Australia *Electoral district of Caulfield, a state electoral district in Victoria, Australia *Caulfield, Missouri, a community in Missouri *Castlecaulfield, a village in Co ...
on Bunurong land. The first British settlement in Victoria, then part of the
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, was established by Colonel
David CollinsDavid Collins may refer to: Sports * David Collins (Hampshire cricketer), 18th-century cricketer associated with Hampshire * David Collins (New Zealand cricketer) (1887–1967), played for Wellington and Cambridge University * David Collins (Scottis ...
in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Gulf of Naples, Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circu ...
. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainl ...
(present-day
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
) and founded the city of
Hobart Hobart () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

Hobart
. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. In May and June 1835,
John Batman John Batman (21 January 18016 May 1839) was an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer, best known for his role in the founding Founding may refer to: * The formation or of a corporation, government, or other organization * The laying of ...
, a leading member of the
Port Phillip Association The Port Phillip Association (originally the Geelong and Dutigalla Association) was formally formed in June 1835 to settle land in what would become Melbourne, which the association believed had been acquired by John Batman John Batman (21 Jan ...
in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, and later claimed to have negotiated a purchase of with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages The Kulin languages are a group of closely related languages of the Kulin people, part of the ''Kulinic'' branch of Pama–Nyungan. Languages *Woiwurrung language, W ...

Yarra River
, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current . Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement, initially known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by
Richard Bourke General (United Kingdom), General Sir Richard Bourke, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, KCB (4 May 1777 – 12 August 1855), was an Irish-born British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837. As a lifelo ...

Richard Bourke
, the
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
(who at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia), with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the
Port Phillip District The Port Phillip District was a historical administrative division of the Colony of New South Wales, which existed from September 1836 until 1 July 1851, when it was separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria. The District' ...
of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the
Hoddle Grid Hoddle Grid is the contemporary name given to the approximately grid of streets that form the Melbourne central business district, Australia. Bounded by Flinders Street, Melbourne, Flinders Street, Spring Street, Melbourne, Spring Street, La Tr ...
, in 1837. Known briefly as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne on 10 April 1837 by Governor
Richard Bourke General (United Kingdom), General Sir Richard Bourke, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, KCB (4 May 1777 – 12 August 1855), was an Irish-born British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837. As a lifelo ...

Richard Bourke
after the
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, auton ...
,
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime mini ...

William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
, whose
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
was
Melbourne Hall Melbourne Hall is a Georgian architecture, Georgian country house in Melbourne, Derbyshire, Melbourne, Derbyshire, England. Once the seat of the Victorian Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, the hall is the origin of the name of the ...

Melbourne Hall
in the
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
,
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nation ...

Derbyshire
. That year, the settlement's
general post office The General Post Office (GPO) was the state postal system and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of ...
officially opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne. The British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however, their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured
squatters Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not Land ownership and tenure, own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. The United Nations estim ...
who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come.
Letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.


Victorian gold rush

The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a gold rush, and Melbourne, the colony's major port, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had nearly doubled from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Exponential growth ensued, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
as Australia's most populous city. An influx of intercolonial and international migrants, particularly from Europe and China, saw the establishment of slums, including
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave File:India Square JC jeh.JPG, India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey#Demographics, Jersey City, New Jersey, one of 24 Indian American, Indian ethnic enclaves in the New York City Metropolitan Area. In ...
and a temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the Yarra. In the aftermath of the 1854
Eureka Rebellion The Eureka Rebellion occurred in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands (Victoria), Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. In 2018, Ballarat had a population of 1 ...
, mass public support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries. At least twenty nationalities took part in the rebellion, giving some indication of immigration flows at the time. With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began. The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament House, the Treasury Building, the Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria Barracks, Melbourne, Victoria Barracks, the State Library of Victoria, State Library, University of Melbourne, Melbourne GPO, General Post Office, Immigration Museum, Melbourne, Customs House, the Melbourne Town Hall, St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne, St Patrick's cathedral, though many remained uncompleted for decades, with some still not finished . The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established in the 1850s and 1860s. These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Melbourne Mint, Royal Mint, and (in 1861) Australia's first Australian Securities Exchange, stock exchange. In 1855, the Melbourne Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the MCG. Members of the Melbourne Football Club codified Australian football in 1859, and in 1861, the first Melbourne Cup race was held. Melbourne acquired its first public monument, the Burke and Wills expedition, Burke and Wills statue, in 1864. With the gold rush largely over by 1860, Melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria (especially wool) and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late 1850s. Construction started on further major public buildings in the 1860s and 1870s, such as the Supreme Court of Victoria, Supreme Court, Government House, Melbourne, Government House, and the Queen Victoria Market. The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. The Aboriginal population continued to decline, with an estimated 80% total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases (particularly smallpox), frontier violence and dispossession of their lands.


Land boom and bust

The 1880s saw extraordinary growth: consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in land prices led to an enormous amount of construction. During this "land boom", Melbourne reputedly became the richest city in the world, and the second-largest (after London) in the British Empire. The decade began with the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, held in the large purpose-built Royal Exhibition Building, Exhibition Building. A telephone exchange was established that year, and the foundations of St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, St Paul's were laid. In 1881, electric light was installed in the Eastern Market, Melbourne, Eastern Market, and a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was in operation by 1882. The Melbourne cable tramway system opened in 1885 and became one of the world's most extensive systems by 1890. In 1885, visiting English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and has come to refer to the opulence and energy of the 1880s, during which time large commercial buildings, grand hotels, banks, coffee palaces, terrace house, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings. This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network. Melbourne's land-boom peaked in 1888, the year it hosted the Centennial Exhibition. A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early 1890s with a severe economic depression, sending the local finance- and property-industries into a period of chaos. Sixteen small "land banks" and building societies collapsed, and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Economic history of Australia, Australian economic depression of the 1890s and in the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late 1890s.


''De facto'' capital of Australia

At the time of Australia's Federation of Australia, federation on 1 January 1901 Melbourne became the seat of government of the federated Commonwealth of Australia. The first federal parliament convened on 9 May 1901 in the
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and ...

Royal Exhibition Building
, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House, where it sat until it moved to
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
in 1927. The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House, Melbourne, Government House in Melbourne until 1930, and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.


Post-war period

In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean. While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air Coffeehouse, cafe cultures, the city centre was seen by many as stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting ''Collins St., 5 pm'' (1955). Up until the 21st century, Melbourne was considered Australia's "industrial heartland". Height limits in the CBD were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city. New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of Facadism#Melbourne, facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided. To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in the demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers. In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner-city population. The Henry Bolte, Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Highway, Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment. Australia's financial and mining booms during 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP and Rio Tinto (corporation), Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney. Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 and 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In 1992, the newly elected Jeff Kennett, Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism. During this period the
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contine ...
moved to Melbourne from Adelaide Street Circuit, Adelaide. Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre, Crown Melbourne, Crown Casino and the CityLink Toll road, tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.


Contemporary Melbourne

Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Victoria, Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf, Victoria, South Wharf. Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city from 2001 to 2004. From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy. In 2009, Melbourne was less affected by the late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other Australian cities. At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined, and Melbourne's property market remained highly priced, resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases. In 2020, Melbourne was classified as an Alpha city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Out of all major Australian cities, Melbourne has been worst affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and has endured the most days of lockdown restrictions out of any city in the world.


Geography

Melbourne is in the southeastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east, and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip. The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault which transects Mount Martha, Victoria, Mount Martha and Cranbourne, Victoria, Cranbourne. Melbourne extends along the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages The Kulin languages are a group of closely related languages of the Kulin people, part of the ''Kulinic'' branch of Pama–Nyungan. Languages *Woiwurrung language, W ...

Yarra River
towards the
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a Peren ...

Yarra Valley
and the Dandenong Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries—Moonee Ponds Creek (toward Tullamarine Airport), Merri Creek, Darebin Creek and Plenty River—to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn, Victoria, Craigieburn and Whittlesea, Victoria, Whittlesea. The city reaches southeast through Dandenong, Victoria, Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham, Victoria, Pakenham towards West Gippsland, and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley and the city of Frankston, Victoria, Frankston. In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury, Victoria, Sunbury and the foothills of the Shire of Macedon Ranges, Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton, Victoria, Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge south west of the CBD. The Little River, Victoria, Little River, and the township of the same name, marks the border between Melbourne and neighbouring Geelong city. Melbourne's major bayside beaches are in the various suburbs along the shores of Port Phillip Bay, in areas like Port Melbourne, Albert Park, St Kilda, Elwood, Victoria, Elwood, Brighton, Victoria, Brighton, Sandringham, Victoria, Sandringham, Mentone, Victoria, Mentone, Frankston, Victoria, Frankston, Altona, Victoria, Altona, Williamstown, Victoria, Williamstown and Werribee South. The nearest ocean surface wave, surf beaches are south of the Melbourne CBD in the back-beaches of Rye, Victoria, Rye,
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Gulf of Naples, Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circu ...
and Portsea, Victoria, Portsea.


Climate

Melbourne has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification ''Cfb''), bordering on a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification ''Cfa''), with warm to hot summers and mild winters. Melbourne is well known for its southerly buster, changeable weather conditions, mainly due to it being located on the boundary of hot inland areas and the cool southern ocean. This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for varied forms of severe weather from gales to thunderstorms and hail, large temperature drops and heavy rain. Winters, however, are usually very stable, but rather damp and often cloudy. Port Phillip is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay effect", similar to the "lake-effect snow, lake effect" seen in colder climates, where showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern suburbs) for an extended period, while the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry. Overall, Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow of the Otway Ranges, nonetheless drier than average for southern Victoria. Within the city and surrounds, rainfall varies widely, from around at Little River, Victoria, Little River to on the eastern fringe at Gembrook, Victoria, Gembrook. Melbourne receives 48.6 clear days annually. Dewpoint temperatures in the summer range from . Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can include hail, squalls, and significant drops in temperature, but they often pass through very quickly with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This can occur in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day", a phrase that is part of local popular culture. The lowest temperature on record is , on 21 July 1869. The highest temperature recorded in Melbourne city was , on Black Saturday bushfires, 7 February 2009. While snow is occasionally seen at higher elevations in the outskirts of the city, it has not been recorded in the Central Business District since 1986. The average temperature of the sea ranges from in September to in February; at Port Melbourne, the average sea temperature range is the same.


Urban structure

Melbourne's urban area is approximately 2,453 km2, slightly larger than that of London and Mexico City, while its
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...

metropolitan area
is 9,993 km2 (3,858 sq mi)–larger than Jakarta (at 7,063 km2), but smaller than New York City (at 11,875 km2). The
Hoddle Grid Hoddle Grid is the contemporary name given to the approximately grid of streets that form the Melbourne central business district, Australia. Bounded by Flinders Street, Melbourne, Flinders Street, Spring Street, Melbourne, Spring Street, La Tr ...
, a grid of streets measuring approximately , forms the nucleus of Melbourne's central business district (CBD). The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. More recent office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank, Victoria, Southbank and Melbourne Docklands, Docklands have made these areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. A byproduct of the CBD's layout is its network of lanes and Arcade (architecture), arcades, such as Block Arcade, Melbourne, Block Arcade and Royal Arcade, Melbourne, Royal Arcade. Melbourne has become Australia's most densely populated area, with approximately 19,500 residents per square kilometre, and is home to List of tallest buildings in Australia#Cities with the most skyscrapers, more skyscrapers than any other Australian city, the tallest being Australia 108, situated in Southbank. Melbourne's newest planned skyscraper, Southbank by Beulah, Southbank By Beulah (also known as "Green Spine"), has recently been approved for construction and will be the tallest structure in Australia by 2025. The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and ...

Royal Exhibition Building
, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House. Although the area is described as the ''centre'', it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris, Victoria, Glen Iris. Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of Metropolitan area, metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low-density sprawl, whilst its inner-city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as ''the garden state''. There is an abundance of Melbourne parks and gardens, parks and gardens in Melbourne, many close to the Melbourne Central Business District, CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. Melbourne's parks are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major cities. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of City of Stonnington, Stonnington, City of Boroondara, Boroondara and City of Port Phillip, Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean, Victoria, Point Nepean National Park in the southeast, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne. The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area.


Housing

Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some. Public housing is managed and provided by the Victorian Government's Department of Families, Fairness and Housing, and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which both federal and state governments provide funding for housing. Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Subdivision (land), Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages. However, since the release of Melbourne 2030 in 2002, planning policies have encouraged Medium-density housing, medium-density and High density housing, high-density development in existing areas with good access to public transport and other services. As a result of this, Melbourne's middle and outer-ring suburbs have seen significant Brownfield land, brownfields redevelopment.


Architecture

On the back of the 1850s gold rush and 1880s land boom, Melbourne became renowned as one of the world's great Victorian-era cities, a reputation that persists due to its diverse range of Victorian architecture. High concentrations of well-preserved Victorian-era buildings can be found in the inner suburbs, such as Carlton, Victoria, Carlton, East Melbourne, Victoria, East Melbourne and South Melbourne, Victoria, South Melbourne. Outstanding examples of Melbourne's built Victorian heritage include the World Heritage Site, World Heritage-listed
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and ...

Royal Exhibition Building
(1880), the General Post Office, Melbourne, General Post Office (1867), Hotel Windsor (Melbourne), Hotel Windsor (1884) and the Block Arcade, Melbourne, Block Arcade (1891). Comparatively little remains of Melbourne's pre-gold rush architecture; St James Old Cathedral (1839) and St Francis' Church, Melbourne, St Francis' Church (1845) are among the few examples left in the CBD. Many of the CBD's Victorian boom-time landmarks were also demolished in the decades after World War II, including the Federal Coffee Palace (1888) and the APA Building, Melbourne, APA Building (1889), one of the tallest early skyscrapers upon completion. List of heritage-listed buildings in Melbourne, Heritage listings and Heritage Overlay, heritage overlays have since been introduced in an effort to prevent further losses of the city's historic fabric. In line with the city's expansion during the early 20th century, suburbs such as Hawthorn and Camberwell, Victoria, Camberwell are defined largely by Federation architecture, Federation and Edwardian architecture, Edwardian architectural styles. The City Baths, Melbourne, City Baths, built in 1903, are a prominent example of the latter style in the CBD. The 1926 Nicholas Building is the city's grandest example of the Chicago school (architecture), Chicago School style, while the influence of Art Deco is apparent in the Manchester Unity Building, completed in 1932. The city also features the Shrine of Remembrance, which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of large McMansion-style houses (particularly in areas of urban sprawl), apartment buildings, condominiums, and townhouses which generally characterise the medium-density inner-city neighbourhoods. Freestanding dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate, Tudor revival and Georgian architecture, Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in inner-city neighbourhoods such as Carlton, Fitzroy and further into suburban enclaves like Toorak, Victoria, Toorak.


Culture

Often referred to as Australia's cultural capital, Melbourne is recognised globally as a centre of sport, music, theatre, comedy, art, literature, film and television. For much of the 2010s, it held the top position in ''The Economist Intelligence Units list of the World's most liveable cities#World's Most Liveable Cities, world's most liveable cities, partly due to its cultural attributes. The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and festivals of all types, including the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Comedy Festival, Melbourne Fringe Festival and Moomba, Australia's largest free community festival. The State Library of Victoria, founded in 1854, is one of the world's oldest free public library, public libraries and, as of 2018, the fourth most-visited library globally. Between the gold rush and the crash of 1890, Melbourne was Australia's literary capital, famously referred to by Henry Kendall (poet), Henry Kendall as "that wild bleak Bohemia south of the Murray River, Murray". At this time, Melbourne-based writers and poets Marcus Clarke, Adam Lindsay Gordon and Rolf Boldrewood produced classic visions of colonial life. Fergus Hume's ''The Mystery of a Hansom Cab'' (1886), the fastest-selling crime novel of the era, is set in Melbourne, as is Australia's best-selling book of poetry, C. J. Dennis' ''The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke'' (1915). Contemporary Melbourne authors who have written award-winning books set in the city include Peter Carey (novelist), Peter Carey, Helen Garner and Christos Tsiolkas. Melbourne has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well as the nation's largest publishing sector. The city is also home to the Melbourne Writers Festival and hosts the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards. In 2008, it became the second city to be named a UNESCO
City of Literature UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of the wider Creative Cities Network. The ''Network'' was launched in 2004, and now has member cities in seven creative fields. The other creative fields are: Crafts and Folk Art, Design A design i ...
. Ray Lawler's play ''Summer of the Seventeenth Doll'' is set in Carlton, Victoria, Carlton and debuted in 1955, the same year that Dame Edna Everage, Edna Everage, Barry Humphries' Moonee Ponds housewife character, first appeared on stage, both sparking international interest in Australian theatre. Melbourne's East End Theatre District is known for its Victorian era theatres, such as the Athenaeum, Melbourne, Athenaeum, Her Majesty's Theatre, Melbourne, Her Majesty's and the Princess Theatre, Melbourne, Princess, as well as the Forum Theatre, Forum and the Regent Theatre, Melbourne, Regent. Other heritage-listed theatres include the art deco landmarks The Capitol, Melbourne, The Capitol and St Kilda's Palais Theatre, Australia's largest seated theatre with a capacity of 3,000 people. The Melbourne Arts Precinct, Arts Precinct in Southbank is home to Arts Centre Melbourne (which includes the State Theatre (Melbourne), State Theatre and Hamer Hall, Melbourne, Hamer Hall), as well as the Melbourne Recital Centre and Southbank Theatre, home of the Melbourne Theatre Company, Australia's oldest professional theatre company. The Australian Ballet, Opera Australia and Melbourne Symphony Orchestra are also based in the precinct. Melbourne has been called "the live music capital of the world";Donoughue, Paul (12 April 2018)
"Melbourne is the live music capital of the world, study says"
ABC News. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
one study found it has more music venues per capita than any other world city sampled, with 17.5 million patron visits to 553 venues in 2016. The Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Kings Domain hosted the largest crowd ever for a music concert in Australia when an estimated 200,000 attendees saw Melbourne band The Seekers in 1967. Airing between 1974 and 1987, Melbourne's ''Countdown (music show), Countdown'' helped launch the careers of Crowded House, Men at Work and Kylie Minogue, among other local acts. Several distinct post-punk scenes flourished in Melbourne during the late 1970s, including the Fitzroy, Victoria, Fitzroy-based Little Band scene and the St Kilda, Victoria#Music, St Kilda scene centered at the Crystal Ballroom (Melbourne), Crystal Ballroom, which gave rise to Dead Can Dance and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, respectively. More recent independent acts from Melbourne to achieve global recognition include The Avalanches, Gotye and King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard. Melbourne is also regarded as a centre of Electronic dance music, EDM, and lends its name to the Electro house#Melbourne bounce, Melbourne Bounce genre and the Melbourne Shuffle dance style, both of which emerged from the city's underground rave scene. Established in 1861, the
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and list of most visited art museums in the world, most visited art ...
is Australia's oldest and largest art museum. Several art movements originated in Melbourne, most famously the Heidelberg School of impressionists, named after Heidelberg, Victoria, a suburb where they camped to paint ''en plein air'' in the 1880s. The Australian Tonalism, Australian tonalists followed, some of whom founded Montsalvat, Australia's oldest surviving art colony. During World War II, the Angry Penguins, a group of avant-garde artists, convened at a Bulleen, Victoria, Bulleen dairy farm, now the Heide Museum of Modern Art. The city is also home to the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. In the 2000s, street art in Melbourne, Melbourne street art became globally renowned and a major tourist drawcard, with "laneway galleries" such as Hosier Lane attracting more Instagram#Hashtags, Instagram hashtags than some of the city's traditional attractions, such as the Melbourne Zoo. A quarter century after bushranger Ned Kelly's execution at Old Melbourne Gaol, the Melbourne-produced ''The Story of the Kelly Gang'' (1906), the world's first feature film, feature-length narrative film, premiered at the above-named Athenaeum, spurring Australia's first cinematic boom. Melbourne remained a world leader in filmmaking until the mid-1910s, when several factors, including a bushranger ban, ban on bushranger films, contributed to a decades-long decline of the industry. A notable film shot and set in Melbourne during this lull was ''On the Beach (1959 film), On the Beach'' (1959). Melbourne filmmakers led the Australian New Wave, Australian Film Revival with Ocker#Ocker films, ocker comedies such as ''Stork (film), Stork'' (1971) and ''Alvin Purple'' (1973). Other list of films shot in Melbourne, films shot and set in Melbourne include ''Mad Max (film), Mad Max'' (1979), ''Romper Stomper'' (1992), ''Chopper (film), Chopper'' (2000) and ''Animal Kingdom (film), Animal Kingdom'' (2010). The Melbourne International Film Festival began in 1952 and is one of the world's oldest film festivals. The AACTA Awards, Australia's top screen awards, were inaugurated by the festival in 1958. Melbourne is also home to Docklands Studios Melbourne (the city's largest film and television studio complex), the Australian Centre for the Moving Image and the headquarters of Village Roadshow Pictures, Australia's largest film production company.


Sports

Melbourne has long been regarded as Australia's sporting capital due to the role it has played in the development of Australian sport, the range and quality of its sporting events and venues, and its high rates of spectatorship and participation. The city is also home to Sport in Victoria#Melbourne 2, 27 professional sports teams competing at the national level, the most of any Australian city. Melbourne's sporting reputation was recognised in 2016 when, after being ranked as the world's top sports city three times biennially, the Ultimate Sports City Awards in Switzerland named it 'Sports City of the Decade'. The city has hosted a number of major international sporting events, most notably the 1956 Summer Olympic Games, the first Olympic Games held outside Europe and the United States. Melbourne also hosted the
2006 Commonwealth Games The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, was an international International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: M ...
, and is home to several major annual international events, including the
Australian Open The Australian Open is a tennis Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (Types of tennis match#Singles, singles) or between two teams of two players each (Types of tennis match#Doubles, double ...
, the first of the four Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis tournaments. First held in 1861 and declared a public holiday for all Melburnians in 1873, the Melbourne Cup is the world's richest handicap horse race, and is known as "the race that stops a nation". The Formula One
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contine ...
has been held at the Albert Park Circuit since 1996. Cricket was one of the first sports to become organised in Melbourne with the Melbourne Cricket Club forming within three years of settlement. The club manages one of the world's largest stadiums, the 100,000 capacity
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
(MCG). Established in 1853, the MCG is notable for hosting the first Test cricket, Test match and the first One Day International, played between Australia cricket team, Australia and England cricket team, England in 1877 and 1971, respectively. It is also the home of the National Sports Museum, and serves as the home ground of the Victoria cricket team. At Twenty20 level, the Melbourne Stars and Melbourne Renegades compete in the Big Bash League.
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an Australian rules football playing field, oval field, o ...
, Australia's most popular spectator sport, traces origins of Australian rules football, its origins to matches played in Yarra Park, parklands next to the MCG in 1858. Its first laws were codified the following year by the Melbourne Football Club, also a founding member, in 1896, of the Australian Football League (AFL), the sport's elite professional competition. Headquartered at Docklands Stadium, the AFL fields a further eight Melbourne-based clubs: Carlton Football Club, Carlton, Collingwood Football Club, Collingwood, Essendon Football Club, Essendon, Hawthorn Football Club, Hawthorn, North Melbourne Football Club, North Melbourne, Richmond Football Club, Richmond, St Kilda Football Club, St Kilda, and the Western Bulldogs. The city hosts up to five AFL matches per round during the home and away season, attracting an average of 40,000 spectators per game. The AFL Grand Final, traditionally held at the MCG, is the List of sports attendance figures, highest attended club championship event in the world. In soccer, Melbourne is represented in the A-League by Melbourne Victory FC, Melbourne Victory, Melbourne City FC and Western United FC. The rugby league team Melbourne Storm plays in the National Rugby League, and in rugby union, the Melbourne Rebels and Melbourne Rising compete in the Super Rugby and National Rugby Championship competitions, respectively. North American sports have also gained popularity in Melbourne: basketball sides South East Melbourne Phoenix and Melbourne United play in the National Basketball League (Australia), NBL; Melbourne Ice and Melbourne Mustangs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League; and Melbourne Aces plays in the Australian Baseball League. Rowing (sport), Rowing also forms part of Melbourne's sporting identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of which many Australian Olympians trained.


Economy

Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne houses the headquarters of many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest seven in the country (based on market capitalisation) Australia & New Zealand Banking Group, ANZ, BHP, the National Australia Bank, CSL Limited, CSL and Telstra, as well as such representative bodies and think tanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Melbourne's suburbs also have the head offices of Coles Group (owner of Coles Supermarkets) and Wesfarmers companies Bunnings, Target Australia, Target, Kmart Australia, K-Mart and Officeworks. The city is home to Australia's second busiest Port of Melbourne, seaport, after Port Botany in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population ...

Melbourne Airport
provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport. Melbourne is also an important financial centre. In the 2018
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World ...
, Melbourne was ranked as having the 15th most competitive financial centre in the world. Two of the Big Four (banks), big four banks, the ANZ and National Australia Bank, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia's leading centre for Superannuation in Australia, superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of Industry superannuation, industry super-funds including the AU$109 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2008), second only to Sydney (12th) in Australia. Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre. It is the Australian base for a number of significant manufacturers including Boeing Australia, truck-makers Kenworth and Iveco, Cadbury as well as Alstom and Jayco, among many others. It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing. The south-eastern suburb of Scoresby, Victoria, Scoresby is home to Nintendo Australia, Nintendo's Australian headquarters. The city also has a research and development hub for Ford Australia, as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota Australia respectively. CSL Limited, CSL, one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies. Melbourne has an important Information and communication technology, ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of AU$19.8 billion and export revenues of AU615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004. Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of an AU$1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotels & Resorts, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre to link development along the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages The Kulin languages are a group of closely related languages of the Kulin people, part of the ''Kulinic'' branch of Pama–Nyungan. Languages *Woiwurrung language, W ...

Yarra River
with the Southbank, Victoria, Southbank precinct and multibillion-dollar Melbourne Docklands, Docklands redevelopment. The Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost of living index in 2013.


Tourism

Melbourne is the second most visited city in Australia and the seventy-third most visited city in the world. In 2018, 10.8 million domestic overnight tourists and 2.9 million international overnight tourists visited Melbourne. The most visited attractions are Federation Square, Queen Victoria Market, Crown Melbourne, Crown Casino, Southbank, Victoria, Southbank, Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne Aquarium, Docklands, Victoria, Docklands,
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and list of most visited art museums in the world, most visited art ...
, Melbourne Museum, Melbourne Observation Deck, The Arts Centre, Arts Centre Melbourne, and the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
. Luna Park, Melbourne, Luna Park, a theme park modelled on New York's Coney Island and Seattle's Luna Park, Seattle, Luna Park, is also a popular destination for visitors. In its annual survey of readers, the Condé Nast Traveler magazine found that both Melbourne and Auckland were considered the world's friendliest cities in 2014. The magazine highlighted the connection the city inhabitants have to public art and the many parks across the city. Its high liveability rankings make it one of the safest world cities for travellers.


Demographics

In 2018, the population of the Melbourne metropolitan area was 4,963,349. Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the population of the Melbourne statistical division has grown by about 70,000 people a year since 2005. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living. In recent years, Shire of Melton, Melton, City of Wyndham, Wyndham and City of Casey, Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all Local government in Australia, local government areas in Australia. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Melbourne was on track to overtake
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
in population by 2028. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and Western Suburbs (Melbourne), western suburbs, aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030, which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl. As of 2018, the CBD is the most densely populated area in Australia with more than 19,000 residents per square kilometre, and the inner city suburbs of Carlton, Victoria, Carlton, South Yarra, Fitzroy, Victoria, Fitzroy and Collingwood, Victoria, Collingwood make up Victoria's top five.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: 0.5% of the population, or 24,062 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. Melbourne has the Foreign born#Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations, 10th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. In Greater Melbourne at the 2016 census, 63.3% of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries of birth were India (3.6%), Mainland China (3.5%), England (3%), Vietnam (1.8%) and New Zealand (1.8%).


Language

As of the 2016 census, 62% of Melburnians speak only English at home. Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin (4.1%), Greek language, Greek (2.4%), Italian language, Italian (2.3%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (2.3%), and Cantonese (1.7%) were the most common foreign languages spoken at home by residents of Melbourne as of 2016.


Religion

Melbourne has a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held of which is Christianity. This is signified by the city's two large cathedrals—St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne, St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, St Paul's (Anglican). Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city. In recent years, Greater Melbourne's irreligious community has grown to be one of the largest in Australia. According to the 2016 Census, the largest responses on religious belief in Melbourne were Irreligion, no religion (31.9%), Catholic Church in Australia, Catholic (23.4%), none stated (9.1%), Anglicanism in Australia, Anglican (7.6%), Eastern Orthodox (4.3%), Islam (4.2%), Buddhism (3.8%), Hinduism (2.9%), Uniting Church (2.3%), Presbyterian, Presbyterian and Reformed (1.6%), Baptist (1.3%), Sikhism (1.2%) and Judaism (0.9%). Over 180,000 Muslims live in Melbourne. Muslim religious life in Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues. , Melbourne had the largest population of Polish Jews in Australia. The city was also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city, indeed the highest per capita outside Israel itself. Reflecting this vibrant community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools, along with a Australian Jewish News, local Jewish newspaper.


Education

Some of Australia's most prominent and well-known schools are based in Melbourne. Of the top twenty high schools in Australia according to th
My Choice Schools Ranking
five are in Melbourne. There has also been a rapid increase in the number of International students studying in the city. Furthermore, Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Eight public universities operate in Melbourne: the University of Melbourne, Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology, Deakin University, RMIT University, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), La Trobe University, Australian Catholic University, Australian Catholic University (ACU) and Victoria University of Technology, Victoria University (VU). Melbourne universities have campuses all over Australia and some internationally. Swinburne University and Monash University have campuses in Malaysia, while Monash has a research centre based in Prato, Italy. The University of Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia, was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2016 Times Higher Education, THES international rankings. In 2018 Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne the 32nd best university in the world which is higher than the rankings in 2016 and 2017, Monash University was ranked 80th best. Both are members of the Group of Eight (Australian universities), Group of Eight, a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions offering comprehensive and leading education. As of 2017 RMIT University is ranked 17th in the world in art & design, and 28th in architecture. The Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner-city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn, was as of 2014 ranked 76th–100th in the world for physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available for them. Education in Melbourne is overseen by the Victorian Department of Education and Training (Victoria), Department of Education (DET), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'.


Media

Melbourne is served by thirty digital free-to-air television channels: # ABV (TV station), ABC # ABC HD (Australia), ABC HD (ABC broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # ABC TV Plus, ABC TV Plus/KIDS # ABC ME # ABC News (Australia), ABC News # SBS (Australian TV channel), SBS # SBS HD (SBS broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # SBS Viceland # SBS Viceland HD (SBS Viceland broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # Food Network (Australia), SBS Food # SBS World Movies # National Indigenous Television, NITV # HSV (TV station), Seven # 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD) # 7Two # 7mate # 7mate HD # 7flix # Racing.com # openshop # GTV (Australia), Nine # 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD) # 9Gem # 9Go! # 9Life # 9Rush # ATV (Australia), 10 # 10 HD (10 broadcast in HD) # 10 Bold # 10 Peach # 10 Shake # TVSN # Spree TV # C31 Melbourne (Melbourne's community TV station) Three daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the ''Herald Sun'' (tabloid), ''The Age'' (compact) and ''The Australian'' (national broadsheet). Six free-to-air television stations service Greater Melbourne and Geelong: ABC Television (Australian TV network), ABC Victoria, (ABV (TV station), ABV), Special Broadcasting Service, SBS Victoria (SBS), Seven Network, Seven Melbourne (HSV (TV station), HSV), Nine Network, Nine Melbourne (GTV (Australia), GTV), Network 10, Ten Melbourne (ATV (Australia), ATV), C31 Melbourne (MGV) – community television. Each station (excluding C31) broadcasts a primary channel and several multichannels. C31 is only broadcast from the transmitters at Mount Dandenong and South Yarra. Hybrid digital/print media companies such as Broadsheet and ThreeThousand are based in and primarily serve Melbourne. A long List of radio stations in Australia#Melbourne, list of AM and FM radio stations broadcast to greater Melbourne. These include "public" (i.e., state-owned ABC Radio (Australia), ABC and SBS Radio, SBS) and Community radio#Australia, community stations. Many Commercial broadcasting, commercial stations are networked-owned: Nova Entertainment has Nova 100 and Smooth 91.5, Smooth; Australian Radio Network, ARN controls Gold 104.3 and KIIS 101.1; and Southern Cross Austereo runs both Fox FM (Melbourne), Fox and Triple M Melbourne, Triple M. Stations from towns in regional Victoria may also be heard (e.g. 93.9 Bay FM, Geelong). Youth alternatives include ABC Triple J and youth run 3SYN, SYN. Triple J, and similarly 3PBS, PBS and 3RRR, Triple R, strive to play under represented music. 3JOY, JOY 94.9 caters for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender audiences. For fans of classical music there are 3MBS and ABC Classic FM. Light FM is a contemporary Christian station. AM stations include ABC: 774 ABC Melbourne, 774, Radio National, and ABC NewsRadio, News Radio; also Fairfax Media, Fairfax affiliates 3AW (talk radio, talk) and Magic 1278, Magic (easy listening). For sport fans and enthusiasts there is SEN 1116. Melbourne has many community run stations that serve alternative interests, such as 3CR (Melbourne), 3CR and 3KND (Indigenous). Many suburbs have low powered community run stations serving local audiences. There are also an assortment of online magazines and social media resources that cover the city. For example food and travel websit
The City Lane
which has a Melbourne base.


Governance

The governance of Melbourne is split between the government of Victoria and the Local Government Areas of Victoria#Municipalities of Greater Melbourne, 27 cities and four shires that make up the metropolitan area. There is no ceremonial or political head of Melbourne, but the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne often fulfils such a role as a first among equals. The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the ''Local Government Act'' 1989 such as urban planning and waste management. Most other government services are provided or regulated by the government of Victoria, Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street, Melbourne, Spring Street. These include services associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects.


Infrastructure

In 2012, Mercer Consulting ranked Melbourne's infrastructure 34th in the world, behind Sydney (ranked 8th in the world), and Perth (ranked 25th in the world) .


Health

The Victorian Government's Department of Health (Victoria), Department of Health oversees about 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region and 13 health services organisations. There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre. Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron. Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities. Melbourne also is the home of the Royal Children's Hospital and the Monash Children's Hospital. Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties with Canberra in first place for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).


Transport

Like many Australian cities, Melbourne has a high dependency on the automobile for transport, particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought, with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion and a tendency towards the development of urban sprawl–like all Australian cities, inhabitants would live in the suburbs and commute to the city for work. By the mid 1950s there was just under 200 passenger vehicles per 1000 people, and by 2013 there was 600 passenger vehicles per 1000 people. Today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including buses and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Melbourne, Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), EastLink, Melbourne, Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Melbourne, Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney. Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems.
Flinders Street station Flinders Street railway station is located on the corner of Flinders and Swanston streets in the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and of ...
was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s. From the 1940s, public transport use in Melbourne declined due to a rapid expansion of the road and freeway network, with the largest declines in tram and bus usage. This decline quickened in the early 1990s due to large public transport service cuts. The operations of Melbourne's public transport system was privatised in 1999 through a franchising model, with operational responsibilities for the train, tram and bus networks licensed to private companies. After 1996 there was a rapid increase in public transport patronage due to growth in employment in central Melbourne, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips. A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006. Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%. The Melbourne rail network dates back to the 1850s gold rush era, and today consists of List of Melbourne railway stations, 218 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a mostly-underground subway system around the CBD.
Flinders Street station Flinders Street railway station is located on the corner of Flinders and Swanston streets in the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and of ...
, Australia's busiest transportation hub, rail hub, serves the entire network, and remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus,
Southern Cross station Southern Cross railway station (until 13 December 2005 known as Spencer Street station) is a major railway station in Docklands, Victoria, Docklands, Melbourne. It is on Spencer Street, Melbourne, Spencer Street, between Collins Street, Melbourn ...
, in Docklands. ''The Overland'' to Adelaide departs twice a week, while the New South Wales XPT, XPT to Sydney departs twice daily. In the 2017–2018 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 240.9 million passenger trips, the highest ridership in its history. Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards, are also used for freight. Trams in Melbourne, Melbourne's tram network dates from the 1880s land boom and, as of 2021, consists of of double track, 475 trams, List of Melbourne tram routes, 25 routes, and 1,763 tram stops, making it the largest in the world. In 2017–2018, 206.3 million passenger trips were made by tram. Around 75 per cent of Melbourne's tram network shares road space with other vehicles, while the rest of the network is separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. W-class Melbourne tram, Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle tram, City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage Colonial Tramcar Restaurant, restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening. Melbourne's bus network consists of almost List of Melbourne bus routes, 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the network between rail and tram services. 127.6 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses in 2013–2014, an increase of 10.2 percent on the previous year. Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The
Port of Melbourne The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia. It is located in Melbourne, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria, and covers an area at the mouth of the Yarra River, downstream of Bolte B ...
is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12-month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere. Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the TT-Line Company, Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Devonport, Tasmania, Devonport,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
docking there. Ferries and water taxis run from Berth (moorings), berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay. Melbourne has List of airports in the Melbourne area, four airports.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population ...

Melbourne Airport
, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airline Jetstar and cargo airlines Australian airExpress and Toll Group#Global Express, Toll Priority, and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patients. Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east that also handles a small number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights. The city also has a bicycle sharing system that was established in 2010 and uses a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities.


Utilities

Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region as well as the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North-South Pipeline, North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity, while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam, Yan Yean Reservoir, and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies. Gas is provided by three distribution companies: * AusNet Services, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner western suburbs to southwestern Victoria. * Multinet Gas, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner eastern suburbs to eastern Victoria. (owned by SP AusNet after acquisition, but continuing to trade under the brand name Multinet Gas) * Australian Gas Networks, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner northern suburbs to northern Victoria, as well as the majority of southeastern Victoria. Electricity is provided by five distribution companies: * Citipower, which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some inner suburbs * Powercor, which provides power to the outer western suburbs, as well as all of western
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
(Citipower and Powercor are owned by the same entity) * Jemena, which provides power to the northern and inner western suburbs * Alinta, United Energy, which provides power to the inner eastern and southeastern suburbs, and the
Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is ...

Mornington Peninsula
* AusNet Services, which provides power to the outer eastern suburbs and all of the north and east of Victoria. Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services and at least since 2016 Melbourne offers a free public WiFi which allows for up to 250 MB per device in some areas of the city.


Crime

Melbourne has a moderately low crime rate, ranking 18th for Personal Security in ''The Economists 2021 Safe Cities Index, putting it in the second best category of "high safety" level. Reports of crime in Victoria fell by 7.8 per cent in 2018 to its lowest in three years, with 5,922 cases per 100,000 people. Melbourne City Centre, Melbourne's city centre (CBD) reported the highest incident rate of local government areas in Victoria.


See also

* Melway (the native street directory and general information source in Melbourne) * voy:Melbourne, Melbourne, the travel article at sister project Wikivoyage


Lists

* List of Melbourne suburbs * List of museums in Melbourne * List of people from Melbourne * List of songs about Melbourne * Local government in Victoria


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Official tourist board site of Melbourne
* {{Authority control Melbourne, 1835 establishments in Australia 1835 establishments in Oceania Australian capital cities Cities in Victoria (Australia) Coastal cities in Australia Former national capitals Metropolitan areas of Australia Populated places established in 1835 Port cities in Victoria (Australia) Regions of Victoria (Australia)