Early lifeMatthew Flinders was born in , the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, and his wife Susannah, née Ward. He was educated at Cowley's Charity School, Donington, from 1780 and then at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading '' ''", and in 1789, at the age of fifteen, he joined the . Under the patronage of Captain Thomas Pasley, Flinders was initially assigned to as a servant, but was soon transferred as an able-seaman to , and then in July 1790 was made on .
Midshipman to Captain BlighIn May 1791, on Pasley's recommendation, Flinders joined Captain 's expedition on transporting from to . This was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the . The expedition sailed via the and in February 1792, they arrived at Adventure Bay, Tasmania, Adventure Bay in the south of what is now called Tasmania. The officers and crew spent over a week in the region obtaining water and lumber, and interacting with local Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people. This was Flinders' first direct association with the Australian continent. After the expedition arrived in in April 1792, obtaining the many breadfruit plants to take to Jamaica, they sailed back west. Instead of travelling via Adventure Bay, Bligh navigated to the north of the Australian continent, sailing through the Torres Strait. Here, off Zagai Island, they were involved in a naval skirmish with armed local men in a flotilla of sailing canoes, which resulted in the death of several Islanders and one crewman. The expedition arrived in in February 1793, offloading the breadfruit plants, and then returned to England with Flinders disembarking in London in August 1793 after more than two years at sea.
HMS ''Bellerophon''In September 1793, Flinders re-joined under the command of Captain Pasley. In 1794 Flinders served on this vessel during the battle known as the Glorious First of June, the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. Flinders wrote a detailed journal of this intense battle including how Captain Pasley "lost his leg by an 18-pound shot, which came through the barricading of the quarter-deck." Both Pasley and Flinders survived, with Flinders deciding to pursue a preference for exploratory rather than military naval commissions.
Exploration around New South WalesFlinders' desire for adventure led him to enlist as a midshipman aboard in 1795. This vessel was headed to carrying the recently appointed governor of New South Wales, governor of that British colony, John Hunter (New South Wales), Captain John Hunter. On this voyage Flinders established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, and became friends with the ship's surgeon who was three years his senior and had been born at Aswarby from Donington.
Expeditions in ''Tom Thumb'' and ''Tom Thumb II''HMS ''Reliance'' arrived in Port Jackson in September 1795, and Bass and Flinders soon organised an expedition in a small open boat named ''Tom Thumb'' in which they sailed with a boy called Martin to Botany Bay and up the Georges River. In March 1796, the two explorers again with the boy Martin, set out on another voyage in a similar boat dubbed ''Tom Thumb II''. They sailed south from Port Jackson but were soon forced to beach at Red Point (Port Kembla). At this place they accepted the help of two Aboriginal men who piloted the boat to the entrance of Lake Illawarra. Here they were able to dry their gunpowder and obtain supplies of water from another group of Aboriginal people. During the return to Sydney they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla and also explored some of Port Hacking, Port Hacking (Deeban).
Circumnavigation of Van Diemen's LandIn 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux Group, Furneaux's Islands, and, should a strait be found, pass through it, and return by the south end of ". Flinders and Bass had in the months previously both made separate journeys exploring the region but neither were conclusive toward the existence of a strait. Flinders, with Bass and several crewmen, sailed the ''Norfolk'' along the uncharted northern and western coasts of Van Diemen's Land, rounded Cape Pillar and returned to Furneaux's Islands. By doing so, Flinders had completed the circumnavigation of Van Diemen's Land and confirmed the presence of a strait between it and the mainland. The passage was named Bass Strait after his close friend, and the largest island in the strait would later be named Flinders Island in his honour. During the voyage, Flinders and Bass rowed the ship's dinghy for some miles up the River Derwent (Tasmania), River Derwent where they had their only encounter with Aboriginal Tasmanians.
Expedition to Hervey BayIn 1799 Flinders' request to explore the coast north of Port Jackson was granted and once more the sloop ''Norfolk'' was assigned to him. Bass had by this stage returned to Britain and in his place Flinders recruited his brother Samuel Flinders and a Kuringgai man named Bungaree for the voyage. They departed on 8 July 1799 and arrived in Moreton Bay six days later. He rowed ashore at Woody Point, Queensland, Woody Point () and named a point west of that () as 'Redcliffe' (on account of its red cliffs). That point is now known as Clontarf, Queensland, Clontarf Point, while the name 'Redcliffe' is used by the Redcliffe, Queensland, town of Redcliffe to the north. He landed on Coochiemudlo Island () on 19 July while he was searching for a river in the southern part of Moreton Bay. In the northern part of Moreton Bay, Flinders explored a narrow waterway () which he named the Pumice Stone River (presumably unaware it separated Bribie Island and the mainland); it is now called the Pumicestone Passage. Most of the meetings between the Aboriginal people of Moreton Bay and Flinders were of a friendly nature, but on 15 July at the southern tip of Bribie Island, a spear was thrown which resulted in a local man being wounded by gunfire. Flinders named the place where this occurred Point Skirmish. While anchored in Pumicestone, Flinders ventured several kilometres overland with three crew including Bungaree and climbed the mountain Beerburrum (mountain), Beerburrum. They turned back after meeting the steep cliffs of Mount Tibrogargan on about 26 July. Exiting Moreton Bay, Flinders continued north exploring as far as Hervey Bay (Queensland), Hervey Bay before returning south. They arrived back in Sydney on 20 August 1799.
Command of ''Investigator''In March 1800, Flinders rejoined ''Reliance'' and returned to Britain. During the voyage, the Antipodes Islands were discovered and charted. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his ''Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.''. Banks used his influence with George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty (United Kingdom), Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland. As a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of , a 334-ton sloop, and promoted to Commander (Royal Navy), commander the following month. ''Investigator'' set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall (artist), William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, and John Crosley (astronomer), John Crosley as astronomer.Vallance, T.G., Moore, D.T. & Groves, E.W. 2001. ''Nature's Investigator The Diary of Robert Brown in Australia'', 1801-1805, Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, (p.7) Vallance ''et al.'' comment that compared to the Nicholas Baudin, Baudin expedition this was a 'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects 'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour.
Exploration of the Australian coastline
Surveying the southern coastAboard ''Investigator'', Flinders reached and named Cape Leeuwin on 6 December 1801, and proceeded to make a survey along the southern coast of the Australian mainland. The expedition soon anchored in King George Sound (Western Australia), King George Sound and stayed there for a month exploring the area. The local Aboriginal people initially indicated that Flinders' group should "return from whence they came", but relations improved to the point where one resident participated in musket-drill with the ship's Royal Marines, marines. In nearby Oyster Harbour, Western Australia, Oyster Harbour, Flinders found a copper plate that Captain Christopher Dixson, on , had left the year before. While approaching Port Lincoln, which Flinders named after his home county of Lincolnshire, eight of his crew were lost when the small boat they were attempting to get to land with, capsized. Flinders named nearby Memory Cove in their honour. On 21 March 1802, the expedition reached a large island where many kangaroos were sighted. Flinders and some crew went ashore and found the animals so tame they could walk right up to them. They killed 31 kangaroos with Flinders writing that "in gratitude for so seasonable a supply [of meat], I named this southern land Kangaroo Island." The seals on the island proved less docile with a crew member receiving a severe bite from one. On 8 April 1802, while sailing east, Flinders sighted , a French corvette commanded by the explorer Nicolas Baudin, who was on a similar Baudin expedition of 1800 to 1802, expedition for his government. Both men of science, Flinders and Baudin exchanged details of their discoveries, despite believing that their countries were at war. Flinders named the bay in which they met Encounter Bay. Proceeding along the coast, Flinders explored Port Phillip (the site of the future city of Melbourne), which, unknown to him, had been explored only ten weeks earlier by John Murray (Australian explorer), John Murray aboard . Flinders scaled Arthur's Seat, Victoria, Arthur's Seat, the highest point near the shores of the southernmost parts of the bay, and wrote that the land had "a pleasing and, in many parts, a fertile appearance". After scaling the You Yangs to the northwest of Port Phillip on 1 May, he left a scroll of paper with the ship's name on it and deposited it in a small pile of stones at the top of the peak. With stores running low, Flinders proceeded to Sydney, arriving on 9 May 1802.
Circumnavigation of AustraliaFlinders spent 12 weeks in Sydney resupplying and enlisting further crew for the continuation of the expedition to the northern coast of Australia. Bungaree, an Aboriginal man who had accompanied him on his earlier coastal survey in 1799, joined the expedition as did another local Aboriginal man named Nanbaree. It was arranged that Captain John Murray (Australian explorer), John Murray and his vessel the ''Lady Nelson'' would accompany the ''Investigator'' as a supply ship on this voyage. Flinders set sail again on 22 July 1802, heading north and surveying the coast of what would later be called Queensland. They soon anchored at Sandy Cape where, with Bungaree acting as a mediator, they feasted on porpoise blubber with a group of Batjala people. In early August, Flinders sailed into a bay he named Port Curtis (bay), Port Curtis. Here the local people threw stones at them as they attempted to land. Flinders ordered muskets be fired above their heads to disperse them. The expedition continued north but navigation became increasingly difficult as they entered the Great Barrier Reef. The ''Lady Nelson'' was deemed too unseaworthy to continue, and Captain Murray sailed her back to Sydney with his crew and Nanbaree, who wanted to return home. Flinders exited the reefs near to the Whitsunday Islands and sailed ''Investigator'' north to the Torres Strait. On 29 October, they arrived at Murray Island, Queensland, Murray Island in the east of this strait, where they traded iron for shell necklaces with the Torres Strait Islanders, local people. The expedition entered the Gulf of Carpentaria on 4 November and charted the coast to Arnhem Land. At Blue Mud Bay the crew, while collecting timber, had a skirmish with local Aboriginal men. One of the crew received four spear wounds while two of the Aboriginal men were shot dead. At nearby Caledon Bay, Flinders took a 14-year-old boy named Woga captive in order to coerce the local people to return a stolen axe. Although the axe was not returned, Flinders released the boy who had spent a day tied to a tree. On 17 February 1803, near Cape Wilberforce, the expedition encountered a Makassarese people, Makassan trepanging fleet captained by a man called Pobasso, from whom Flinders obtained information about the region. During this part of the voyage, much of the ''Investigator'' was discovered to be rotten, and Flinders made the decision to complete the circumnavigation of the continent without any further close surveying of the coast. He sailed to Sydney via Timor and the western and southern coasts of Australia. On the way, Flinders jettisoned two wrought-iron anchors which were found by divers in 1973 at Middle Island (Western Australia), Middle Island, Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia. The HMS Investigator Anchors, anchors are on display at the South Australian Maritime Museum and at the National Museum of Australia. Arriving in Sydney on 9 June 1803, ''Investigator'' was judged to be unseaworthy and condemned.
Attempted return to England and imprisonmentUnable to find another vessel suitable to continue his exploration, Flinders set sail for Britain as a passenger aboard . However, the ship was wrecked on Wreck Reefs, part of the Great Barrier Reef, approximately north of Sydney. Flinders navigated the ship's cutter (ship), cutter across open sea back to Sydney, and arranged for the rescue of the remaining marooned crew. Flinders then took command of the 29-ton schooner in order to return to England, but the poor condition of the vessel forced him to put in at French-controlled Isle de France (now known as Mauritius) for repairs on 17 December 1803, just three months after Baudin had died there. Napoleonic Wars, War with France had broken out again the previous May, but Flinders hoped his French passport (despite its being issued for ''Investigator'' and not ''Cumberland'') and the scientific nature of his mission would allow him to continue on his way. Despite this, and the knowledge of Baudin's earlier encounter with Flinders, the French governor, Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen, detained Flinders. The relationship between the men soured: Flinders was affronted at his treatment, and Decaen insulted by Flinders' refusal of an invitation to dine with him and his wife. Decaen was suspicious of the alleged scientific mission as the Cumberland carried no scientists and Decaen's search of Flinders' vessel uncovered a trunk full of papers (including despatches from the New South Wales Governor Philip Gidley King) that were not permitted under his scientific passport. Furthermore, one of King's despatches was specifically to the British Admiralty requesting more troops in case Decaen were to attack Port Jackson. Among the papers seized were the three logs of of which only Volume one and Volume two were returned to Flinders; these are now both held by the State Library of New South Wales. The third volume was later deposited in the Admiralty Library and is now held in The National Archives (United Kingdom). Decaen referred the matter to the French government; this was delayed not only by the long voyage but also by the general confusion of war. Eventually, on 11 March 1806, Napoleon gave his approval, but Decaen still refused to allow Flinders' release. By this stage Decaen believed Flinders' knowledge of the island's defences would have encouraged Britain to attempt to capture it. Nevertheless, in June 1809 the Royal Navy began a blockade of the island, and in June 1810 Flinders was paroled. Travelling via the on , which was taking despatches back to Britain, he received a promotion to post-captain, before continuing to England. Flinders had been confined for the first few months of his captivity, but he was later afforded greater freedom to move around the island and access his papers. In November 1804 he sent the first map of the landmass he had charted (Y46/1) back to England. This was the only map made by Flinders where he used the name "Australia or Terra Australis" for the title instead of New Holland the name of the continent that James Cook had used in 1770 and Abel Tasman had coined a Dutch version of in 1644, and the first known time he used the word Australia. He used the name New Holland on his map only for the western part of the continent. Due to the delay caused by his lengthy confinement, the first published map of the Australian continent was the Freycinet Map of 1811, a product of the Baudin expedition, issued in 1811. Flinders finally returned to England in October 1810. He was in poor health but immediately resumed work preparing '' '' and his atlas of maps for publication. The full title of this book, which was first published in London in July 1814, was given, as was common at the time, a synoptic description: ''A Voyage to Terra Australis: undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803 in His Majesty's ship the'' Investigator, ''and subsequently in the armed vessel'' Porpoise ''and'' Cumberland Schooner. ''With an account of the shipwreck of the ''Porpoise'', arrival of the ''Cumberland'' at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island'' . Original copies of the ''Atlas to Flinders' Voyage to Terra Australis'' are held at the Mitchell Library (Australia), Mitchell Library in Sydney as a portfolio that accompanied the book and included engravings of 16 maps, four plates of views and ten plates of Australian flora. The book was republished in three volumes in 1964, accompanied by a reproduction of the portfolio. Flinders' map of ''Terra Australis or Australia'' (so the two parts of the double name of his 1804 manuscript reversed) was first published in January 1814 and the remaining maps were published before his atlas and book.
Death and reburialFlinders died, aged 40, on 19 July 1814 from kidney disease, at his London home at 14 London Street, later renamed Maple Street and now the site of the BT Tower. This was on the day after the book and atlas was published; Flinders never saw the completed work as he was unconscious by that time, but his wife arranged the volumes on his bed covers so that he could touch them. On 23 July he was interred in the burial ground of St James's Church, Piccadilly, which was located some distance from the church, beside Hampstead Road, London, Hampstead Road, Camden Town, Camden, London. The burial ground was in use from 1790 until 1853. By 1852 the location of the grave had been forgotten due to alterations to the burial ground. In 1878 the cemetery became St James's Gardens, Camden, with only a few gravestones lining the edges of the park. Part of the gardens, located between Hampstead Road and , was built over when Euston station was expanded, and Flinders' grave was thought to possibly lie under a station platform.Miranda, C.
FamilyOn 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longstanding friend Ann Chappelle (1772–1852) and had hoped to take her with him to Port Jackson. However, the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and reprimanded him for his bad judgement, and ordered him to remove her from the ship. This is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: As a result, Ann was obliged to stay in England and would not see her husband for nine years, following his imprisonment on the Isle de France (Mauritius), Isle de France (Mauritius, at the time a French possession) on his return journey. When they finally reunited, Matthew and Ann had one daughter, Anne, (1 April 1812 – 1892), who later married William Petrie (electrical engineer), William Petrie (1821–1908). In 1853, the governments of and Victoria (Australia), Victoria bequeathed a belated pension to her (deceased) mother of £100 per year, to go to surviving issue of the union. This she accepted on behalf of her young son, Flinders Petrie, William Matthew Flinders Petrie, who would go on to become an accomplished archaeologist and Egyptologist.
Naming of Australia and discovery of Flinders' 1804 map Y46/1Flinders' map Y46/1 was never "lost". It had been stored and recorded by the UK Hydrographic Office before 1828. Geoffrey C. Ingleton mentioned Y46/1 in his book ''Matthew Flinders Navigator and Chartmaker'' on page 438. By 1987 every library in Australia had access to a microfiche copy of Flinders Y46/1. In 2001–2002 the Mitchell Library Sydney displayed Y46/1 at their "Matthew Flinders – The Ultimate Voyage" exhibition. Paul Brunton called Y46/1 "the memorial of the great naval explorer Matthew Flinders". The first hard-copy of Y46/1 and its cartouche was retrieved from the UK Hydrographic Office (Taunton, Somerset) by historian Bill Fairbanks in 2004. On 2 April 2004, copies of the chart were presented by three of Matthew Flinders's descendants to the Governor of New South Wales, in London, to be presented in turn to the people of Australia through their parliaments by 14 November, the 200th anniversary of the chart leaving Mauritius. This celebration marked the first time the naming of Australia was formally recognised. Flinders was Australia#Origin and history of the name, not the first to use the word "Australia", nor was he the first to apply the name specifically to the continent. He owned a copy of Alexander Dalrymple's 1771 book ''An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean'', and it seems likely he borrowed it from there, but he applied it specifically to the continent, not the whole South Pacific region. In 1804 he wrote to his brother: "I call the whole island Australia, or Terra Australis". Later that year, he wrote to Joseph Banks, Sir Joseph Banks and mentioned "my general chart of Australia", a map that Flinders had constructed from all the information he had accumulated while he was in Australian waters and finished while he was detained by the French in Mauritius. Flinders explained in his letter to Banks: Flinders continued to promote the use of the word until his arrival in London in 1810. Here he found that Banks did not approve of the name and had not unpacked the chart he had sent him, and that "New Holland" and "Terra Australis" were still in general use. As a result, a book by Flinders was published under the title '' '' and his published map of 1814 also shows 'Terra Australis' as the first of the two name options, despite his objections. The final proofs were brought to him on his deathbed, but he was unconscious. The book was published on 18 July 1814, but Flinders did not regain consciousness and died the next day, never knowing that his name for the continent would be accepted.''The Weekend Australian'', 30 – 31 December 2000, p. 16 Banks wrote a draft of an introduction to Flinders' ''Voyage'', referring to the map published by Melchisédech Thévenot in ''Relations des Divers Voyages'' (1663), and made well known to English readers by Emanuel Bowen's adaptation of it, ''A Complete Map of the Southern Continent'', published in John Campbell's editions of John Harris's ''Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, or Voyages and Travels'' (1744–48, and 1764). Banks said in the draft: Although Thévenot said that he had taken his chart from the one inlaid into the floor of the Amsterdam Town Hall, in fact it appears to be an almost exact copy of that of Joan Blaeu in his ''Archipelagus Orientalis sive Asiaticus'' published in 1659. It seems to have been Thévenot who introduced a differentiation between ''Nova Hollandia'' to the west and ''Terre Australe'' to the east of the meridian corresponding to 135° East of Greenwich, emphasised by the latitude staff running down that meridian, as there is no such division on Blaeu's map. In his ''Voyage'', Flinders wrote: ...with the accompanying note at the bottom of the page: So Flinders had concluded that the Terra Australis, as hypothesised by Aristotle and Ptolemy (which would be discovered as Antarctica less than six years later) did not exist; therefore he wanted the name applied to the continent of Australia, and it stuck. Flinders' book was widely read and gave the term "Australia" general currency. Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of , became aware of Flinders' preference for the name Australia and used it in his dispatches to England. On 12 December 1817, he recommended to the Colonial Office that it be officially adopted. In 1824 the British Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.
Legacy of FlindersAlthough he never used his own name for any feature in all his discoveries, Flinders' name is now associated with over 100 geographical features and places in Australia,The intrepid spirit of Matthew Flinders lives on in more than 100 Australian sites
Works* A Voyage to Terra Australis, ''A Voyage to Terra Australis, with an accompanying Atlas''. 2 vol. – London : G & W Nicol, 18 July 1814 * ''Australia Circumnavigated: The Journal of HMS Investigator, 1801–1803''. Edited by Kenneth Morgan, 2 vols, The Hakluyt Society, London, 201
See also* European and American voyages of scientific exploration * Flinders bar * List of explorers * Matthew Flinders Medal and Lecture * ''Matthew Flinders' Cat'', a novel by Bryce Courtenay (2002) * Trim (cat)
References* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Tugdual de Langlais, ''Marie-Etienne Peltier, Capitaine corsaire de la République'', Éd. Coiffard, 2017, 240 p. (). * * http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/1157394