HOME

TheInfoList




A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'',
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...
, ''martyr-'') is someone that suffers
persecution Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group. The most common forms are religious persecution Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or a group of individua ...

persecution
and death for advocating, renouncing, or refusing to renounce or advocate, a religious belief or cause as demanded by an external party. In the martyrdom narrative of the remembering community, this refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of an actor by an alleged oppressor. Accordingly, the status of the 'martyr' can be considered a
posthumous title A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hem ...
as a reward for those who are considered worthy of the concept of martyrdom by the living, regardless of any attempts by the deceased to control how they will be remembered in advance. Insofar, the martyr is a relational figure of a society's boundary work that is produced by collective memory. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Similarly, martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
, among other political and cultural examples.


Meaning

In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning ''
witness In law, a witness is someone who has knowledge about a matter, whether they have sensed it or are testifying on another witnesses' behalf. In law a witness is someone who, either voluntarily or under compulsion, provides testimonial evidence, ei ...
'', was used in the secular sphere as well as in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g.
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century and military leader, best known for ', who was born in —then part of —to a father of descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought a ...

Josephus
) and from the New Testament that witnesses often died for their testimonies. During the
early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, and on account of this witness, endure suffering or death. The term, in this later sense, entered the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
as a
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lin ...
. The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called ''martyrdom''. The early Christians who first began to use the term ''martyr'' in its new sense saw
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his
crucifixion Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone ...
. The early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the
archetypal The concept of an archetype (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
martyr.A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk, ''Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation'' (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp. 217-229. The word ''martyr'' is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms.


Baháʼí Faith

In the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Established by Bahá ...
, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God. However,
Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service to humanity.


Chinese culture

Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the
Tongmenghui The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance move ...
and the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
party in modern China. Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the
Xinhai Revolution The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese hi ...
and throughout the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs.


Christianity

In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek ''martys'' in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony, usually written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...

Gospel
, or more generally, the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness whether or not death follows. However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, and the witnesses put to death, and the word ''martyr'' developed its present sense. Christians believe that where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
in offering up their lives for truth. The concept of Jesus as a martyr has recently received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style. Several scholars have also concluded that
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom. In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the
crucifixion of Jesus The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; e ...
as a martyrdom. In the context of church history, from the time of the
persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire The persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred throughout most of the Roman Empire's history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring bef ...
, and
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
it developed that a martyr was one who was killed for maintaining a
religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...

religious
belief, ''knowing'' that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking
death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ...

death
). This definition of ''martyr'' is not specifically restricted to the Christian faith. Though Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like
Abel Abel ''Hábel''; ar, هابيل, Hābīl is a Biblical figure in the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginning" the first book of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the ...
and the
Maccabees The Maccabees (), also spelled Machabees ( he, מַכַּבִּים ''Makabīm'' or he, מַקַבִּים, ''Maqabīm''; or ''Maccabaei''; el, Μακκαβαῖοι, ''Makkabaioi''), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of J ...
, as holy, and the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of
John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history' ...

John the Baptist
, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner, the first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith (at Pentecost), to be killed for his testimony was
Saint Stephen Stephen ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ''Stéphanos'', meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", often given as a title rather than as a name; he, סטפנוס הקדוש, ''Stephanos HaQadosh''; c. 5 – c. 34 AD), ...
(whose name means "crown"), and those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned". From the time of
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
, Christianity was decriminalized, and then, under
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre, Θεοδόσιος ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. During his reign, he faced and overcame a war against the Goths and two civil wars, and ...

Theodosius I
, became the
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether ...
, which greatly diminished persecution (although not for non-Nicene Christians). As some wondered how then they could most closely follow Christ there was a development of ''desert spirituality'', desert monks, self-mortification,
ascetics Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving plea ...
, ( Paul the Hermit, St. Anthony), following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of ''white martyrdom'', dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a ''red martyrdom'', the giving of one's life in a violent death. In Christianity, death in
sectarian Sectarianism is a form of prejudice Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation or classification of a ...
persecution can be viewed as martyrdom. There were martyrs recognized on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534. Two hundred and eighty-eight Christians were martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic
Queen Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its fol ...

Queen Mary I
in England leading to the reversion to the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
under
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Queen Elizabeth I
in 1559. "From hundreds to thousands" of
Waldensians The Waldensians (also known as Waldenses (), Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are adherents of a proto-Protestant Proto-Protestantism, also called pre-Protestantism or pre-Reformation movements, refers to individuals and movements that propagat ...
were martyred in the Massacre of Mérindol in 1545. Three hundred Roman Catholics were said to be martyred by the Church authorities in England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Even more modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as '' Jesus Freaks,'' though the numbers are disputed. There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are greatly exaggerated, but the fact of ongoing Christian martyrdoms remains undisputed.


Hinduism

Despite the promotion of ''
ahimsa Ahimsa (also spelled ''Ahinsa'') (: अहिंसा : ', : ') ("nonviolence") is an ancient Indian principle of which applies to all living beings. It is a key in , and .Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India - From Ancient to Mode ...

ahimsa
'' (non-violence) within
Sanatana Dharma Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism.Adams, C. J ...
, and there being no concept of martyrdom, there is the belief of righteous duty (''
dharma Dharma (; sa, धर्म, dharma, ; pi, dhamma, italic=yes; ta, aṟam, italic=yes) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the s ...
''), where violence is used as a last resort to resolution after all other means have failed. Examples of this are found in the
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major of , the other being the '. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the and the fates of the and the princes and their successors ...

Mahabharata
. Upon completion of their exile, the Pandavas were refused the return of their portion of the kingdom by their cousin Duruyodhana; and following which all means of peace talks by
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
,
Vidura Vidura (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. I ...
and
Sanjaya Sanjaya (Sanskrit: संजय, meaning "victory") or Sanjaya Gavalgana is a character from the ancient Indian Hindu war epic ''Mahābhārata''. In ''Mahabharata''—An ancient story of a war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas—the blind ...

Sanjaya
failed. During the great war which commenced, even
Arjuna Arjuna (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia afte ...

Arjuna
was brought down with doubts, e.g., attachment, sorrow, fear. This is where Krishna instructs
Arjuna Arjuna (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia afte ...

Arjuna
how to carry out his duty as a righteous
warrior A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationship ...

warrior
and fight.


Islam

''Shahid'' originates from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
ic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr. ''Shahid'' occurs frequently in the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
in the generic sense "witness", but only once in the sense "martyr, one who dies for his faith"; this latter sense acquires wider use in the
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

hadith
s. Islam views a martyr as a man or woman who dies while conducting ''
jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد, jihād ) is an Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with Go ...
'', whether on or off the battlefield (see greater jihad and lesser jihad). The concept of the martyr in Islam had been made prominent during the Islamic revolution (1978/79) in Iran and the subsequent Iran-Iraq war, so that the cult of the martyr had a lasting impact on the course of revolution and war.


Judaism

Martyrdom in
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
is one of the main examples of ''
Kiddush Hashem ''Kiddush HaShem'' ( he, קידוש השם "sanctification of the Name") is a precept of Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaism ...
'', meaning "sanctification of God's name" through public dedication to Jewish practice. Religious martyrdom is considered one of the more significant contributions of
Hellenistic Judaism Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) i ...
to
Western Civilization Western culture, also known as Western civilization, Occidental culture, or Western society, is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired ...
. 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees recount numerous martyrdoms suffered by
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
resisting Hellenizing (adoption of Greek ideas or customs of a
Hellenistic civilization The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic ...
) by their
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

Seleucid
overlords, being executed for such crimes as , circumcising their boys or refusing to eat pork or meat sacrificed to foreign gods. According to W. H. C. Frend, "Judaism was itself a religion of martyrdom" and it was this "Jewish psychology of martyrdom" that inspired Christian martyrdom. However, the notion of martyrdom in the two traditions differ considerably.


Sikhism

Martyrdom (called ''shahadat'' in Punjabi) is a fundamental concept in
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
and represents an important institution of the faith. The Sikh Gurus and the Sikhs that followed them are some of the greatest examples of martyrs who fought against Mughal tyranny and oppression, upholding the fundamentals of Sikhism, where their lives were taken during non-violent protesting or in battles. Sikhs believe in ''Ibaadat se Shahadat'' (from love to martyrdom). Some famous Sikh martyrs include: *
Guru Arjan Guru Arjan (Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) is an abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' ( Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), ...

Guru Arjan
, the fifth leader of Sikhism. Guru ji was brutally tortured for almost 5 days before he attained shaheedi, or martyrdom. *
Guru Tegh Bahadur Guru Tegh Bahadur ( Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇਗ ਬਹਾਦਰ, pronunciation: (; 1 April 1621 – 11 November 1675) was the ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and he was head of the followers of Sikhism from 1665 unti ...
, the ninth guru of Sikhism, martyred on 11 November 1675. He is also known as ''Dharam Di Chadar'' (i.e. "the shield of Religion"), suggesting that to save Hinduism, the guru gave his life. *
Bhai Dayala Bhai Dyala ji ( pa, ਭਾਈ ਦਿਆਲਾ ਜੀ, hi, भाई दयाला जी; died 9 November 1675), also known as ''Bhai Dyal Das'', was an early martyr A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ...
is one of the Sikhs who was martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 due to his refusal to accept Islam. *
Bhai Mati Das Bhai Mati Das (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panj ...

Bhai Mati Das
is considered by some one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save Hindu Brahmins. *
Bhai Sati Das Bhai Sati Das (died 1675) along with his elder brother Bhai Mati Das, was a Mohyal and Sikh martyr A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advoc ...
is also considered by some one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred along with Guru Teg Bahadur at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save kashmiri pandits. *
Sahibzada Ajit Singh Sahib or Saheb (, traditionally ; Arabic script, Perso-Arab: , Devanagari: साहिब, Gurmukhi: ਸਾਹਿਬ, Bengali alphabet, Bengali: সাহেব) is a word of Arabic origin meaning "companion". As a loanword, it has passed into ...
, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh,
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh Sahibzada Zorawar Singh ( pa, ਸਾਹਿਬਜ਼ਾਦਾ ਜ਼ੋਰਾਵਰ ਸਿੰਘ, 28 November 1695 – 26 December 1704) was the third of Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), born ...
and
Sahibzada Fateh Singh Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji (12 December 1697 – 26 December 1704) was the fourth and youngest son of Guru Gobind Singh. He and his older brother, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh are among the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism. He is also known as ''Baba'' F ...
– the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru.


Notable martyrs

* 399 BCE –
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
, much of what is known about the life of Socrates has been drawn from the writings of Plato, which more often than not focus on the events surrounding the death of Socrates. Plato's writings discuss how the state charges Socrates with corrupting the youth. Socrates reached martyrdom when he chose death over escape, as in so doing he chose to die for what he believed in. This is significant in the extent to which it affected his followers and the legacy of his ideas. * c. 34 CE –
Saint Stephen Stephen ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ''Stéphanos'', meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", often given as a title rather than as a name; he, סטפנוס הקדוש, ''Stephanos HaQadosh''; c. 5 – c. 34 AD), ...
, considered to be the first Christian martyr. * c. 2nd century CE –
Ten MartyrsThe Ten Martyrs ( he, עֲשֶׂרֶת הָרוּגֵי מַלְכוּת ''ʿAsereṯ hāRūgēi Malḵūṯ'', "The Ten Royal Martyrs") were ten rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being o ...
of
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
. * c. 288 –
Saint Sebastian Saint Sebastian (in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Saint Sebastian
, the subject of many works of art. * c. 304 – Saint Agnes of Rome, beheaded for refusing to forsake her devotion to Christ, for Roman paganism. * c. 680 –
Husayn ibn Ali Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar, الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680 ), also known as Abu Abd Allah or Imam Husayn, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet and a of (the fourth calip ...
, grandson of
Muhammed Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammed
beheaded for opposing the Umayyad caliphate. * 1415 –
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spel ...

Jan Hus
, Christian reformer burned at the stake for heresy * 1535 –
Thomas More Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian chur ...

Thomas More
, beheaded for refusing to acknowledge
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
as Supreme Head of the Church of England. * 1606 –
Guru Arjan Dev Guru Arjan (Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) is an abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' ( Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), ...
, the fifth leader of
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
. * 1675 –
Guru Tegh Bahadur Guru Tegh Bahadur ( Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇਗ ਬਹਾਦਰ, pronunciation: (; 1 April 1621 – 11 November 1675) was the ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and he was head of the followers of Sikhism from 1665 unti ...
, the ninth Guru of
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
, referred to as "Hind di Chadar" or "Shield of India" martyred in defense of religious freedom of Hindus. * 1941 –
Maximilian Kolbe Maximilian Maria Kolbe (born Rajmund Kolbe; pl, Maksymilian Maria Kolbe ; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941), venerated as Saint Maximilian Kolbe, was a Polish Catholic priest and Conventual Franciscans, Conventual Franciscan friar who volunte ...

Maximilian Kolbe
, OFM, a Roman Catholic priest, who was martyred in the Nazi concentration camp at
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or ...

Auschwitz
, August 1941.


Political martyrs

A political martyr is someone who suffers persecution or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause. Notable political martyrs include: *1793 –
Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (; born Mara; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The te ...
, a French
Jacobin , logo = JacobinVignette03.jpg , logo_size = 180px , logo_caption = Seal of the Jacobin Club (1792–1794) , motto = "Live free or die"(french: Vivre libre ou mourir) , successor = Pa ...

Jacobin
assassinated by
Charlotte Corday Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday (), was a figure of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ...

Charlotte Corday
. *1793 –
Charlotte Corday Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday (), was a figure of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ...

Charlotte Corday
, a
Girondin The Girondins ( , ), or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active in the Legislative Assembly (France), Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. ...

Girondin
sympathizer executed during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
for assassinating
Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (; born Mara; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The te ...
. *1835 - King Hintsa kaKhawuta, a
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
monarch who was shot and killed while attempting to escape captivity during Sixth Frontier War, also known as the Hintsa War. *1859 - John Brown, a militant
abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
who was
executed Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone is punished with the death penalty is called a dea ...

executed
after his raid on Harper’s Ferry. Many abolitionists of the time extolled him as a martyr. *1865 –
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
, the 16th
U.S. President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodime ...

U.S. President
. Assassinated by a after the end of the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. *1919 –
Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (; pl, Róża Luksemburg; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxism, Marxist, Philosophy, philosopher, economist, Anti-war movement, anti-war activist and Revolutionary socialism, revolut ...

Rosa Luxemburg
, a German Marxist revolutionary summarily executed along with
Karl Liebknecht Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht (; 13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...

Karl Liebknecht
for their roles in the
Spartacist uprising The Spartacist uprising (german: Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (''Januaraufstand''), was a (and the armed battles accompanying it) in from 5 to 12 January 1919. Germany was in the middle of a , and two of the perceiv ...
. *1920 -
Yusuf al-Azma Yusuf al-Azma ( ar, يوسف العظمة, ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visuall ...
, Syrian army commander whose refusal to surrender to the French, his insistence on entering battle with inferior forces and his death commanding the Syrians in Maysalun made him a hero in Syria and the Arab world *1929 – Nurkhon Yuldashkhojayeva, an Uzbek dancer murdered in an honor killing for dancing without veil; depicted as a martyr of Hujum in the play "Nurkhon" by Kamil Yashin after her death. *1930 – Horst Wessel killed by Albrecht Höhler (a Communist Party member). Became Nazi Germany, Nazi martyr, due to promotion by Joseph Goebbels. *1943 – Hans and Sophie Scholl, killed during the Holocaust for distributing leaflets Anti-Nazism, opposing Nazism. *1948 – Mahatma Gandhi, an Indian nationalism, Indian nationalist leader referred as the 'Father of the Nation' by Indians, assassinated by Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse for trying to spread communal harmony. *1956 – Imre Nagy, a Hungary, Hungarian Communism, communist politician. Executed for his leadership role in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. *1957- Larbi Ben M'hidi, Larbi Ben Mhidi, an Algerian Revolutionary leader also one of the 6 leaders of the National Liberation Front (Algeria), FLN that fought for the independence of Algeria against the French. He was captured, arrested and tortured to death by the French. *1961 – Patrice Lumumba, born in 1925, assassinated in Mwadingusha in Katanga, Prime minister at the time in 61. He is considered the symbol of the independence of Congo. *1963 – Medgar Evers, assassinated in 1963 for his leadership of the civil rights movement, Civil Rights Movement in his home state Mississippi. *1965 – Malcolm X, assassinated in 1965 on account of his leadership in Black nationalism. *1966 – Sayyid Qutb, an Egyptian Islamist and a key figure in the founding of modern political Islam in the 1950s. Hung in 1966 for plotting the assassination of President of Egypt, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. *1967 – Che Guevara, an Argentina, Argentine Marxism, Marxist revolutionary. Executed for trying to Ñancahuazú Guerrilla, foment revolution in Bolivia. *1968 – Martin Luther King Jr., assassinated in 1968 for his leadership of the civil rights movement, Civil Rights Movement. *1977 – Steve Biko, a South African activist killed in Police Custody for his anti-Apartheid activism. *1978 – Harvey Milk, the first openly gay city council member of a major US city (San Francisco), murdered by fellow city council member Dan White who had previously expressed prejudiced views against homosexuals. *1980 – Óscar Romero, Archbishop of San Salvador, assassinated on the orders of far-right death-squad leader Roberto D'Aubuisson after calling on Salvadoran soldiers to disobey commands to kill civilians. *1981 – Bobby Sands, an Irish Republican who died during a hunger strike while imprisoned. *1987 – Thomas Sankara, a Burkina Faso, Burkinabé Marxist revolutionary, deposed and assassinated for his efforts to transform the Republic of Upper Volta (which he renamed Burkina Faso) into a socialist state. *1989 – Safdar Hashmi, an Indian Marxist revolutionary playwright and actor, killed while performing a street play in support of workers' rights. *1993 - Thembisile Chris Hani, South Africa anti-Apartheid Activist, ANC military wing Mkhonto weSizwe commander was assassinated by Janusz Walus outside his home. *1995 – Ken Saro-Wiwa, Nigerian activist killed for speaking against the destruction of indigenous Ogoni people, Ogoni land. *1995 – Iqbal Masih, a Pakistani child killed at age 12 for advocating against child labor. *2021 - Mya Thwe Thwe Khaing, a Myanmar, Burmese protester shot and killed by Myanmar Police Force, riot police while protesting against 2021 Myanmar coup d'état, the coup. *2021 - Death of Kyal Sin, Angel Kyal Sin, a 19-year-old Burmese protester shot and killed by police while protesting against the coup


Revolutionary martyr

The term "revolutionary martyr" usually relates to those dying in revolutionary struggle. During the 20th century, the concept was developed in particular in the culture and propaganda of communist or socialist revolutions, although it was and is also used in relation to nationalist revolutions. * In the culture of North Korea, martyrdom is a consistent theme in the ongoing revolutionary struggle, as depicted in literary works such as ''Sea of Blood''. There is also a Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery in the country. * In Vietnam, those who died in Indochina Wars, the independence struggle are often honoured as martyrs, or ''liệt sĩ'' in Vietnamese. Nguyễn Thái Học and schoolgirl Võ Thị Sáu are two examples.Vietnam At War Mark Philip Bradley - 2009 "As the concept of 'sacrifice' (hi sinh) came to embody the state's narrative of sacred war (chien tranh than thanh), the ultimate sacrifice was considered to be death in battle as a 'revolutionary martyr' (liet si)." * In India, the term "revolutionary martyr" is often used when referring to the world history of socialist struggle. Guru Radha Kishan was a notable Indian independence activist and communist politician known to have used this phrasing. *In Algeria, 132 years of Colonialism and Algerian War, Algerian War for independence leading up to 20 million Martyrs. Algeria in the Arabic world is knows as the land of a million and a half martyrs. Algerians for the last 6 years leading to 1962 gave 1.6 million martyrs. Today there is a famous movie ''The Battle of Algiers'' is seen as a classic and a controversial movie for many people depicting the last 6 years of the Algerian War, Algerian Revolution including Famous revolutionary leader Ali La Pointe .


See also


References


Bibliography


"Martyrs"
''Catholic Encyclopedia'' * Foster, Claude R. Jr. (1995). ''Paul Schneider, the Buchenwald apostle: a Christian martyr in Nazi Germany: A Sourcebook on the German Church Struggle''. Westchester, PA: SSI Bookstore, West Chester University. * History.com Editors. “Abolitionist John Brown Is Hanged.” HISTORY, 4 Mar. 2010, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/john-brown-hanged.


Further reading

* Bélanger, Jocelyn J., et al. "The Psychology of Martyrdom: Making the Ultimate Sacrifice in the Name of a Cause." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 107.3 (2014): 494-515. Print. * Kateb, George. "Morality and Self-Sacrifice, Martyrdom and Self-Denial." Social Research 75.2 (2008): 353-94. Print. * Olivola, Christopher Y. and Eldar Shafir. "The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 26, no. 1 (2013): 91-105. * PBS. "Plato and the Legacy of Socrates." PBS. https://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/background/41a.html (accessed October 21, 2014). * Reeve, C. D. C.. A Plato Reader: Eight Essential Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co., 2012. Print.


External links



– 16th century classic book, accounts of martyrdoms

''Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion''. {{Authority control Martyrdom, Religious terminology Jungian archetypes