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Manx ( or , pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic or Manks, is a
Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages. Goidelic languages historically f ...
of the
insular Celtic Insular Celtic languages are the group of Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used ...
branch of the
Celtic language family The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, fol ...
, itself a branch of the
Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
. Manx is the historical language of the
Manx people The Manx (; gv, ny Manninee) are a Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time perio ...
. Although few children have Manx as a
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In so ...
on the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = " O Land of Our Birth" , image = Isle of Man by Sentinel-2.jpg , image_map = Europe-Isle_of_Man.svg , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of the Isle of Man in Europe , map_caption = Location of the Isle of Man (green) in E ...

Isle of Man
, there has been a steady increase in the number of speakers since the death of
Ned Maddrell Edward "Ned" Maddrell (20 August 187727 December 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who, at the time of his death, was the last surviving first language, native speaker of the Manx language. Early life Maddrell was born at Corvalley, nea ...
in 1974. Maddrell was considered to be the last speaker who grew up in a Manx-speaking community environment. Despite this, the language has never fallen completely out of use, with a minority having some knowledge of it as a
heritage language A heritage language is a minority language A minority language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Mos ...
, and it is still an important part of the island's
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
and
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
. Manx is often cited as a good example of
language revival Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or comm ...
efforts; in 2015, around 1,800 people had varying levels of second-language conversational ability. Since the late 20th century, Manx has become more visible on the island, with increased signage, radio broadcasts and a Manx-
medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data * Medium of i ...
primary school. The revival of Manx has been made easier because the language was well recorded: for example, the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
and the ''
Book of Common Prayer ''Book of Common Prayer'' (''BCP'') is the short title of a number of related prayer book A prayer book is a book containing prayers and perhaps devotional readings, for private or communal use, or in some cases, outlining the liturgy of rel ...

Book of Common Prayer
'' had been translated into Manx, and audio recordings had been made of native speakers.


Names of the language


In Manx

In Manx, the language is called ''
Gaelg Manx ( gv, Gaelg or , pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic languages, insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo ...
'' or ''Gailck'', a word which shares the same etymology as the word "Gaelic". The sister languages of
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
use ''Gaeilge'' (dialect variants Gaoluinn, Gaedhlag, Gaelge, and Gaelic) and ''Gàidhlig'', respectively, for their languages. As with Irish and Scottish, the form with the
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
is frequently used in Manx: ''y Ghaelg'' or ''y Ghailck'' (Irish ''an Ghaeilge'', Scottish ''a' Ghàidhlig''). To distinguish it from the two other forms of Gaelic, the phrases ''Gaelg''/''Gailck Vannin'' (Gaelic of
Mann Mann may refer to: * Isle of Man ) , anthem = " O Land of Our Birth" , image = Isle of Man by Sentinel-2.jpg , image_map = Europe-Isle_of_Man.svg , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of the Isle of Man in Europe , map_caption = Location ...

Mann
) and ''Gaelg''/''Gailck Vanninnagh'' (Manx Gaelic) also are used. In addition, the nickname "Çhengey ny Mayrey" (the mother tongue/tongue of the mother, lit. the mother's tongue) is occasionally used.


In English

The language is usually referred to in English as "Manx." The term "Manx Gaelic" is often used, for example when discussing the relationship between the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx) or to avoid confusion with Anglo-Manx, the form of English spoken on the island. Scottish Gaelic is often referred to in English as simply "Gaelic," but this is less common with Manx and Irish. A feature of Anglo-Manx deriving from Gaelic is the use of the definite article, e.g. "the Manx," "the Gaelic," in ways not generally seen in standard English. The word "Manx" is frequently spelled "Manks" in historical sources, particularly those written by natives of the island; the word means "Mannish," and originates from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
''Mannisk''. The name of the island, Man, is frequently spelled "Mann." It is sometimes accompanied by a footnote explaining that it is a two-syllable word, with the stress on the first syllable, "MAN-en." The island is named after the Irish god
Manannán mac Lir File:Broighter Gold, Dublin, October 2010 (03).JPG, The boat from the 1st century BC Broighter Hoard, which was found near Magilligan and may be a votive offering to Manannán Manannán or Manann, also known as Manannán mac Lir ("son of the sea ...
, thus ''Ellan Vannin'' (Irish ''Oileán Mhannanáin'') "Mannanán's Island."


History

Manx is a
Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages. Goidelic languages historically ...
language, closely related to
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
. On the whole it is partially mutually intelligible with these, and native speakers of one find it easy to gain passive, and even spoken, competency in the other two. It has been suggested that a little-documented Brythonic language (i.e. related to modern
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
, Cornish and Breton) may have been spoken on the Isle of Man before the arrival of Christian missionaries from Ireland in the early Middle Ages. However, there is little surviving evidence about the language spoken on Man at that time. The basis of the modern Manx language is
Primitive Irish Primitive Irish or Proto-Goidelic or Archaic Irish ( ga, Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form ...
(like modern Irish and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
). The Island either lends its name to, or takes its name from '' Manannán'', the Brythonic and Gaelic sea god who is said in myth to have once ruled the island. Primitive Irish is first attested in
Ogham Ogham ( , Irish language, Modern Irish: ; mga, ogum, ogom, later mga, ogam, label=none ) is an Early Medieval alphabet used primarily to write the Primitive Irish, early Irish language (in the Ogham inscriptions, "orthodox" inscriptions, 4th t ...

Ogham
inscriptions from the 4th century AD. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
. Primitive Irish transitioned into
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest seque ...

Latin script
and is attested primarily in
marginalia Marginalia (or apostils) are marks made in the margin (typography), margins of a book or other document. They may be scribbles, comments, gloss (annotation), glosses (annotations), critiques, doodles, or illuminated manuscript, illumination ...

marginalia
to Latin manuscripts, but there are no extant examples from the Isle of Man. Latin was used for ecclesiastical records from the establishment of Christianity in the Isle of Man in the fifth century AD. Many lexical items concerning religion, writing and record keeping entered Manx at this time. The Isle of Man was conquered by Norse Vikings in the ninth century. Although there is some evidence in the form of runic inscriptions that Norse was used by some of these settlers, the Vikings who settled around the Irish Sea and West Coast of Scotland soon became Gaelic speaking Norse-Gaels. During the 9th century AD, the Gaelic of the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, like those Scotland and the North of Ireland, may have been significantly influenced by Norse speakers. While Norse had very little impact on the Manx language overall, a small number of modern place names on Mann are Norse in origin, e.g.
Laxey Laxey ( gv, Laksaa) is a village on the east coast of the Isle of Man ) , anthem = " O Land of Our Birth" , image = Isle of Man by Sentinel-2.jpg , image_map = Europe-Isle_of_Man.svg , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of the Isle of ...
(Laksaa) and Ramsey (Rhumsaa). Other Norse legacies in Manx include loanwords and personal names. By the 10th century, it is supposed that Middle Irish had emerged and was spoken throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. The island came under Scottish rule in 1266, and alternated between Scottish and English rule until finally becoming the feudal possession of the Stanley family in 1405. It is likely that up until this point, except for scholarly knowledge of Latin and courtly use of Anglo-Norman, that Manx was the only language spoken on the island. Since the establishment of the Stanleys on the Isle of Man, first Anglo-Norman, and later, the
English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be confused with ), to the area of later named after them: . Living languages mos ...

English language
have been the chief external factors in the development of Manx, until the twentieth century, when in Manx speakers became able to access Irish and Scottish Gaelic media. Manx had diverged considerably from the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland between 1400 and 1900. The seventeenth century
Plantation of Ulster The Plantation of Ulster ( gle, Plandáil Uladh; : ''Plantin o Ulstèr'') was the organised (') of a of by people from during the reign of . Most of the s (or ''planters'') came from southern and northern ; their culture differed from . Sma ...

Plantation of Ulster
, the decline of Irish in Leinster and extinction of Galloway Gaelic led to the geographic isolation of Manx from other dialects of Gaelic. The development of a separate orthography also led Manx to diverge from Irish and Scottish Gaelic. In the 17th century, some university students left the Isle of Man to attend school in England. At the same time, teaching in English was required in schools founded by governor Isaac Barrow. Barrow also promoted the use of English in churches; he considered that it was a superior language for reading the Bible; however, because the majority of ministers were monolingual Manx speakers, his views had little practical impact. Thomas Wilson began his tenure as Bishop of Mann in 1698 and was succeeded by Mark Hildesley. Both men held positive views of Manx; Wilson was the first person to publish a book in Manx, a translation of ''The Principles and Duties of Christianity'' (''Coyrie Sodjey''), and Hildesley successfully promoted the use of Manx as the language of instruction in schools. The New Testament was first published in Manx in 1767. In the late 18th century, nearly every school was teaching in English. This decline continued into the 19th century, as English gradually became the primary language spoken on the Isle of Man. In 1848, J. G. Cumming wrote, "there are ... few persons (perhaps none of the young) who speak no English."
Henry Jenner Henry Jenner (8 August 1848 – 8 May 1934) was a British scholar of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...
estimated in 1874 that about 30% of the population habitually spoke Manx (12,340 out of a population of 41,084). According to official census figures, 9.1% of the population claimed to speak Manx in 1901; in 1921 the percentage was only 1.1%. Since the language was used by so few people, it had low linguistic "
prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films *Prestige (film), ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed ...
", and parents tended to not teach Manx to their children, thinking it would be useless to them compared with English.


Revival

Following the decline in the use of Manx during the nineteenth century, (The Manx Language Society) was founded in 1899. By the middle of the twentieth century, only a few elderly
native speaker A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period hypothesis, critical period. In so ...
s remained (the last of them,
Ned Maddrell Edward "Ned" Maddrell (20 August 187727 December 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who, at the time of his death, was the last surviving first language, native speaker of the Manx language. Early life Maddrell was born at Corvalley, nea ...
, died on 27 December 1974), but by then a scholarly revival had begun and a few people had started teaching it in schools. The Manx Language Unit was formed in 1992, consisting of three members and headed by Manx Language Officer
Brian Stowell Thomas Brian Stowell RBV TH (6 September 1936 – 18 January 2019) also known as Brian Mac Stoyll was a Manx people, Manx radio personality, linguist, physicist and author. He was formerly ("The Reader") to the Parliament of the Isle of Man, Tynwa ...

Brian Stowell
, a language activist and fluent speaker, "which was put in charge of all aspects of Manx language teaching and accreditation in schools."Ager, Simon. "A Study of Language Death and Revival with a Particular Focus on Manx Gaelic." Master's Dissertation University of Wales, Lampeter, 2009. PDF. This led to an increased interest in studying the Manx language and encouraged a renewed sense of ethnic identity. The revival of Manx has been aided by the recording work done in the twentieth century by researchers. Most notably, the
Irish Folklore Commission The Irish Folklore Commission (''Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann'' in Irish) was set up in 1935 by the Irish Government to study and collect information on the folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group ...
was sent in with recording equipment in 1948 by
Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera (, ; first registered as ''George de Valero''; changed some time before 1901 to ''Edward de Valera''; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland, serving several t ...

Éamon de Valera
. Also important in preserving the Manx language was work conducted by the late Brian Stowell, who is considered personally responsible for the current revival of the Manx language. The Manx Language Strategy was released in 2017, outlining a five-year plan for the language's continued revitalisation.
Culture Vannin Culture Vannin is the trading name for the Manx Heritage Foundation, established in 1982 by the Isle of Man Government to promote Manx Isle of Man#Culture, culture, heritage and Manx language, language. It was rebranded in February 2014, having pre ...
employs a Manx Language Development Officer (Manx: ''Yn Greinneyder'') to encourage and facilitate the use of the language. In 2009,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
's
Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger The ''Red Book of Endangered Languages'' was published by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised ...
declared Manx an
extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between s ...
, despite the presence of hundreds of speakers on the Isle of Man. Since then, UNESCO's classification of the language has changed to "critically endangered". In the 2011 census, 1,823 out of 80,398 Isle of Man residents, or 2.27% of the population, claimed to have knowledge of Manx,Isle of Man Census Report 2011
.
an increase of 134 people from the 2001 census. These were spread roughly uniformly over the island: in
Douglas Douglas may refer to: * Douglas (given name) * Douglas (surname) Animals *Douglas (parrot), macaw that starred as the parrot ''Rosalinda'' in Pippi Longstocking *Douglas the camel, a domesticated camel serving in the 43rd Mississippi Infantry, ...
566 people professed an ability to speak, read or write Manx; 179 in , 146 in
Onchan Onchan (; glv, Kione Droghad) is a village in the parish of Onchan (parish), Onchan on the Isle of Man. It is at the north end of Douglas Bay. Administratively a district, it has the second largest population of settlements on the island, after D ...
, and 149 in Ramsey. Traditional Manx given names are once again becoming common on the island, especially ''Moirrey'' and ''Voirrey'' (Mary, properly pronounced similarly to the Scottish ''Moira'', but often mispronounced as ''Moiree/Voiree'' when used as a given name by non-Manx speakers), ''Illiam'' (
William William is a male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...
), ''Orry'' (from the Manx king
Godred Crovan Godred Crovan (died 1095), known in Gaelic as Gofraid Crobán, Gofraid Meránach, and Gofraid Méránach, was a Norse-Gaelic ruler of the kingdoms of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. S ...
of Norse origin), ''Breeshey'' (also ''Breesha'') (
Bridget Bridget, Bridgit, Briget or Brigid is a Goidelic languages, Gaelic/Irish language, Irish female name derived from the noun ''brígh'', meaning "power, strength, vigor, virtue". An alternate meaning of the name is "exalted one". Its popularity, esp ...
), ''Aalish'' (also ''Ealish'') (
Alice Alice may refer to: * Alice (name) Alice is most often used as a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socia ...
), ''Juan'' (
Jack Jack may refer to: Places * Jack, Alabama Jack is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a re ...
), ''Ean'' (Ian), ''Joney'' (
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
), ''Fenella'' (
Fionnuala In Irish mythology, Finnguala (modern spellings: Fionnghuala, Fionnuala or Finola; literally meaning "white shoulder") was the daughter of Lir of the Tuatha Dé Danann. In the legend of the ''Children of Lir'', she was Shapeshifting, changed int ...
), ''Pherick'' ( Patrick) and ''Freya'' (from the Norse goddess) remain popular.


Number of speakers by year


Literature

Because Manx has never had a large number of speakers, it has never been practical to produce large amounts of written literature. However, a body of oral literature did exist. The "
Fianna ''Fianna'' ( , ; singular ''Fian''; gd, Fèinne ) were small, semi-independent warrior A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan A clan is a group of people united by act ...
" tales and others like them are known, including the Manx ballad ''Fin as Oshin'', commemorating Finn MacCool and
Ossian Ossian (; Irish Gaelic/ Scottish Gaelic: ''Oisean'') is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary ...
. With the coming of Protestantism, Manx spoken tales slowly disappeared, while a tradition of ''carvals'' - religious songs or carols - developed with religious sanction. As far as is known, there was no distinctively Manx written literature before the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
. By that time, any presumed literary link with Ireland and Scotland, such as through Irish-trained priests, had been lost. The first published literature in Manx was ''The Principles and Duties of Christianity (Coyrie Sodjey)'', translated by
Bishop of Sodor and Man The Bishop of Sodor and Man is the Ordinary (officer), Ordinary of the Diocese of Sodor and Man (Manx Gaelic: ''Sodor as Mannin'') in the Province of York in the Church of England. The diocese only covers the Isle of Man. The Peel Cathedral, Cathedr ...
Thomas Wilson. The ''
Book of Common Prayer ''Book of Common Prayer'' (''BCP'') is the short title of a number of related prayer book A prayer book is a book containing prayers and perhaps devotional readings, for private or communal use, or in some cases, outlining the liturgy of rel ...

Book of Common Prayer
'' was translated by John Phillips, the Welsh-born
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
Bishop of Sodor and Man The Bishop of Sodor and Man is the Ordinary (officer), Ordinary of the Diocese of Sodor and Man (Manx Gaelic: ''Sodor as Mannin'') in the Province of York in the Church of England. The diocese only covers the Isle of Man. The Peel Cathedral, Cathedr ...
from 1605 to 1633. The early Manx script has some similarities with orthographical systems found occasionally in Scotland and in Ireland for the transliteration of Gaelic, such as the
Book of the Dean of Lismore Two facsimiles, printed by William Forbes Skene in 1862; below are lines from the Countess of Argyll; above is a genealogy of the MacGregors. The ''Book of the Dean of Lismore'' ( gd, Leabhar Deathan Lios Mòir) is a Scotland, Scottish manuscrip ...
, as well as some extensive texts based on English and Scottish English orthographical practices of the time. Little secular
Manx literature Literature in the Manx language Manx ( gv, Gaelg or , pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a Goidelic language of the insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of ...
has been preserved. The New Testament was first published in 1767. When the
Anglican church Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *W ...

Anglican church
authorities started to produce written literature in the Manx language in the 18th century, the system developed by John Philips was further "anglicised"; the one feature retained from Welsh orthography was the use of to represent
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
(e.g. "horse" and "help" as well as (e.g. "knowledge"), though it is also used to represent , as in English (e.g. "John" (vocative), "fish"). Other works produced in the 18th and 19th centuries include catechisms, hymn books and religious tracts. A translation of ''
Paradise Lost ''Paradise Lost'' is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674). The first version, published in 1667, consists of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse (poetry), verse. A second edition fol ...

Paradise Lost
'' was made in 1796. A considerable amount of secular literature has been produced in the 20th and 21st centuries as part of the language revival. In 2006, the first full-length novel in Manx, ''Dunveryssyn yn Tooder-Folley'' (''The Vampire Murders'') was published by Brian Stowell, after being serialised in the press. There is an increasing amount of literature available in the language, and recent publications include Manx versions of the ''Gruffalo'' and ''Gruffalo's Child''. In 2019 Rob Teare translated
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de sainte exupery, simply known as de Saint-Exupéry (, , ; 29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944), was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of ...

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
's ''
The Little Prince ''The Little Prince'' (french: Le Petit Prince, ) is a novella by French aristocrat, writer, and military aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. It was first published in English and French in the US by Reynal & Hitchcock in April 1943, and posthumo ...
'' into Manx.


Official recognition

Manx is not officially recognised by any national or regional government, although its contribution to Manx culture and tradition is acknowledged by some governmental and non-governmental bodies. For example: The Standing Orders of the House of Keys provide that: "The proceedings of the House shall be in English; but if a Member at any point pronounces a customary term or sentence in Manx Gaelic or any other language, the Speaker may call upon the Member for a translation." An example was at the sitting on 12 February 2019, when an MHK used the expression ''boghtnid'', stated to mean "nonsense". Manx is used in the annual
Tynwald Tynwald ( gv, Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald ( gv, Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political en ...
ceremony and Manx words are used in official
Tynwald Tynwald ( gv, Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald ( gv, Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political en ...
publications. For the purpose of strengthening its contribution to local culture and community, Manx is recognised under the
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and internationa ...
and in the framework of the British-Irish Council. Manx is taught as a second language at all of the island's primary and secondary schools. The lessons are optional and instruction is provided by the
Department of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversigh ...
's Manx Language Team which teach up to
A Level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
standard. The
Bunscoill Ghaelgagh Bunscoill Ghaelgagh is a government run Manx-language primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the UK & Australia), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in the US & Canada) is a school for primary education ...

Bunscoill Ghaelgagh
, a primary school at
St John's Saint John's or St. John's may refer to: Places Canada * St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador * St. Johns (provincial electoral district), in North Winnipeg * St. John's (electoral district), a defunct federal riding in Quebec from 1867 to 1892 ...
, has 67 children, as of September 2016, who receive nearly all of their education through the medium of the language. Children who have attended the school have the opportunity to receive some of their secondary education through the language at Queen Elizabeth II High School in . The playgroup organisation
Mooinjer Veggey is the Manx Manx (; formerly sometimes spelled Manks) is an adjective (and derived noun) describing things or people related to the Isle of Man: * Manx people **Manx surnames * Isle of Man It may also refer to: Languages * Manx language, also k ...
, which operates the , runs a series of preschool groups that introduce the language. The Isle of Man comprised the one site for the Manx language in the
Atlas Linguarum Europae The Atlas Linguarum Europae (literally ''Atlas of the Languages of Europe'', ALE in acronym) is a linguistic atlas project launched in 1970 with the help of Unesco, and published from 1975 to 2007. The ALE used its own phonetic transcription system, ...
, a project that compared dialects and languages across all countries in Europe.


Learning the language

There are an increasing number of resources available for those wanting to learn the language. The Manx Language Development Officer for
Culture Vannin Culture Vannin is the trading name for the Manx Heritage Foundation, established in 1982 by the Isle of Man Government to promote Manx Isle of Man#Culture, culture, heritage and Manx language, language. It was rebranded in February 2014, having pre ...
manages th
Learnmanx.com
website which has a wide variety of resources. These includ


new podcast
in Manx, the 100

challenge and th
Video-a-day
in Manx series. The most recent development on the adult language front is the creation of a new on-line course, Say Something in Man
SaySomethingin
which has been created in conjunction with the Say Something in Wels
SaySomethingin
It is hoped that this will be the main way on-line learners will access the language from now on. 2016 also saw the launch of a new dictionary for learners published by Culture Vannin.


Media

Two weekly programmes in Manx are available on medium wave on Manx Radio: ''Traa dy liooar'' on Monday an
''Jamys Jeheiney''
on Friday. Th
news in Manx
is available on-line from Manx Radio, who have three other weekly programmes that use the language
''Clare ny Gael''''Shiaght Laa''
an
''Moghrey Jedoonee''
Several news readers on Manx Radio also use a good deal of incidental Manx. The ''Isle of Man Examiner'' has a monthly bilingual column in Manx. The first film to be made in Manx – the 22-minute-long ''Ny Kirree fo Niaghtey'' (The Sheep luralUnder the Snow) – premiered in 1983 and was entered for the 5th Celtic Film and Television Festival in Cardiff in 1984. It was directed by Shorys Y Creayrie (George Broderick) for Foillan Films of Laxey, and is about the background to an early 18th-century folk song. In 2013, a short film, Solace in Wicca, was produced with financial assistance from
Culture Vannin Culture Vannin is the trading name for the Manx Heritage Foundation, established in 1982 by the Isle of Man Government to promote Manx Isle of Man#Culture, culture, heritage and Manx language, language. It was rebranded in February 2014, having pre ...
, CinemaNX and
Isle of Man Film Isle of Man Film is a regional screen agency, part of Isle of Man Government’s Department of Economic Development. They drive inward investment in relation to film and the creative industries. Since 1995 Isle of Man Film has built a worldwide r ...
. A series of short cartoons about the life of Cuchulain which were produced by BBC Northern Ireland are available as are a series of cartoons on Manx mythology. Most significant is a 13-part DVD series Manx translation of the award-winning series
Friends and Heroes
'.


Signage

Bilingual road, street, village and town boundary signs are common throughout the Isle of Man. All other road signs are in English only. Business signage in Manx is gradually being introduced but is not mandated by law; however, the 1985 Tynwald Report on the use of Manx states that signage should be bilingual except where a Manx phrase is the norm.


The Manx Bible

The Bible was first produced in Manx by a group of Anglican clergymen on the island. The Gospel of Matthew was printed in 1748. The four Gospels were produced in 1763 and (the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ) in 1767 by the
Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is a UK-based Christian charity (registered number 231144). Founded in 1698 by Thomas Bray, it has worked for over 300 years to increase awareness of the Christian faith in the UK and across the ...
(SPCK). In 1772 the Old Testament was translated from Hebrew and printed, together with the Books of
Wisdom of Solomon The Book of Wisdom, or the Wisdom of Solomon, is a Jewish work written in Greek and most likely composed in Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic lang ...
and
Ecclesiasticus The Book of Sirach, also called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach (), and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (; abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a Jewish work originally in Hebrew of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 ...
(Sirach) from the
Apocrypha Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews fro ...
. (The Holy Bible) of the Old and New Testaments was published as one book by the SPCK in 1775. The bicentenary was celebrated on the Isle of Man in 1975 and included a set of stamps from the Isle of Man Post Office. This 1775 edition effectively fixed the modern orthography of Manx Gaelic, which has changed little since. Jenner claims that some
bowdlerisation Expurgation, also known as bowdlerization, is a form of censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sens ...
had occurred in the translation, e.g. the occupation of
Rahab Rahab (; Arabic: رحاب, a vast space of a land) was, according to the Book of Joshua, a woman who lived in Tell es-Sultan, Jericho in the Promised Land and assisted the Israelites in capturing the city by hiding two men who had been sent to s ...
the prostitute is rendered as , a hostess or female inn-keeper. There was a translation of the (Psalms of David) in metre in Manx by the Rev John Clague, vicar of Rushen, which was printed with the
Book of Common Prayer ''Book of Common Prayer'' (''BCP'') is the short title of a number of related prayer book A prayer book is a book containing prayers and perhaps devotional readings, for private or communal use, or in some cases, outlining the liturgy of rel ...

Book of Common Prayer
of 1768. Bishop Hildesley required that these
Metrical Psalms A metrical psalter is a kind of Bible translation: a book containing a metrical translation of all or part of the Book of Psalms in vernacular A vernacular, or vernacular language is a term for a type of speech variety, generally used to ...
were to be sung in churches. These were reprinted by the Manx Language Society in 1905. The British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS) published the (New Testament) in 1810 and reprinted it in 1824. (the Holy Bible) of the Old Testament and New Testament (without the two books of the Apocrypha) was first printed as a whole in 1819. BFBS last printed anything on paper in Manx in 1936 when it reprinted (the Gospel of St John); this was reprinted by (The Manx Gaelic Society) in 1968. The Manx Bible was republished by Shearwater Press in July 1979 as (Manx Family Bible), which was a reproduction of the BFBS 1819 Bible. Since 2014 the BFBS 1936 Manx Gospel of John has been available online on YouVersion and Bibles.org.


Church

Manx was used in some churches into the late 19th century. Although church services in Manx were once fairly common, they occur infrequently now. Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh, the Manx Language Society, hold an annua
Christmas service
at locations around the island.


Classification and dialects

Manx is one of the three descendants of
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
(via Middle Irish and early Modern Gaelic), and is closely related to
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
. It shares a number of developments in phonology, vocabulary and grammar with Irish and Scottish Gaelic (in some cases only with dialects of these) and shows a number of unique changes. There are two attested historical dialects of Manx, Northern Manx and Southern Manx. A third dialect may have existed in-between, around Douglas.


Similarities and differences with Irish and Scottish Gaelic

Manx shares with Scottish Gaelic the partial loss of contrastive Palatalization (phonetics), palatalisation of labial consonants; thus while in Irish the velarised consonants contrast phonemically with palatalised , in Scottish Gaelic and Manx, the phonemic contrast has been lost to some extent. A consequence of this phonemic merger is that Middle Irish unstressed word-final (spelled ''-(a)ibh'', ''-(a)imh'' in Irish and Gaelic) has merged with (''-(e)abh'', ''-(e)amh'') in Manx; both have become , spelled ''-oo'' or ''-u(e)''. Examples include ("to stand"; Irish ), ("religion"; Irish ), ("fainting"; Early Modern Irish , lit. ''in clouds''), and ("on you (plural)"; Irish ). Medial and final *bh and *mh have become and in general in Manx, thus ''shiu'' 'you PL', Scottish and Irish Gaelic ''sibh'' (''siph'' in Northern Irish, ''sib'' in South Connacht Irish; Lewis Gàidhlig has the variant ''siù'', besides the more general ''sibh''), -bh in final consonant clusters, e.g. Manx ''sharroo'' 'bitter', Scottish ''searbh'' , Northern and Western Irish ''searbh'' , Southern Irish ''searbh'' , between vowels, e.g. Manx ''awin'' 'river', Scottish ''abhainn'' , Irish ''abhainn'' , word-finally in monosyllables, e.g. Manx ''laaue'' 'hand', Scottish ''làmh'' , Northern Irish , Western Irish ''lámh'' , Southern Irish , at the end of stressed syllables (see further below), as in ''sourey'' 'summer', Scotland and Ireland ''samhradh'', Scottish , Northern Irish , Western and Southern Irish . In all this Manx is most like Northern Irish. Rare retentions of the older pronunciation of "bh" include ''Divlyn'', ''Divlin'' 'Dublin', Middle Irish ''Duibhlinn'' , also written ''Duibhlinn'' in Modern Irish and Scots Gaelic. Moreover, similarly to Munster Irish, historical ''bh'' and ''mh'' (nasalised ) tend to be lost in the middle or at the end of a word in Manx, either with compensatory lengthening or vocalisation as u resulting in diphthongisation with the preceding vowel. For example, Manx ("winter") and ("mountains") correspond to Irish and (Southern Irish dialect spelling and pronunciation ''gíre'' () and ''sléte'' ()). Another similarity to Munster Irish is the development of the Old Irish diphthongs before velarised consonants (spelled ''ao'' in Irish and Scottish Gaelic) to in many words, as in ("carpenter") and ("narrow") (spelled and in Irish and Scottish, and pronounced virtually the same in Munster). Like western and northern dialects of Irish (cf. Irish phonology#Word-initial consonant clusters, Irish phonology) and most dialects of Scottish Gaelic, Manx has changed the historical consonant clusters to . For example, Middle Irish ("mockery") and ("women") have become and respectively in Manx. The affrication of to is also common to Manx, northern Irish, and Scottish Gaelic. Also like northern and western dialects of Irish, as well as like southern dialects of Scottish Gaelic (e.g. Isle of Arran, Arran, Kintyre), the unstressed word-final syllable of Middle Irish (spelled ''-(a)idh'' and ''-(a)igh'') has developed to in Manx, where it is spelled ''-ee'', as in ("buy"; cf. Irish ) and ("apparatus"; cf. Gaelic ). Another property Manx shares with Ulster Irish and some dialects of Scottish Gaelic is that rather than appears in unstressed syllables before (in Manx spelling, ''agh''), for example ("straight") (Irish ), ("to remember") (Gaelic ). Like southern and western varieties of Irish and northern varieties of Scottish Gaelic, but unlike the geographically closer varieties of Ulster Irish and Arran and Kintyre Gaelic, Manx shows vowel lengthening or diphthongisation before the Old Irish Irish phonology#Fortis and lenis sonorants, fortis and lenis sonorants. For example, ("children") , ("brown") , ("butter") correspond to Irish/Scottish Gaelic , , and respectively, which have long vowels or diphthongs in western and southern Irish and in the Scottish Gaelic dialects of the Outer Hebrides and Skye, thus western Irish , Southern Irish/Northern Scottish , , ), but short vowels and 'long' consonants in northern Irish, Arran, and Kintyre, , and . Another similarity with southern Irish is the treatment of Middle Irish word-final unstressed , spelled ''-(e)adh'' in Irish and Scottish Gaelic. In nouns (including verbal nouns), this became in Manx, as it did in southern Irish, e.g. ("war") , ("to praise") ; cf. Irish and , pronounced and in southern Irish. In finite verb forms before full nouns (as opposed to pronouns) became in Manx, as in southern Irish, e.g. ("would praise"), cf. Irish , pronounced in southern Irish.


Dialects

Linguistic analysis of the last few dozen native speakers reveals a number of dialectal differences between the northern and the southern parts of the island. Northern Manx was reflected by speakers from towns and villages from Maughold (parish), Maughold in the northeast of the island to on the west coast. Southern Manx was used by speakers from the sheading of Rushen. It is possible that written Manx represents a 'midlands' dialect of Douglas and surrounding areas. In Southern Manx, older ''á'' and in some cases ''ó'' became . In Northern Manx the same happened, but ''á'' sometimes remained as well. For example, ("day", cf. Irish ) was in the south but or in the north. Old ''ó'' is always in both dialects, e.g. ("young", cf. Irish ) is in both dialects. In many words before ''rt'', ''rd'' and ''rg'', and in one or two other words ''á'', lengthened ''a'' and ''ó'' have become , as in ''paayrt'' 'part' , ''ard'' 'high' , ''jiarg'' 'red' , ''argid'' 'money, silver' and ''aarey'' 'gold GEN' . In Northern Manx, older ''(e)a'' before ''nn'' in the same syllable is diphthongised, while in Southern Manx it is lengthened but remains a monophthong. For example, ("head", cf. Irish ) is in the north but in the south. Words with ''ua'' and in some cases ''ao'' in Irish and Scottish are spelled with ''eay'' in Manx. In Northern Manx, this sound was , while in Southern Manx it was , , or . For example, ("wind", cf. Irish ) is in the north and in the south, while ("coal", cf. Irish ) is in the north and , , or in the south. In both the north and the south, there is a tendency to insert a short sound before a word-final in monosyllabic words, as in for ("whole") and for ("woman"). This phenomenon is known as pre-occlusion. In Southern Manx, however, there is pre-occlusion of before and of before , as in for ("walking") and for ("ship"). These forms are generally pronounced without pre-occlusion in the north. Preocclusion of before , on the other hand, is more common in the north, as in ("heavy"), which is in the north but or in the south. This feature is also found in Cornish language, Cornish. Southern Manx tended to lose word-initial before , while Northern Manx usually preserved it, e.g. ("glen") is in the north and in the south, and ("knee") is in the north and in the south.


Phrases

Some simple conversational words and phrases:


Orthography

The Manx orthography is unlike that of Irish and Scottish Gaelic, both of which use similar spelling systems derived from written Early Modern Irish, alt. Classical Irish, which was the language of the educated Gaelic elite of both Ireland and Scotland (where it is called Classical Gaelic) until the mid-19th century. In general, these orthographies retain spelling and derivation from older Gaelic, which means that there is not in a one-to-one system. Both systems use only 18 letters to represent around 50 phonemes. While Manx in effect uses the English spelling system, except for and , the 24 letters used in its orthography likewise covers a similar range of phonemes, and therefore many digraphs and trigraphs are used. The Manx orthography was developed by people who were unaware of traditional Gaelic orthography, as they had learned literacy in
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
and English (the initial development in the 16th century), then only English (later developments). Therefore, the orthography is based on early Modern English pronunciation, and to a small extent Welsh, rather than from a pan-Gaelic point of view. The result is an inconsistent and only partially phonemic spelling system, in a similar way as spelling in English. T. F. O'Rahilly expressed the opinion that Gaelic in the Isle of Man was saddled with an inadequate spelling which is neither traditional nor phonetic; if the traditional Gaelic orthography had been preserved, the close kinship that exists between Manx Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic would be obvious to all at first sight. There is no evidence of Gaelic type, Gaelic script having been used on the island.


Cedilla

Manx uses relatively few diacritics, but a cedilla is often (but not exclusively) used to differentiate between the two pronunciations of ''ch'': * ''Çhiarn'' (), meaning ''lord'', is pronounced with the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate, palato-alveolar affricate , as in the English "church" * ''Chamoo'' (), meaning ''nor'' or ''neither'', is pronounced with the voiceless velar fricative, velar fricative , as in the Standard Scottish English, Scottish pronunciation of the word "loch" (), a sound which is commonly represented by ''gh'' at the ends of words in Manx (as it often is in the English of Ireland).


Examples

The following examples are taken from Broderick 1984–86, 1:178–79 and 1:350–53. The first example is from a speaker of Northern Manx, the second from
Ned Maddrell Edward "Ned" Maddrell (20 August 187727 December 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who, at the time of his death, was the last surviving first language, native speaker of the Manx language. Early life Maddrell was born at Corvalley, nea ...
, a speaker of Southern Manx. !Gloss , - , , They used to think if a horse was looking tired and weary in the morning then it had been with the fairies all night and they would bring the priest to put his blessing on it. , - , , There was a woman here last week and she wanted me to teach her to say the Lord's Prayer. She said that she used to say it when she was a little girl, but she has forgotten it all, and she wanted to learn it again to say it at a class or something. And I said I would do my best to help her and she came here to hear it, and do you want to hear me say it?


Gaelic versions of the Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer has been translated into all the Goidelic tongues. Although the wordings are not completely cognate, they demonstrate the different orthographies. :The standard version of the Lord's Prayer in Manx :Ayr ain t'ayns niau, :Casherick dy row dt'ennym. :Dy jig dty reeriaght. :Dt'aigney dy row jeant er y thalloo, :myr t'ayns niau. :Cur dooin nyn arran jiu as gagh laa, :as leih dooin nyn loghtyn, :myr ta shin leih dauesyn ta jannoo loghtyn nyn 'oi. :As ny leeid shin ayns miolagh, :agh livrey shin veih olk: :Son lhiats y reeriaght, as y phooar, as y ghloyr, son dy bragh as dy bragh. :Amen. :Manx version of 1713 (with long S) :Ayr Ain, t'ayns Niau; :Caſherick dy rou dt'ennym; :Di jig dty Reereeaght; :Dt'aigney dy rou jeant er y Talloo myr ta ayns Niau; :Cur dooin nyn Arran jiu as gagh laa; :As leih dooin nyn Loghtyn, myr ta ſhin leih daueſyn ta janoo loghtyn ny noi ſhin; :As ny leeid ſhin ayns Miolagh; :Agh livrey ſhin veih olk; :Son liats y Reereeaght y Phooar as y Ghloyr, ſon dy bragh as dy bragh. :Amen :The prayer in Old Irish :A athair fil hi nimib, :Noemthar thainm. :Tost do flaithius. :Did do toil i talmain :amail ata in nim. :Tabair dun indiu ar sasad lathi. :Ocus log dun ar fiachu :amail logmaitne diar fhechemnaib. :Ocus nis lecea sind i n-amus n-dofulachtai. :Acht ron soer o cech ulc. :Amen ropfir. :The Prayer in modern Irish :Ár n-Athair, atá ar neamh: :go naofar d'ainm (alt. go naomhaíthear t'ainm). :Go dtaga do ríocht (alt.go dtagaidh do ríocht). :Go ndéantar do thoil ar an talamh (alt. ar an dtalamh), :mar dhéantar ar neamh. :Ár n-arán laethúil tabhair dúinn inniu, :agus maith dúinn ár bhfiacha (alt. ár gcionta), :mar mhaithimid dár bhféichiúna féin (alt. mar a mhaithimíd dóibh a chiontaíonn inár n-aghaidh). :Agus ná lig sinn i gcathú (alt. i gcathaíbh), :ach saor sinn ó olc (alt. ón olc). :Óir is leatsa an Ríocht agus an Chumhacht agus an Ghlóir, trí shaol na saol (alt. le saol na saol / go síoraí). :Amen (alt. Áiméan). :The Prayer in Scottish Gaelic :Ar n-Athair a tha air nèamh, :Gu naomhaichear d' ainm. :Thigeadh do rìoghachd. :Dèanar do thoil air an talamh, :mar a nithear air nèamh. :Tabhair dhuinn an-diugh ar n-aran làitheil. :Agus maith dhuinn ar fiachan, :amhail a mhaitheas sinne dar luchd-fiach. :Agus na leig ann am buaireadh sinn; :ach saor sinn o olc: :oir is leatsa an rìoghachd, agus a' chumhachd, agus a' ghlòir, gu sìorraidh. :Amen.


Spelling to sound correspondences


Vowels


Consonants


Phonology


Consonants

The consonant phonemes of Manx are as follows: The voiceless plosives are pronounced with aspiration (phonetics), aspiration. The dental, postalveolar and palato-velar plosives are affrication, affricated to in many contexts. Manx has an optional process of lenition of plosives between vowels, whereby voiced plosives and voiceless fricatives become voiced fricatives and voiceless plosives become either voiced plosives or voiced fricatives. This process introduces the allophones to the series of voiced fricatives in Manx. The voiced fricative may be further lenited to , and may disappear altogether. Examples include: ;Voiceless plosive to voiced plosive * > : "flag, rag" * > : "sin" ;Voiceless plosive to voiced fricative * > : "cup" * > : "boat" * > : "tooth" ;Voiced plosive to voiced fricative * > : "horse" * > : "face" * > : "prayer" * > > : "stick" * > : "born" ;Voiceless fricative to voiced fricative * > or : "married" * > : "stand" * > : "easy" * > > : "beginning" * > : "live" * > > ∅: "past" Another optional process of Manx phonology is pre-occlusion, the insertion of a very short plosive consonant before a sonorant consonant. In Manx, this applies to stressed monosyllabic words (i.e. words one syllable long). The inserted consonant is homorganic with the following sonorant, which means it has the same place of articulation. Long vowels are often shortened before pre-occluded sounds. Examples include: * > : > "heavy" * > : > "head" * > : > "birds" * > : > "ship" * > : > "walking" The trill is realised as a one- or two-contact flap at the beginning of syllable, and as a stronger trill when preceded by another consonant in the same syllable. At the end of a syllable, can be pronounced either as a strong trill or, more frequently, as a weak fricative , which may vocalise to a nonsyllabic or disappear altogether. This vocalisation may be due to the influence of Manx English, which is itself a non-rhotic accent. Examples of the pronunciation of include: * "snare" * "bread" * "big"


Vowels

The vowel phonemes of Manx are as follows: The status of and as separate phonemes is debatable, but is suggested by the allophony of certain words such as "is", "women", and so on. An alternative analysis is that Manx has the following system, where the vowels and have allophones ranging from through to . As with Irish and Scottish Gaelic, there is a large amount of vowel allophony, such as that of . This depends mainly on the 'broad' and 'slender' status of the neighbouring consonants: When stressed, is realised as . Manx has a relatively large number of diphthongs, all of them Height-harmonic, falling:


Stress

Stress generally falls on the first syllable of a word in Manx, but in many cases, stress is attracted to a long vowel in the second syllable. Examples include: * "sprite" * "busy" * "royal" * "advantage"


Morphology


Initial consonant mutations

Like all modern Celtic languages, Manx shows consonant mutation#Celtic languages, initial consonant mutations, which are processes by which the initial consonant of a word is altered according to its morphology (linguistics), morphological and/or syntax, syntactic environment. Manx has two mutations: lenition and eclipsis, found on nouns and verbs in a variety of environments; adjectives can undergo lenition but not eclipsis. In the late spoken language of the 20th century the system was breaking down, with speakers frequently failing to use mutation in environments where it was called for, and occasionally using it in environments where it was not called for. In the corpus of the late spoken language, there is also one example of the eclipsis (nasalisation) of : the sentence ("I have found the lamb"), where ''ng'' is pronounced . However, probably this was a mis-transcription; the verbal noun in this case is not "get, fetch", but rather "find".


Nouns

Manx nouns display gender, number and sometimes case, for instance, for feminine "foot".


Pronouns

In addition to regular forms, personal pronouns also have emphatic versions.


Verbs

Manx verbs generally form their finite verb, finite forms by means of periphrasis: inflected forms of the auxiliary verbs "to be" or "to do" are combined with the verbal noun of the main verb. Only the future tense, future, conditional tense, conditional, preterite, and imperative mood, imperative can be formed directly by inflecting the main verb, but even in these tenses, the periphrastic formation is more common in Late Spoken Manx. The fully inflected forms of the regular verb "to throw" are as follows. In addition to the forms below, a past participle may be formed using : "thrown". 1.template:Ref label, ^ First person singular, making the use of a following subject pronoun redundant 2.template:Ref label, ^ First person plural, making the use of a following subject pronoun redundant 3.template:Ref label, ^ Used with all other persons, meaning an accompanying subject must be stated, e.g. "he will throw", "they will throw" There are a few peculiarities when a verb begins with a vowel, i.e. the addition of in the preterite and in the future and conditional dependent. Below is the conjugation of "to grow". There is a small number of irregular verbs, the most irregular of all being "be".


Prepositions

Like the other Insular Celtic languages, Manx has so-called inflected prepositions, contractions of a preposition with a pronoun, pronominal direct object, as the following common prepositions show. Note the sometimes identical form of the uninflected preposition and its third person singular masculine inflected form. form of the uninflected preposition and its third person singular masculine inflected form.


Numbers

Number are traditionally vigesimal in Manx, e.g. "twenty", "forty" ("two twenties"), "sixty" ("three twenties").


Syntax

Like most Insular Celtic languages, Manx uses verb–subject–object word order: the inflected verb of a sentence precedes the subject (grammar), subject, which itself precedes the direct object. However, as noted above, most finite verbs are formed periphrastically, using an auxiliary verb in conjunction with the verbal noun. In this case, only the auxiliary verb precedes the subject, while the verbal noun comes after the subject. The auxiliary verb may be a modal verb rather than a form of ("be") or ("do"). Particles like the negative ("not") precede the inflected verb. Examples: When the auxiliary verb is a form of ("do"), the direct object precedes the verbal noun and is connected to it with the particle : As in Irish (cf. Irish syntax#The forms meaning "to be"), there are two ways of expressing "to be" in Manx: with the substantive verb , and with the copula. The substantive verb is used when the predicate (grammar), predicate is an adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrase. Examples: Where the predicate is a noun, it must be converted to a prepositional phrase headed by the preposition ("in") + possessive pronoun (agreeing with the subject) in order for the substantive verb to be grammatical: Otherwise, the copula is used when the predicate is a noun. The copula itself takes the form or in the present tense, but it is often omitted in affirmative statements: In questions and negative sentences, the present tense of the copula is :


Vocabulary

Manx vocabulary is predominantly of Goidelic origin, derived from Old Irish and closely related to words in Irish and Scottish Gaelic. However, Manx itself, as well as the languages from which it is derived, borrowed words from other languages as well, especially Latin,
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
, French language, French (particularly Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman), and English (both Middle English and Modern English). The following table shows a selection of nouns from the Swadesh list and indicates their pronunciations and etymologies. See wikt:Appendix:Celtic Swadesh lists, Celtic Swadesh lists for the complete list in all the Celtic languages.


Loanwords

Foreign loanwords are primarily Norse language, Norse and English language, English, with a smaller number coming from French. Some examples of Norse loanwords are ''garey'' ("garden", from ''wikt:garðr, garðr'', "enclosure") and ''sker'' meaning a sea rock (from ''wikt:sker, sker'', compare with ''wikt:skjær#Etymology 2, skjær'' and ''wikt:sker#Icelandic, sker''). Examples of French loanwords are ''danjeyr'' ("danger", from ''wikt:danger#French, danger'') and ''vondeish'' ("advantage", from ''wikt:avantage, avantage''). English loanwords were common in late (pre-revival) Manx, e.g. ''boy'' ("boy"), ''badjer'' ("badger"), rather than the more usual Gaelic ''guilley'' and ''brock''.
Henry Jenner Henry Jenner (8 August 1848 – 8 May 1934) was a British scholar of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...
, on asking someone what he was doing, was told ''Ta mee smokal pipe'' ("I am smoking a pipe"), and that "[he] certainly considered that he was talking Manx, and not English, in saying it." In more recent years, there has been a reaction against such borrowing, resulting in coinages for technical vocabulary. Despite this, calques exist in Manx, not necessarily obvious to its speakers. Some religious terms come ultimately from Latin, Greek and Hebrew, e.g. ''casherick'' (holy), from the Latin ''consecrātus''; ''mooinjer'' (people) from the Latin ''monasterium'' (originally a monastery; ''agglish'' (church) from the Greek ''ἐκκλησία'' (''ekklesia'', literally meaning assembly) and ''abb'' (abbot) from the Hebrew "אבא" (''abba'', meaning "father"). These did not necessarily come directly into Manx, but via Old Irish. In more recent times, ''ulpan'' has been borrowed from modern Hebrew. Many Irish and English loanwords also have a classical origin, e.g. ''çhellveeish'' (Irish ''teilefís'') and ''çhellvane'' meaning television and telephone respectively. Foreign language words (usually known via English) are used occasionally especially for ethnic food, e.g. chorizo, spaghetti. To fill gaps in recorded Manx vocabulary, revivalists have referred to modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic for words and inspiration. Going in the other direction, Manx Gaelic has influenced Manx English (Anglo-Manx). Common words and phrases in Anglo-Manx originating in the language include ''tholtan'' (the "th" is pronounced as a "t") meaning a ruined farmhouse, ''quaaltagh'' meaning a first-foot, ''keeill'' meaning a church (especially an old one), ''cammag'', ''traa-dy-liooar'' meaning "time enough", and
Tynwald Tynwald ( gv, Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald ( gv, Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political en ...
(''tinvaal''), which is ultimately of Norse origin, but comes via Manx. It is suggested that the House of Keys takes its name from ''Kiare as Feed'' (four and twenty), which is the number of its sitting members.


Comparative vocabulary examples


See also

* Cornish language, Cornish, another revived Celtic language. * Gaelic revival, Irish language revival * List of Celtic-language media * List of revived languages * List of television channels in Celtic languages


Notes


References

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External links


Percentage of resident population with a knowledge of Manx Gaelic

A bit of Manx Gaelic history


at Omniglot


isle-of-man.com language section

Manx dictionaries via Multidict

Online Manx Lessons with MP3 recordings


* [https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21242667 Manx: Bringing a language back from the dead]
Media article about the Manx revivalManx free online course
{{DEFAULTSORT:Manx Language Manx language, Languages of the United Kingdom Goidelic languages Languages of Europe Endangered Celtic languages Manx culture, Language Verb–subject–object languages Language revival Articles containing video clips