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Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, (, ; 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the
Commonwealth of the Philippines The Commonwealth of the Philippines ( es, Commonwealth de Filipinas or ''Mancomunidad de Filipinas''; tl, Kómonwélt ng Pilipinas or ''Malasariling Pámahalaán ng Pilipinas'') was the administrative body that governed the Philippines ...
from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines (as opposed to the government of previous Philippine states), and is considered to have been the second
president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), ...
, after
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
(1899–1901), whom Quezon defeated in the 1935 presidential election. During his presidency, Quezon tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. His other major decisions include the reorganization of the islands' military defense, approval of a recommendation for government reorganization, the promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, dealing with the foreign stranglehold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and opposing graft and corruption within the government. He established a
government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
in the U.S. with the outbreak of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and the threat of Japanese invasion. It was during his exile in the U.S. that he died of
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
at
Saranac Lake, New York Saranac Lake is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a populat ...
. He was buried in the
Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia Arlington County is a County (United States), county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virgin ...

Arlington National Cemetery
until the end of World War II, when his remains were moved to
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
. His final resting place is the
Quezon Memorial Circle The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park located in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. The park is located inside a large traffic circle in the shape of an ellipse and bounded by the Elliptical Road and is the main park of Quezon City ( ...
. In 2015, the Board of the
International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation (IRWF) is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch ...
approved a posthumous bestowal of the
Wallenberg Medal Raoul Wallenberg in 1944 The Wallenberg Medal of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 in Detroit, ...
upon President Quezon and to the people of the Philippines for having reached out, between 1937 and 1941, to the victims of
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify wi ...
. President
Benigno Aquino III Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino IIIQuezon, Manuel L.. (June 19, 2010Trivia on Aquino and Binay ABS-CBN News. Retrieved on January 23, 2012. (, born February 8, 1960), also known as "PNoy" or "Noynoy", is a politician who served as the from ...
and then-94-year-old Maria Zenaida Quezon Avanceña, the daughter of the former president, were informed of this recognition. Scholars have also described Quezon's leadership as a 'de facto dictatorship' (Pante, 2017) and that he was "the first Filipino politician to integrate all levels of politics into a synergy of power", having removed his term limits as president and turning the Senate into an extension of the executive through constitutional amendments (McCoy, 2017, p. 13).


Early life and career

Quezon was born on August 19, 1878 in Baler in the district of El Príncipe (now
Baler A baler or hay baler is a piece of farm machinery Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system, a system that manages the power of forces and movements to accomplish a task * Mach ...

Baler
,
Aurora An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights (aurora polaris), northern lights (aurora borealis), or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in high-l ...
). His parents were Lucio Velez Quezon (died 1898) and María Dolores Molina (1840–1893). His father was a ''maestro'' (primary grade school teacher) from
Paco, Manila Paco, formerly known as Dilao, is a Manila#Barangays and districts, district of Manila, Philippines located south of the Pasig River, and San Miguel, Manila, San Miguel, west of Santa Ana, Manila, Santa Ana, southwest of Pandacan, Manila, Pandacan, ...
and a retired ''sargento de Guardia Civil'' (sergeant of the
Spanish Civil Guard The Civil Guard ( es, Guardia Civil; ) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , n ...
), while his mother was a ''maestra'' (primary grade school teacher) in their hometown. His father spoke and taught
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
as a teacher. According to historian Augusto de Viana and as written in his timeline on the history of Baler, Quezon's father, Lucio, was a
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
who came from the Parián (Chinatown district outside
Intramuros Intramuros (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Intramuros
) in
Paco, Manila Paco, formerly known as Dilao, is a Manila#Barangays and districts, district of Manila, Philippines located south of the Pasig River, and San Miguel, Manila, San Miguel, west of Santa Ana, Manila, Santa Ana, southwest of Pandacan, Manila, Pandacan, ...
, though learned how to speak Spanish presumably in his time in the Spanish Guardia Civil and eventually married his mother who was a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
mestiza (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America to refer to a person of a combined European colonization of the Americas, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous American descent. The term was used as an ethnic/racial catego ...
born through a Spanish priest, Father Jose Urbina de Esparragosa, who arrived in Baler in 1847 serving as the town's parish priest. Although both his parents must have contributed to his education, he received most of his primary education from the public school established by the Spanish government in his village, as part of the establishment of the free public education system in the Philippines, as he himself testified during his speech delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of the Jones Bill, in 1914. He later boarded at the
Colegio de San Juan de Letran The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, (transl: College of San Juan de Letran) also referred to by its acronym CSJL, is a private Catholic coeducational basic and higher education institution owned and run by the friars of the Order of Preachers ...
where he completed secondary school and graduated with the highest honors. In 1899, Quezon left his law studies at the
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Span ...

University of Santo Tomas
to join the independence movement. During the Philippine–American War, he was an ''
aide-de-camp An ''aide-de-camp'' (, ; French expression meaning literally ''helper in the ilitarycamp'') is a personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a per ...

aide-de-camp
'' to
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
.Office of History and Preservation, United States Congress. (n.d.). Quezon, Manuel Luis, (1878–1944). ''Biographical Directory of the United States Congress''. Retrieved 30 September 2010. He rose to the rank of Major and fought in the
Bataan Bataan ( ; tl, Lalawigan ng Bataan ; pam, Lalauígan ning Bataan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...

Bataan
sector. However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his first break in the American press, Quezon returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place. He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal (treasurer) for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a municipal councilor of
Lucena , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the region of the . It is the capital city of the Provinces of the Philippines, province of Quezon Province, Quezon where it is geographically si ...

Lucena
and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election.


Congressional career


House of Representatives

In 1907, he was elected as representative of
Tayabas , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and admi ...

Tayabas
's 1st district for the first
Philippine Assembly The Philippine Assembly (sometimes called the Philippine National Assembly) was the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" ...
– which later became the House of Representatives – where he served as majority floor leader and chairman of the committee on rules as well as the chairman also of the committee on appropriations. From 1909 to 1916, he served as one of the Philippines' two
resident commissioner Resident commissioner was or is an official title of several different types of commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remunerat ...
s to the
U.S. House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legis ...
, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law.


Senate

Quezon returned to Manila in 1916 and was elected senator of the Fifth Senatorial District. He was later elected Senate President by his peers, serving continuously until 1935 (19 consecutive years), the longest serving in history, until his younger province-mate from Tayabas, Senator
Lorenzo Tañada Lorenzo "Ka Tanny" Martinez Tañada Sr. CCLH (, born Lorenzo Tañada y Martínez; August 10, 1898 – May 28, 1992) was a Filipinos, Filipino nationalist, lawyer, solicitor general, Senate of the Philippines, senator, national athlete, and human ri ...
's four consecutive terms (24 years from 1947 to 1972). He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and secured the passage of the
Tydings–McDuffie Act The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (), is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American imperialism, American colony, to become an independent country after a ten ...
in 1934. In 1922, Quezon became the leader of the
Nacionalista Party The Nacionalista Party (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), ...
alliance ''Partido Nacionalista-Colectivista''.


Presidency


First term from 1935 to 1941

In 1935, Quezon won the Philippines' first national presidential election under the banner of the
Nacionalista Party The Nacionalista Party (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), ...
. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals,
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
and
Gregorio Aglipay Gregorio Aglipay Cruz y Labayán ( la, Gregorius Aglipay; Filipino: ''Gregorio Labayan Aglipay Cruz''; 5 May 1860 – 1 September 1940) was a former Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List ...

Gregorio Aglipay
. Quezon was inaugurated in November 1935. He is recognized as the second
President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or person ...
. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo Valencia of
Oriental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro ( tl, Silangang Mindoro: ilo, Amianan nga Mindoro; Hiligaynon language, Hiligaynon: ''Sidlanganong Mindoro''; es, Mindoro Oriental) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located on the island of Mindoro ...
filed a bill seeking instead to declare General
Miguel Malvar Miguel Malvar y Carpio (September 27, 1865 – October 13, 1911) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the P ...
as the second Philippine President, having directly succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901.


Administration and cabinet


Appointments 1935–1941


=Supreme Court appointments

= President Quezon was given the power, under the Reorganization Act, to appoint the first all-Filipino cabinet in the Philippines in 1935. From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were Americans. Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. Claro M. Recto and José P. Laurel were among Quezon's first appointees to replace the American justices. The membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice and ten associate justices, who sat ''en banc'' or in two divisions of five members each. * Ramón Avanceña – 1935 (
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
) – 1935–1941 *
José Abad Santos José Abad Santos (: February 19, 1886 – May 2, 1942) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines The chief justice of the Philippines ( fil, Punong Mahistrado ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme Court of the Phi ...
 – 1935 * Claro M. Recto - 1935–1936 * José P. Laurel – 1935 *
José Abad Santos José Abad Santos (: February 19, 1886 – May 2, 1942) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines The chief justice of the Philippines ( fil, Punong Mahistrado ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme Court of the Phi ...
(
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
) – 1941–1942


Government reorganization

To meet the demands of the newly established government set-up and in compliance with the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, as well as the requirements of the Constitution,
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Quezon, true to his pledge of "More Government and less politics", initiated a reorganization of the government bodies. To this effect, he established the Government Survey Board to study the existing institutions and in the light of the changed circumstances, make the necessary recommendations. Early results were seen with the revamping of the Executive Department. Offices and bureaus were either merged with one another or outrightly abolished. Some new ones, however, were created. President Quezon ordered the transfer of the
Philippine Constabulary The Philippine Constabulary (PC; tl, Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas, ''HPP''; es, Policía de Filipinas, ''PF'') was a gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A ...
from the Department of Interior, to the
Department of Finance A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation. A finance minister's portfolio has a large variety of names across the world, such as "treasury", ...
. Among the changes in the Executive Departments by way of modification in functions or new responsibilities, were those of the
National Defense National_Security_Council A_National_Security_Council_(NSC)_is_usually_an_executive_branch The_executive_is_the_branch_of__government_exercising__authority_in_and_holding_Moral_responsibility,_responsibility_for_the_governance_of_a_State_(p ...
,
Agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...
and
Commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...
,
Public Works Public works are a broad category of infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the serv ...

Public Works
and
Communications Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...
, and
Health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each ...
and
Public Welfare Welfare is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refer specifically to ''social insurance'' pro ...

Public Welfare
. In keeping with other exigencies posed by the Constitution, new offices and boards were created either by Executive Order or by appropriate legislative action. Among these were the
Council of National Defense The Council of National Defense was a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of ...
, the Board of National Relief, the
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
and
Sulu Sulu (; Tausug language, Tausūg: ''Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg''; tl, Lalawigan ng Sulu) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Bangsamoro, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Minda ...
Commission, and the
Civil Service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leader ...
Board of Appeals.


Social justice program

Pledged to improve the lot of the Philippine working class and taking inspiration from the social doctrines of
Pope Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII ( it, Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. He was the oldest pope (living till the age of 93), w ...

Pope Leo XIII
and
Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI ( it, Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christia ...
as well as the authoritative treatises of the world's leading sociologists, President Quezon started a vigorous program of
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
, which he introduced through appropriate executive measures and legislation obtained from the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. Thus, a court of Industrial Relations was established to mediate disputes, under certain conditions, minimizing the inconveniences of the strikes and lockouts. A minimum wage law was enacted, as well as a law providing for an eight-hour work day and a tenancy law for the
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
farmers. Another measure was the creation of the position of Public Defender to help poor litigants in their court suits. ''Commonwealth Act No. 20'' authorized Quezon to institute expropriation proceedings and/or acquire large landed estates to re-sell them at nominal cost and under easy terms to tenants thereon, thus enabling them to possess a lot and a home of their own. It was by virtue of this law that the Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government. Quezon also launched a cooperative system of agriculture among the owners of the subdivided estates in order to alleviate their situation and to provide them greater earnings. In all these, Quezon showed an earnest desire to follow the constitutional mandate on the promotion of social justice.


Economy

Upon the creation of the Commonwealth, the economic condition of the nation was stable and promising. With foreign trade reaching a peak of four hundred million pesos, the upward trend in business was accentuated and assumed the aspect of a boom. Exports crops were generally good and, with the exception of tobacco, they were all in high demand in foreign trade markets. Indeed, the value of the Philippine exports reached an all high of 320,896,000 pesos, the highest since 1929. Additionally, government revenues amounted to 76,675,000 pesos in 1936, as compared with the 1935 revenue of 65,000,000 pesos. Even the government companies, with the exception of the Manila Railroad, managed to earn profits. Gold production increased about 37% and iron nearly 100%, while cement production augmented by some 14%. Notwithstanding this prosperous situation, the government had to meet certain economic problems besetting the country. For this purpose, the National Economic Council was created. This body advised the government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of industries, diversification of crops and enterprises,
tariffs A tariff is a tax imposed by a government of a country or of a supranational union on imports or exports of goods. Besides being a source of revenue for the government, import duties can also be a form of regulation of International trade, forei ...
, taxation, and formulation of an economic program in the preparation for the future independent
Republic of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republi ...
. Again, a law reorganized the National Development Company; the National Rice and Corn Company (NARIC) was created and was given a capital of four million pesos. Upon the recommendation of the National Economic Council, agricultural colonies were established in the country, especially in Koronadal, Malig, and other appropriate sites in
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
. The government, moreover, offered facilities of every sort to encourage migration and settlement in those places. The Agricultural and Industrial Bank was established to aid small farmers with convenient loans on easy terms. Attention was also devoted to soil survey, as well as to the proper disposition of lands of the
public domain The public domain consists of all the creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, wr ...

public domain
. These steps and measures held much promise for improved economic welfare.


Agrarian reform

When the Commonwealth Government was established, President Quezon implemented the ''Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933''.Manapat, Carlos, et al.'' Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform''. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print. The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards. Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord relationship, a 50–50 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and a safeguard against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord. However, because of one major flaw of this law, no petition for the Rice Share Tenancy Act was ever presented. The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a province petitioned for it. Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezon ordered that the act be mandatory in all
Central Luzon Central Luzon ( pam, Kalibudtarang Luzon, pag, Pegley na Luzon, tgl, Gitnang Luzon, ilo, Tengnga ti Luzon), designated as Region III, is an Regions of the Philippines, administrative region in the Philippines, primarily serving to organize th ...
provinces. However, contracts were good for only one year. By simply refusing to renew their contract, landlords were able to eject tenants. As a result, peasant organizations clamored in vain for a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their obligations. In 1936, this Act was amended to get rid of its loophole, but the landlords made its application relative and not absolute. Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions. In fact, by 1939, thousands of peasants in
Central Luzon Central Luzon ( pam, Kalibudtarang Luzon, pag, Pegley na Luzon, tgl, Gitnang Luzon, ilo, Tengnga ti Luzon), designated as Region III, is an Regions of the Philippines, administrative region in the Philippines, primarily serving to organize th ...
were being threatened with wholesale eviction. The desire of Quezon to placate both landlords and tenants pleased neither. By the early 1940s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected from their farmlands and the rural conflict was more acute than ever. Indeed, during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted. This motivated the government to incorporate a cardinal principle on social justice in the 1935 Constitution. Dictated by the social justice program of the government, expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings commenced. Likewise, the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) began an orderly settlement of public agricultural lands. At the outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement areas containing more than 65,000 hectares were already established.


Educational reforms

Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon by virtue of ''Executive Order No. 19'', dated 19 February 1936, created the ''National Council of Education'', with
Rafael Palma Rafael Palma ( : 24 October 1874 24 May 1939) was a Filipino people, Filipino politician, Rizalian, writer, educator and a famous Freemason. He was a senator from 1916 to 1921 and was the fourth President of the University of the Philippines. Bio ...
, former President of the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; fil, Pamantasan ng Pilipinas Unibersidad ng Pilipinas) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
, as its first chairman. Funds retained from the early approved ''Residence Certificate Law'' were devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1,039 intermediate schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under the charge of 28,485 schools teachers. That year's appropriation for public education amounted to 14,566,850
peso The ''peso'' is the monetary unit A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray carica ...
s. The private institutions of learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office of Adult Education was also created.


Women's suffrage

President Quezon initiated
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
in the Philippines during the Commonwealth Era.Molina, Antonio.'' The Philippines: Through the centuries''. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print. As a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a
plebiscite A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
. If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favor of the grant within two years, it would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on 3 April 1937. Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the turnout of female voters was impressive. The affirmative votes numbered 447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant.


National language

Another constitutional question of the Philippines was that of the country's national language. Following a year's study, the Institute of the National Language – established in 1936 – recommended that
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
be adopted as the basis for the national language. The proposal was well received, considering that the Director – the first to be appointed – at the time, Jaime C. de Veyra, was an ethnic
WarayWaray may refer to: * Waray people of the Philippines * Waray language, the fifth most spoken native language of the Philippines, spoken by the Waray people * Waray literature * Warray language, an Australian language spoken in the Adelaide River ar ...
-
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...
. In December 1937, Quezon issued a proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute and declaring that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence. With the presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to work on a grammar and dictionary of the language.


Council of State

In 1938, President Quezon enlarged the composition of the Council of State through ''Executive Order No. 144''. This highest of advisory bodies to the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
was henceforth to be composed of the President, the
Vice-President A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), ...
,
Senate President President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative a ...
,
House Speaker File:Marshal's chair Sejm Plenary Hall.JPG, 250px, Marshal's chair in the Sejm of the Republic of Poland, Sejm, lower chamber of the Polish Parliament The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a Legislature, legislative body, is its chai ...
, Senate President pro tempore, House Speaker pro tempore, Majority Floor leader of both chambers of
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
, former Presidents of the Philippines, and some three to five prominent citizens.


1938 midterm election

The elections for the Second National Assembly were held on 8 November 1938, under a new law that allowed block voting which favored the governing
Nacionalista Party The Nacionalista Party (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), ...
. As expected, all the 98 seats of the National Assembly went to the Nacionalistas.
José Yulo José Yulo Yulo (September 24, 1894 – October 27, 1976) was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (May 7, 1942 – July 9, 1945) during the Japanese Occupation and was Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1 ...
, who was Quezon's Secretary of Justice from 1934 to 1938, was elected Speaker. The Second National Assembly of the Philippines, Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislation strengthening the economy. Unfortunately, the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities. A controversial immigration law that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country, which affected mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Second Sino-Japanese War, Sino-Japanese War, was passed in 1940. Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. president which was nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 Demographics of the Philippines, census was published, the National Assembly updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 Philippine general election, 1941 elections.


1939 plebiscite

On 7 August 1939, the United States Congress enacted a law embodying the recommendations submitted by the Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs. Because the new law required an amendment of the Ordinance appended to the Constitution, a plebiscite was held on 24 August 1939. The amendment was carried by 1,339,453 votes against 49,633.


Third official language

Quezon established the Commission on the Filipino Language, Institute of National Language (INL) to create a national language for the country. On 30 December 1937, President Quezon, through ''Executive Order No. 134'', officially declared
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
as the basis of the national language of the Philippines. The national language was compulsorily taught in schools for the 1940–1941 academic year. The
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
later enacted Law No. 570 raising the Filipino language, national language elaborated by the institute to the status of official language of the Philippines, at par with English and Spanish, effective 4 July 1946, upon the establishment of the Philippine Republic.


1940 plebiscite

Coincident with the local elections for the 1940, another plebiscite was held this time to ratify the proposed amendments to the Constitution regarding the restoration of the bicameral legislature, the presidential term, which was to be fixed at four years with one re-election; and the establishment of an independent Commission on Elections (Philippines), Commission on Elections. With the
Nacionalista Party The Nacionalista Party (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), ...
, which had proposed said amendment in their convention, working hard under the leadership of its party president, Speaker Jose Yulo, the amendments were overwhelmingly ratified by the electorate. Speaker Yulo and Assemblyman Dominador Tan traveled to the United States to obtain President Franklin D. Roosevelt's approval, which was given on 2 December 1940. Two days later President Quezon proclaimed the amendments.


1941 presidential election

Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 Philippine general election, 1941 presidential election, Quezon was re-elected over former Senate of the Philippines, Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote.


Second term (1941–1944)


Pre-war Talks

As crisis mounted in the Pacific, Philippines also prepares for war. The military youth training, under General Douglas MacArthur, was intensified. Blackout practices were held, the first of which happened on the night of 10 July 1941 in Manila. First aid was taught on all schools and social clubs. On 1 April 1941, President Quezon built the Civilian Emergency Administration (CEA), with branches on provinces and towns. Also, air raid drills were established.


War Cabinet 1941–1944

The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, 22 December 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, 24 December 1941 further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.


Jewish refugees

In a notable humanitarian act, Quezon, in cooperation with United States High Commissioner of the Philippines, High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, facilitated the entry into the Philippines of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe while taking on critics who were convinced by fascist propaganda that Jewish settlement was a threat to the country. Quezon and McNutt proposed to have 30,000 refugee families on Mindanao, and 30,000-40,000 refugees on Polillo Island, Polillo. Quezon gave, as a 10-year loan to Manila's Jewish Refugee Committee, land beside Quezon's family home in Marikina. The land would house homeless refugees in Marikina Hall, dedicated on 23 April 1940.


Government-in-exile

After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II, he evacuated to Corregidor, where he was formally inaugurated for his second term, then the Visayas and Mindanao. Upon the invitation of the US government, he was further evacuated to Australia, and then to the United States, where he established the Commonwealth government in exile with headquarters in Washington, D.C.. There, he served as a member of the Pacific War Council, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Axis Powers, and wrote his autobiography, ''The Good Fight''. To carry on the government duties in exile, President Quezon hired an entire floor of one wing of the Shoreham Hotel to accommodate his family and his office. The offices of the government were established at the quarters of the Philippine Resident Commissioner, Joaquin Elizalde. The latter was made a member of the President's wartime Cabinet. Others likewise appointed were Brigadier-General Carlos P. Romulo, as Secretary of the Department of Information and Public Relations, and Jaime Hernandez as Auditor General. On 2 June 1942, President Quezon addressed the United States House of Representatives, impressing upon them the vital necessity of relieving the Philippine front. Before the Senate, later, the Philippine President reiterated the same message and urged the senators to adopt the slogan "Remember
Bataan Bataan ( ; tl, Lalawigan ng Bataan ; pam, Lalauígan ning Bataan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...

Bataan
". Despite his precarious state of health, President Quezon roamed the States to deliver timely and rousing speeches calculated to keep the Philippine war uppermost in the minds of the American nation.


Talks of post-war Philippines

On the occasion of his first birthday celebration in the United States, Manuel Quezon broadcast a radio message to the Philippine residents in Hawaii, who contributed to the celebration by purchasing four million pesos worth of World War II Bond (finance), bonds. Further showing the Philippine government's cooperation with the war effort, Quezon officially offered the U.S. Army a Philippine infantry regiment, which was authorized by the United States Department of War, U.S. Department of War to train in California. He also had the Philippine government acquire Elizalde's yacht, which, renamed ''Bataan'' and crewed by Philippine officers and sailors, was donated to the United States for use in the war. Early in November 1942, Quezon held conferences with President Roosevelt to work out a plan for the creation of a joint commission to study the economic conditions of post-war Philippines. Eighteen months later, the United States Congress would pass an Act creating the Philippine Rehabilitation Commission as an outcome of such talks between the two Presidents.


Quezon-Osmeña impasse

By 1943, the Philippine government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis. According to the 1935 Constitution, the official term of President Quezon was to expire on 30 December 1943 and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña would automatically succeed him to the presidency. This eventuality was brought to the attention of President Quezon by Osmeña himself, who wrote the former to this effect. Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmeña that it would not be wise and prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon issued a press release along the same line. Osmeña then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, who upheld Osmeña's view as more in keeping with the law. Quezon, however, remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Roosevelt's decision. The latter chose to remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve the impasse. A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon and Osmeña, others present in this momentous meeting were Resident Commissioner of the Philippines, Resident Commissioner Joaquín Miguel Elizalde, Joaquín Elizalde, Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, and his cabinet secretaries, Andrés Soriano and Jaime Hernandez. Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet supported Elizalde's opinion favoring the decision, and announced his plan to retire in California. After the meeting, however, Osmeña approached Quezon and broached his plan to ask the United States Congress to suspend the constitutional provisions for presidential succession until after the Philippines had been liberated. This legal way out was agreeable to Quezon and the members of his cabinet. Proper steps were taken to carry out the proposal. Sponsored by Senator Tydings and Congressman Bell, the pertinent resolution was unanimously approved by the United States Senate, Senate on a voice vote and passed the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives by a vote of 181 to 107 on 10 November 1943.


Death

Quezon suffered from
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
and spent his last years in hospitals, such as at a Miami Beach Army hospital in April 1944. That summer, he was at a Cure Cottages of Saranac Lake, "cure cottage" in Saranac Lake, New York, Saranac Lake, New York. He died on that cottage at 10:05 a.m. on 1 August 1944 , less than three weeks shy of his 66th birthday. He was initially buried in
Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia Arlington County is a County (United States), county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virgin ...

Arlington National Cemetery
. His body was later brought by former Governor-General and High Commissioner Frank Murphy on board the and re-interred in
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
at the Manila North Cemetery on 17 July 1946. Quezon's remains were then moved to Quezon City within a miniature copy of Napoleon's tomb at the Quezon Memorial Shrine on 1 August 1979.


Electoral history


Personal life

Quezon was Cousin marriage, married to his first cousin, Aurora A. Quezon, Aurora Aragón Quezon, on 17 December 1918. The couple had four children: María Aurora "Baby" Quezon (23 September 1919 – 28 April 1949), María Zenaida "Nini" Quezon-Avanceña (9 April 1921 – 12 July 2021), Luisa Corazón Paz "Nenita" Quezon (17 February – 14 December 1924) and Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezon, Jr. (23 June 1926 – 18 September 1998). His grandson, Manolo Quezon, Manuel L. "Manolo" Quezon III (born 30 May 1970), a prominent writer and former undersecretary of the Presidential Communications Group (Philippines), Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, was named after him.


Awards and honors

;Foreign Honors *: : Légion d'honneur, Officier *: : Order of the Aztec Eagle, Collar *: : Order of the Crown (Belgium), Order of the Crown, Grand Cross * Second Spanish Republic, Spain: : Orden de la República Española, Grand Cross *: : Order of Brilliant Jade, Grand Cordon ;National Honors * Knight of the Order of the Knights of Rizal. *Manuel L. Quezon Day (19 August) – celebrated throughout the entire Philippines as a special working holiday with the exception of the Provinces of Quezon and
Aurora An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights (aurora polaris), northern lights (aurora borealis), or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in high-l ...
, Quezon City, and Lucena, City of Lucena where it shall be a special non-working holiday.


Legacy

* Quezon City, the Quezon Province, Quezon Bridge in Manila and the Manuel L. Quezon University, and many streets are named after him. The highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Philippines is the Quezon Service Cross. He is also memorialized on Philippine peso, Philippine currency. He appears on the Philippine twenty peso bill. He also appears on two commemorative one peso Coins of the Philippine peso, coins (1936), one alongside Frank Murphy and another with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. * The "Open Doors" is a Holocaust memorial in Rishon LeZion, Israel. It is a high sculpture designed by Filipino artist Luis Lee Jr. and erected in honor and thanks to President Manuel Quezon and the Filipinos who saved over 1,200 Jews from Nazi Germany. * Municipalities of the Philippines, Municipalities in six different provinces of the Philippines are named after Quezon: Quezon, Bukidnon; Quezon, Isabela; Quezon, Nueva Ecija; Quezon, Nueva Vizcaya; Quezon, Palawan; and Quezon, Quezon. * The ''Presidential Papers of Manuel L. Quezon'' was officially inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 2011. * Quezon Island, the most developed island in the Hundred Islands National Park, is named after him. File:QSCMedal.jpg, Quezon Service Cross, the highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Philippines File:QuezonMonumentjf7744 03.JPG, Quezon monument at Lucena, Philippines, Lucena File:Manuel L. Quezon-TIME-1935.jpg, Quezon on ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine cover, 1935 File:Manuel L. Quezón 1978 stamp of the Philippines.jpg, 1978 Philippine stamp commemorating the birth centenary of Quezon File:PHP200 English series bill.jpg, 200 peso bill


In popular culture

* Portrayed by Richard Gutierrez in the 2010 official music video of the Lupang Hinirang, Philippine national anthem produced by and aired over GMA Network. * Portrayed by Arnold Reyes in the musical ''MLQ: Ang Buhay ni Manuel Luis Quezon'' (2015). * Portrayed by Benjamin Alves in the film ''Heneral Luna'' (2015). * Portrayed by Benjamin Alves and TJ Trinidad in the film ''Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral'' (2018). * Portrayed by Raymond Bagatsing in the film ''Quezon's Game'' (2019).


Recording of speech

A sample of Quezon's voice is preserved in the recording of a speech entitled "Message to My People", delivered in English and Spanish. According to Manolo Quezon, Manuel L. Quezon III, his grandfather's speech was recorded when he was President of the Senate of the Philippines, President of the Senate "in the 1920s, when he was first diagnosed with tuberculosis and assumed he didn't have much longer to live."


See also

*List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress *List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress *First inauguration of Manuel L. Quezon


Notes


References

* * *


External links


Bonnie Harris, ''Cantor Joseph Cysner: From Zbaszyn to Manila.''Online E-book of ''Future of the Philippines : interviews with Manuel Quezon''
by Edward Price Bell, The Chicago Daily News Co., 1925
Online E-book of ''Discursos del Manuel L. Quezon, comissionado residente de Filipinas, pronunciados en la cámara de representantes de la discusión del Bill Jones (26, Septiembre-14, Octubre, 1914)''
published in Manila, 1915 *
Manuel L. Quezon on the Presidential Museum and Library
*
The Good Fight
'' autobiography, published 1946 * {{DEFAULTSORT:Quezon, Manuel L. Manuel L. Quezon, 1878 births 1944 deaths 20th-century deaths from tuberculosis Burials at Arlington National Cemetery City founders Colegio de San Juan de Letran alumni Exiled politicians Filipino exiles Filipino expatriates in the United States Filipino lawyers Filipino military leaders Filipino people of Spanish descent Filipino revolutionaries Governors of Quezon Hispanic and Latino American members of the United States Congress History of the Philippines (1898–1946) Tuberculosis deaths in New York (state) Majority leaders of the House of Representatives of the Philippines Members of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from Quezon Members of the United States Congress of Filipino descent Military history of the Philippines during World War II Nacionalista Party politicians People from Aurora (province) Candidates in the 1935 Philippine presidential election Candidates in the 1941 Philippine presidential election Filipino politicians of Chinese descent Officiers of the Légion d'honneur People from Quezon People from Saranac Lake, New York People of the Philippine Revolution People of the Philippine–American War Presidents of the Nacionalista Party Presidents of the Philippines Presidents of the Senate of the Philippines Quezon family, Manuel Resident Commissioners of the Philippines Secretaries of National Defense of the Philippines Senators of the 5th Philippine Legislature Senators of the 6th Philippine Legislature Senators of the 7th Philippine Legislature Senators of the 8th Philippine Legislature Senators of the 9th Philippine Legislature Senators of the 10th Philippine Legislature Tagalog people University of Santo Tomas alumni World War II political leaders Filipino Roman Catholics