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Maluku is a
province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinces or ). Provinces are further divided into list of regencie ...
. It comprises the central and southern regions of the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
. The main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small
Ambon Island Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Oc ...
. The land area is 62,946 km2, and the total population of this province at the 2010 census was 1,533,506 people, rising to 1,848,923 at the 2020 Census. Maluku is located in Eastern Indonesia. It is directly adjacent to
North Maluku North Maluku ( id, Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country i ...
and West Papua in the north,
Central Sulawesi Central Sulawesi ( Indonesian: ''Sulawesi Tengah'') is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=ye ...
, and
Southeast Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi ( id, Sulawesi Tenggara, abbreviation: ''Sultra'') is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major ...
in the west,
Banda Sea The Banda Sea is a sea in the Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geogra ...
,
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It co ...

East Timor
and
East Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara ( id, Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...
in the south and
Arafura Sea The Arafura Sea (or Arafuru Sea) lies west of the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to A ...
and Papua in the east. Maluku has two main religions, namely
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
which at the 2020 Census was adhered to by 52.85% of the population of the province and Christianity which is embraced by 46.3% (39.4%
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
and 7.0%
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
). Maluku is recorded in the history of the world due to conflict or tragedy of humanitarian crisis and sectarian conflict between Islam and Christianity, which is better known as the Ambon Tragedy. After 2002, Maluku changed its face to become a friendly and peaceful province in Indonesia, for which the world gave a sign of appreciation in the form of
World Peace Gong The World Peace Gong is a symbol of world peace. Function The first striking of the World Peace Gong was by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, H.E.Mrs Megawati Sukarnoputri Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri (; born 23 Ja ...
placed at Ambon City Center. All the Maluku Islands were part of a single province from 1950 until 1999. In 1999, the northern part of Maluku (then comprising the Maluku Utara Regency, the Halmahera Tengah Regency and the City of
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

Ternate
) were split off to form a separate province of
North Maluku North Maluku ( id, Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country i ...
().


Etymology

Historically, the term Maluku referred to the four royal centers in North Maluku, namely
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...
,
Tidore Tidore ( id, Kota Tidore Kepulauan, lit. "City of Tidore Islands") is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called a ...
,
Bacan The Bacan Islands, formerly also known as the Bachans, Bachians, and Batchians, are a group of islands in the Moluccas The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an isla ...
and
Jailolo Jailolo is a volcanic complex on a peninsula (Jailolo Bay), west of Halmahera island. It has lava flows on the eastern flank, small caldera at the west and south-west of the mountain, hot springs along the north-west coast of the caldera. Small v ...
. A type of confederation consisting of the four kingdoms, which most likely emerged in the 14th century, was called Moloku Kie Raha or "Four Mountains of Maluku". Although the four kingdoms subsequently expanded and covered the entire North Maluku region (as now defined) and parts of
Sulawesi Sulawesi (), also known as Celebes (), is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are in ...

Sulawesi
and
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
, the area of expansion was originally not included in the term Maluku. This only referred to the four main clove-producing islands to the west of
Halmahera Halmahera, formerly known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia, and Sofifi, the capital of the province, is located on the west c ...

Halmahera
: Ternate, Tidore.
Moti Moti or MOTI may refer to: Names * Mordecai (disambiguation)Mordecai is one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. Mordecai or Mordechai may also refer to: Mononym * Kevin Thorn, American professional wrestler who ...
and
Makian Makian (also Machian), known to local people as Mount Kie Besi, is a High island, volcanic island, one of the Maluku Islands within the province of North Maluku in Indonesia. It lies near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the w ...
. Bacan further to the south, and Jailolo on Halmahera, were also commonly included in Maluku Proper, the four kingdoms forming a ritual quadripartition with connotations to local cosmology. The etymology of the word ''Maluku'' is not very clear, and it has been a matter of debate for many experts. A common theory says that the term ''Maluku'' originates from the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
phrase ''Jaziratul Muluk'' (جزيرة الملوك), which means "Country of the Kings" (''muluk'' is the plural form of ''malik'', which means king). Thus the kingless Ambon archipelago, the Banda archipelago and island groups to the south were at that time not included in the original sense of the term. The name has been mentioned in the fourteenth-century
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
eulogy,
Nagarakretagama The ''Nagarakretagama'' or ''Nagarakṛtāgama'', also known as ''Desawarnana'' or ''Deśavarṇana'', is an Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase of the Javanese language. It was spoken in the eastern part of what is ...
by the local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large". Though there is speculation that Majapahit writers sourced their name from the arabic name. However, the term is known in texts from the 14th century, before there was likely any significant Arab influence, putting this etymology in doubt. Another idea is the name Maluku comes from the concept of “Maluku Kie Raha”. “Raha” means four, while “kie” here means mountain, referring to 4 mountains of Ternate, Tidore, Bacan, and Jailolo (Halmahera), which have their own kolano (title for local kings). Therefore, the Maluku can come from: “Moloku” here meaning to grasp or hold. In this context, the meaning of “Moloku Kie Raha” is “confederation of four mountain”. However, the root word “loku” comes from local Malay creole word for a unit, therefore not from an indigenous language. The other possibility is that the word “Maloko” is a combination of “Ma”, meaning "support", and “Loko” referring to the area. The phrase “Maloko Kie Raha” means “the place/world which has four mountains”.


History


Pre-colonial era

In the 9th century, Arab traders managed to find Maluku after crossing the Indian Ocean. These traders then took control of the European market through port cities like
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. The 14th century was a period of Middle Eastern spice trade that brought Islam into the Maluku Islands through the ports of
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...
, Malacca and
Gresik Gresik Regency (Van Ophuijsen Spelling System, older spelling: Grissee, ) is a Regencies of Indonesia, regency within East Java Province of Indonesia. As well as a large part of the Surabaya northern and western suburbs, it includes the offshore Ba ...
, between 1300 and 1400. In the 12th century the territory of the
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
Kingdom included the Maluku Islands. At the beginning of the 14th century the
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
Kingdom ruled the entire sea area of Southeast Asia. At that time, traders from Java monopolized the spice trade in Maluku. In the
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming Dynasty
, spices from Maluku were introduced in various works of art and history. In a painting by W.P. Groeneveldt, titled Gunung Dupa, Maluku, is described as a green mountainous region filled with cloves – an oasis in the middle of the southeastern sea.
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
also described the clove trade in Maluku during his visit to
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia S ...

Sumatra
.


Colonial era

The first Europeans to find Maluku were the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
, in 1512. At that time two Portuguese fleets, under the leadership of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão respectively, landed in the
Banda Islands The Banda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Banda) are a volcanic group A volcanic group (or, equivalently, a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that ...
and the Penyu Islands. After they established friendships with local residents and kings – such as with the
Sultanate of Ternate The Sultanate of Ternate (Jawi alphabet Jawi (Jawi: ; Kelantan-Pattani: ''Yawi''; Acèh: ''Jawoë''; ) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''c ...
on the island of
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

Ternate
, the Portuguese were given permission to build fortifications in Pikaoli, as well as the old Hitu State, and Mamala on Ambon Island. The Portuguese adopted a monopoly system while at the same time carrying out the spread of
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
. One of the famous missionaries was
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
. Arrived in Ambon on February 14, 1546, then traveled to Ternate, arriving in 1547, and tirelessly visited islands in the Maluku Islands to spread
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
. The relationship between the Portuguese and Ternatean broke down in 1570, resulting of a war with Sultan Babullah that lasted for 5 years (1570–1575), causing the Portuguese to be expelled from Ternate and were driven to
Tidore Tidore ( id, Kota Tidore Kepulauan, lit. "City of Tidore Islands") is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called a ...

Tidore
and Ambon. The resistance of the Moluccas to the Portuguese was used by the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
to set foot in Maluku. In 1605, the Dutch managed to force the Portuguese to surrender their defenses in Ambon to and at Tidore to the Sebastiansz Cornelisz. Similarly, the English fortress in Kambelo,
Seram Island Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europ ...
, was destroyed by the Dutch. Since then the Dutch have succeeded in controlling most of the Maluku region. The Dutch position in Maluku grew stronger with the establishment of the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) in 1602, and since then
the Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

the Netherlands
has become the sole ruler in Maluku. Under the leadership of
Jan Pieterszoon Coen __FORCETOC__ Jan Pieterszoon Coen (, 8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of the Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie ...

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
, Chief of Operations of the VOC, the clove trade in Maluku was under VOC control for almost 350 years. For this purpose, the VOC did not hesitate to expel its competitors;
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
and the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
. Even tens of thousands of Moluccas were victims of VOC brutality. During the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, British forces captured Maluku as the Netherlands were under French occupation. After the
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London; nl, Verdrag van Londen) was signed by the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
, the British returned Maluku to the Dutch. The Dutch returned in 1817. The return of the Dutch in 1817 received strong resistance from the Moluccans. This is due to political, economic and social relations conditions that have been bad for two centuries. The Moluccan people finally rose to take up arms under the leadership of
Thomas Matulessy Thomas Matulessy (8 June 178316 December 1817), also known as Kapitan Pattimura or simply Pattimura, was an Ambonese The Ambonese, also known as South Moluccans, are an Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Re ...
who was given the title Kapitan Pattimura, a former major sergeant of the British army. On May 15, 1817 an attack was launched against the
Fort Duurstede Fort Duurstede is a 17th-century colonial Netherlands, Dutch fort in Saparua, Indonesia The fort originally protected Saparoea village. A navigation guide from 1878 advises: "There is good anchorage near this fort in the westerly monsoon in about ...
on
Saparua Saparua is an island east of Ambon Island in the Indonesian province of Maluku (province), Maluku; the island of Haruku Island, Haruku lies between Saparua and Ambon. The main port is in the south at Kota Saparua. The island of Maolana is located ...
island, resulting in the death of Resident Johannes Rudolph van den Berg and his family.Peter van Zonneveld (199
Pattimura en het kind van Saparua. De Molukken-opstand van 1817 in de Indisch-Nederlandse literatuur
''Indische Letteren'', 10:41–54.
Pattimura was assisted by his friends; Philip Latumahina, Anthony Ribok, and Said Orders. The news of this Pattimura's victory aroused the spirit of popular resistance throughout Maluku. Paulus Tiahahu and his daughter
Martha Christina Tiahahu Martha Christina Tiahahu (4 January 1800 – 2 January 1818) was a Moluccas, Moluccan freedom fighter and List of National Heroes of Indonesia, National Heroine of Indonesia. Born to a military captain, Tiahahu was active in military matters ...

Martha Christina Tiahahu
fought the Dutch on
Nusa Laut Nusa Laut is the smallest inhabited island in the Lease Islands group east of Ambon, in Indonesia's Maluku province. It lies just off the south-western corner of Saparua island, separated from it by a deep channel. The island's coasts are fringe ...
, and Kapitan Ulupaha in Ambon. But this resistance was crushed by the Dutch due to being heavily outnumbered. Pattimura and his friends on December 16, 1817 were sentenced to death on gallows, at Fort Niew Victoria, Ambon, while
Martha Christina Tiahahu Martha Christina Tiahahu (4 January 1800 – 2 January 1818) was a Moluccas, Moluccan freedom fighter and List of National Heroes of Indonesia, National Heroine of Indonesia. Born to a military captain, Tiahahu was active in military matters ...

Martha Christina Tiahahu
died on the boat during her voyage to Java and her body was released into the Banda Sea.


Modern era

The outbreak of the
Pacific War The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or i ...
on December 7, 1941 as part of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
recorded a new era in the history of colonialism in Indonesia. Governor General A.W.L. Tjarda van Starkenborgh via radio stated that the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
government was in a state of war with the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
. The
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
did not encounter much resistance in Maluku. In the Maluku, Japanese forces entered from the north through the island of
Morotai Morotai Island ( id, Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the ...
and from the east through the island of
Misool Misool, formerly spelled Mysol (Dutch: Misoöl) or Misol, is one of the four major islands in the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua, Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is ...

Misool
. In a short time the entire Maluku Islands was occupied by Japan. In World War II, Australian soldiers had fought against Japanese soldiers in Tawiri. And, to commemorate it, an Australian monument was built in Tawiri (not far from
Pattimura Airport Pattimura International Airport ( id, Bandar Udara Internasional Pattimura) is an airport in Ambon, Maluku, Ambon, Maluku (province), Maluku. The airport is located 38 kilometers west of the city of Ambon. The airport was named after Pattimura, ...
). The Allied forces surrendered to the Japanese in Ambon after the bloody
Battle of Ambon The Battle of Ambon (30 January – 3 February 1942) occurred on the island of Ambon Island, Ambon in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), as part of the Dutch East Indies campaign, Japanese offensive on the Dutch colony during World War II. I ...
, The battle was followed by the
summary execution A summary execution is an execution Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
of more than 300 Allied
PoWs A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an Irregular military, irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held Captivity, captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. Th ...
in the
Laha massacreLaha can refer to: Laha people, an ethnic group in Vietnam Places * Laha, Seram, Indonesia * Laha, Heilongjiang, a town in Nehe City, Heilongjiang, China * ''Laha airfield'' near Laha (Village), Laha Village, on Ambon Island, Indonesia Lang ...
. On August 15, 1945, the Japanese capitulated to the Allied forces. Two days later, the was declared. Maluku was declared as one of the provinces of the Republic of Indonesia. However, the formation and position of Maluku at that time was forced to take place in Jakarta, because as soon as the Japanese surrendered, the
Netherlands Indies Civil Administration The Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full versi ...
(NICA) immediately entered Maluku to assume control. Dutch controlled Maluku until 1949, when in accords of the
Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference was held in The Hague from 23 August to 2 November 1949, between representatives of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Consultative Assembly, representing variou ...
, the Dutch recognize sovereignty of Indonesia. The Dutch soon left Maluku. Due to a deep distrust of the Indonesian leadership, which was predominantly Javanese
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
, in 1951 an independent Republic of the South Moluccas (
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian ...

Indonesian
: RMS, Republik Maluku Selatan) was proclaimed at Ambon, supported by the Dutch. The RMS had strong support among the former Moluccans colonial soldier. As a consequence, Indonesian forces invaded Maluku to crush the separatists. The main stronghold of the rebellious RMS group on Ambon was defeated by Indonesian forces in November 1950, while a smaller scale guerilla struggle continued on
Seram Island Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europ ...
until 1962. The defeat on Ambon however resulted in the flight of the self-declared RMS government from the islands, and the formation of a
government in exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a Sovereign state, country or Federated state, semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another ...
in the Netherlands. The following year some 12,000 Moluccan soldiers accompanied by their families went to the Netherlands, where they established a "Republic of the South Moluccas" government-in-exile. In April and May 1958 during the
Permesta Permesta was a rebel movement in Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific o ...
rebellion in
North Sulawesi North Sulawesi ( id, Sulawesi Utara) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia. It is located on the Minahasa Peninsula of Sulawesi, south of the Philippines and southeast of Sabah, Malaysia. It borders Davao Region, Davao and Soccsksa ...
, the USA supported and supplied the rebels. Pilots from a
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
-based
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as "The Agency" and "The Company", is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. ...
front organisation A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agency, intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, terrorist organizations, secret society, secret societies, runaway slaves, banned organi ...
,
Civil Air Transport Civil Air Transport (CAT) was a Republic of China (1912–1949), Nationalist Chinese airline, later owned by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), that supported United States covert operations throughout East Asia, East and Southeast Asia. ...
, flying CIA
B-26 Invader The Douglas A-26 Invader (designated B-26 between 1948 and 1965) is an American twin-engined light bomber and ground attack aircraft. Built by Douglas Aircraft Company during World War II World War II or the Second World War, o ...
aircraft, repeatedly bombed and machine-gunned targets on Ambon. From April 27 until 18 May there were CIA air raids on Ambon city. Also, on May 8, 1958 CIA pilot Allen Pope bombed and machine-gunned the
Indonesian Air Force , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , anniversaries = , equipment = , equipment_label ...
base at Liang in the northeast of the island, damaging the runway and destroying a
Consolidated PBY Catalina Consolidated may refer to: *Consolidated (band) Consolidated is an American radical activist music group, formed in 1988 and best known in the early 1990s as an alternative dance Alternative dance or indie dance (also referred to as underground ...
. The Indonesian Air Force had only one serviceable fighter aircraft on Ambon Island, a
North American P-51 Mustang The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air fl ...

North American P-51 Mustang
at Liang. Pope's last air raid was on 18 May, when an Indonesian pilot at Liang, Captain Ignatius Dewanto, was scrambled to the P-51. Pope had attacked Ambon city before Dewanto could catch him, but Dewanto intercepted him just as Pope was attacking one of a pair of troop ships in an Indonesian fleet west of Ambon Island. The B-26 was brought down by fire from both Dewanto and shipborne anti-aircraft gunners. Pope and his Indonesian radio operator bailed out and were captured, which immediately exposed the level of CIA support for the Permesta rebellion. Embarrassed, the
Eisenhower administration The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower began at noon EST on January 20, 1953, with his inauguration as the 34th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of t ...
quickly ended CIA support for Permesta and withdrew its agents and remaining aircraft from the conflict. The
Maluku sectarian conflict The Maluku Islands sectarian conflict was a period of ethno-political conflict along religious lines, which spanned the Indonesian islands that compose the Maluku archipelago, with particularly serious disturbances in Ambon and Halmahera Halma ...
broke out across Maluku in January 1999. The subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between largely local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately 500,000 people, the loss of thousands of lives, and the segregation of Muslims and Christians. Inter-communal fighting broke out between Christian and
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
communities in January 1999, cascading into what could be described as all out warfare and atrocities against the civilian population committed by both sides. The main belligerents were therefore religious militia from both faiths, including the well organised Islamist
Laskar Jihad Laskar Jihad ( Indonesian: ''Warriors of Jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد ' ) is an Arabic word which literally means ''striving'' or ''struggling'', especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to ...
, and Indonesian government military forces. The conflict had a significant effect upon the 2.1 million people of greater Maluku. Leading up to the Malino agreement, the
International Crisis Group The International Crisis Group (ICG; also known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity ...
estimated that 700,000 people had been displaced by the four years of fighting in the Moluccas which is thought to have claimed a minimum of 5,000 lives. This constituted the largest movement of
refugees A refugee, generally speaking, is a forced displacement, displaced person who has crossed national boundaries and who cannot or is unwilling to return home due to well-founded fear of persecution.
refugees
since the federation of the Indonesian state and the majority of the 1.4 million Internal refugees reported in February 2002 by the
World Food Programme The World Food Programme; it, Programma alimentare mondiale; es, Programa Mundial de Alimentos; ar, برنامج الأغذية العالمي, translit=barnamaj al'aghdhiat alealami; russian: Всемирная продовольствен ...

World Food Programme
. The duration of the conflict is generally dated from the start of the Reformasi era in early 1999 to the signing of the
Malino II Accord The Malino II Accord was signed on 13 February 2002 as a settlement between warring parties in the Maluku sectarian conflict that commenced in 1999 in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. (February 12 according to the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Offi ...
on February 13, 2002.


Geography

Maluku is bordered by
North Maluku North Maluku ( id, Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country i ...
in the north, West Papua in the East,
Southeast Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi ( id, Sulawesi Tenggara, abbreviation: ''Sultra'') is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major ...
and
Central Sulawesi Central Sulawesi ( Indonesian: ''Sulawesi Tengah'') is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=ye ...
in the West, and the nation of
Timor-Leste East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country An island country or ...

Timor-Leste
and Australia in the south. While in total 581 areas were 376 km2 consisting of 527 191 km2 of marine sea area, and 54 185 km2 of sea area, or in other words around 90% of Maluku were sea areas. As an archipelago province, Maluku has 559 islands which have relatively large islands, including:
Seram Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such ...
(18 625 km2),
Buru Buru (formerly spelled Boeroe, Boro, or Bouru) is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon Island, Ambon and Seram Island, Seram islands. T ...

Buru
(9000 km2)
Yamdena Yamdena (spelt Jamdena during the Dutch East Indies, Dutch colonial period) is the largest of the Tanimbar Islands in the Maluku (province), Maluku Province of Indonesia. Saumlaki is the chief town, located on the south end of the island. The isla ...
(5085 km2) and
Wetar Wetar is a tropical island which belongs to the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and Sout ...
(3624 km2). With the dominant condition of regional waters, Maluku is very open to interacting with other provinces and surrounding countries. Maluku islands have a tropical monsoon climate, this climate is greatly influenced by the presence of vast marine waters and takes place in tune with the climatic season there. The average temperature based on Meteorological stations in Ambon, Tual and Saumlaki are C 26.80, 27.70 C and 27.40 C. Minimum temperatures are 24.00, 24.70 C and 23.80 C, respectively, while the temperature Tual, the average humidity reaches 85.4% when recording Saumlaki Meteorological Station shows the average humidity is 80.2%. The topography of the average condition of the Ambon region is rather flat, starting from the coast to residential areas. The mainland morphology of Ambon also varies from flat, bumpy, bumpy, hilly and mountainous with soft steep slopes to slightly dominant. The flat area has a slope of 0–3%, corrugated slope 3–8%, corrugated area 8–15%, hilly area 15–30% slope elevation and mountainous area greater than 30%. As for the
Central Maluku Regency Central Maluku Regency ( id, Kabupaten Maluku Tengah) is a regency A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoke ...
, West Seram and East Seram, the topography is generally hilly. 0–2%, tilt / wavy 3–15% rather steep 15–40% and very steep 40%. Topography in the
Southeast Maluku Regency Southeast Maluku Regency ( id, Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara) is a Regencies of Indonesia, regency of Maluku (province), Maluku, Indonesia. It is coincident with the Kei Islands, except that the city of Tual, Indonesia, Tual, although within the Kei Isl ...
is divided into plains, hills and mountains with flat slopes (0–3%), flat / bumpy (0–3%), bumpy (8–15%), rather steep (15–30%) and very steep (> 50%). The height of the sea surface area is divided into three classes, namely in the low altitude area (000–100 m elevation), middle (100–500 m), and high altitude (> 500 m). The topography of
Buru Regency Buru Regency is a Regencies of Indonesia, regency of Maluku (province), Maluku province, Indonesia. When created the regency encompased the entire island (plus outlying islands, of which Amalau is the largest); but in 2008 the southern 40% of the is ...
is mostly hilly and mountainous with a slope of 15–40% and 40%, the remaining height is from ordinary varieties. The highest mountain peak is located in the Kapalamada region north west of Buru with an altitude of 2736 meters above sea level (ASL), after Lake Rana with a height of more than 1000 meters above sea level, Lake Rana is estimated at around 700–750 meters above sea level. Using a landscape approach, Buru district is classified above, the coastal hills of the plains and mountains include varieties of highlands and slopes.


List of major islands in Maluku

*
Ambon Island Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Oc ...
*
Aru Islands The Aru Islands Regency ( id, Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about ninety-five low-lying island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very sm ...
(Kepulauan Aru) *
Babar Island The Babar Islands ''(''Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants ...
s *
Banda Islands The Banda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Banda) are a volcanic group A volcanic group (or, equivalently, a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that ...
(Kepulauan Banda) *
Buru Buru (formerly spelled Boeroe, Boro, or Bouru) is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon Island, Ambon and Seram Island, Seram islands. T ...

Buru
* Damer Island (Kepulauan Damar) *
Kai Islands The Kai Islands (also Kei Islands) of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East ...
(Kepulauan Kai) *
Gorong archipelago The Gorom (formerly called Gorong) archipelago is a group of islands situated between the Watubela archipelago and Seram Island, Ceram in the Maluku Islands. History The ''Nagarakretagama'', an Old Javanese eulogy to king Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit ...
(Pulau-pulau Gorong) *
Lease Islands The Lease Islands, formerly called the Uliasers or Uliassers, are a group of three inhabited islands (and smaller uninhabited islets), lying immediately to the south of Seram and east of Ambon Island in the province of Maluku (province), Maluku, i ...
(''Kepulauan Lease'') includes
Saparua Saparua is an island east of Ambon Island in the Indonesian province of Maluku (province), Maluku; the island of Haruku Island, Haruku lies between Saparua and Ambon. The main port is in the south at Kota Saparua. The island of Maolana is located ...
,
Nusa Laut Nusa Laut is the smallest inhabited island in the Lease Islands group east of Ambon, in Indonesia's Maluku province. It lies just off the south-western corner of Saparua island, separated from it by a deep channel. The island's coasts are fringe ...
and
Haruku Island Haruku Island is an island in Central Maluku Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia - lying east of Ambon Island, off the southern coast of Seram and just west of Saparua. It is administered as a single district, ''Kecamatan Pulau Haruku'', with a 2 ...
s *
Leti IslandsThe Letti Islands of Indonesia are part of the Maluku Islands, in southwest Maluku Province. They are also called the "Lemola" Archipelago, from the initial two letters of each of the three main islands, Leti (island), Letti, Moa (Indonesia), Moa and ...
(Kepulauan Leti) includes Leti, Moa and Lakor *
Seram Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such ...
* Sermata Islands (Kepulauan Sermata) * Southwestern Islands (
Barat Daya Islands The Barat Daya Islands ( id, Kepulauan Barat Daya) are a group of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent l ...
) includes Wetar Island,
Kisar Island Kisar, also known as ''Yotowawa'', is a small island in the Southwestern Moluccas in Indonesia, located to the northeast of Timor Island. Most of the island is included within the Southernmost Islands District (''Pulau-Pulau Terselatan, Kecamatan ...
and Romang Island *
Tanimbar Islands The Tanimbar Islands, also called ''Timur Laut'', are a group of about 65 islands in the Maluku province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia' ...
(Kepulauan Tanimbar) * Watubela archipelago (Kepulauan Watubela) *
Wetar Wetar is a tropical island which belongs to the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and Sout ...


Administrative divisions

The province of Maluku is currently divided into nine regencies (''kabupaten'') and the two cities (''kota'') of Ambon and
Tual Tual is a city in Maluku (province), Maluku Province of Indonesia. The city, called ''Kota Tual'' in Indonesian language, Indonesian, is within the Kei Islands, on Dullah Island, but since 2007 has been administratively separate from the rest of th ...
, which form the tenth and eleventh regency-level administrative divisions. The regencies and cities, with their administrative capitals, are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and at the 2020 Census.


Demographics


Ethnicity

Maluku are dominated by the
Moluccans Moluccans are the Austronesian-speaking ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions ...
, which are part of the
Melanesian Melanesian is the adjectival form of Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It extends from the island of New Guinea in the west to Tonga in the east, and includes the Arafura Sea. The region in ...

Melanesian
ethnic race related to the people in
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
as well as other countries such as
Fiji Fiji ( ; fj, Viti, ; hif, फ़िजी, ''Fijī''), officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. It lies about northeast of New Zealand. Fiji consists of an archipelago ...

Fiji
,
Vanuatu Vanuatu ( or ; ), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (french: link=no, République de Vanuatu; Bislama Bislama (; ; also known by its earlier French name, ) is a creole language, and one of the official languages of Vanuatu. It is the fi ...

Vanuatu
,
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, in ...
, and several island nations scattered in the Pacific Ocean. There is a lot of strong evidence that refers to Maluku having traditional ties with the Pacific island nations, such as language, folk songs, food, as well as equipment for household appliances and typical musical instruments, for example:
Ukulele The ukulele ( ; from haw, ukulele , approximately ) is a member of the lute family of instruments of Portuguese origin and popularized in Hawaii. It generally employs four nylon strings. The Tone (musical instrument), tone and volume of the ...

Ukulele
(which is also found in the
Hawaiian Hawaiian may refer to: * Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry * Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants * Hawaiian language Historic uses * things and people of the Kingdo ...
cultural tradition). They generally have dark skin, curly hair, large and strong bones, and a more athletic body profile compared to other groups in Indonesia, because they are a group of islanders where sea activities such as sailing and swimming are the main activities for men. Since ancient times, many of them already had mixed blood with other ethnic groups, namely with Europeans (generally the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
) and Spain, then the
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
were very common considering this area had been controlled by foreign nations for 2,300 years and gave birth to new descendants, which is no longer a pure Melanesian race but still inherits and lives with the Melanesian-Alifuru style. Because of this mixture of culture and race with
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...
and
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...

Arabs
, Maluku is the only Indonesian territory that is classified as an area that has the largest
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

Mestizo
population other than
East Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara ( id, Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...
. Many Moluccans still retained foreign surnames from foreign countries such as the Netherlands (Van Afflen, Van Room, De Wanna, De Kock, Kniesmeijer, Gaspersz, Ramschie, Payer, Ziljstra, Van der Weden, etc.), Portugal (Da Costa, De Fretes, Que, Carliano, De Souza, De Carvalho, Pareira, Courbois, Frandescolli, etc.), Spain (Oliviera, Diaz, De Jesus, Silvera, Rodriguez, Montefalcon, Mendoza, De Lopez, etc.) and Arabic directly from
Hadramaut Hadhramaut ( ar, حَضْرَمَوْتُ \ حَضْرَمُوتُ, Ḥaḍramawt / Ḥaḍramūt; Hadramautic: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩, ''Ḥḍrmt'') is a region in South Arabia, mostly in present-day eastern Yemen ) , image_map = File:Ye ...
(Al-Kaff, Al Chatib, Bachmid, Bakhwereez, Bahasoan, Al-Qadri, Alaydrus, Assegaff, etc.) Today, the people of Maluku are not only found in Indonesia but are spread in various countries in the world. Most of those who migrate abroad are due to various reasons, of which the most classic was the large-scale movement of the Moluccans to Europe in the 1950s and settled there until now. Another reason is to get a better, more knowledgeable life, marrying and marrying other nations, who later settle down and have generations of new Moluccas in the other hemisphere. These Maluku expatriates can be found in quite large communities and are concentrated in several countries such as the Netherlands (which is considered the second homeland by the Moluccas other than the land of Maluku itself),
Suriname Suriname () or Surinam, officially known as the Republic of Suriname ( nl, Republiek Suriname ), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a rela ...

Suriname
, and Australia. The Maluku community in other regions of Indonesia can be found in
Medan Medan (; English: ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smal ...

Medan
,
Palembang Palembang () is the capital city of the Provinces of Indonesia, Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The city proper covers on both banks of the Musi River (Indonesia), Musi River on the eastern lowland of southern Sumatra. It had a populat ...

Palembang
,
Bandung Bandung () is the capital of West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government ...

Bandung
,
Greater Jakarta The Jakarta metropolitan area, or Greater Jakarta known locally as Jabodetabek (an acronym of Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most c ...

Greater Jakarta
,
Central Java Central Java ( id, Jawa Tengah) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level ...
,
Yogyakarta , image_map = Lokasi_DIY_Kota_Yogyakarta.svg , mapsize = , map_caption = Location within Special Region of Yogyakarta en, Beautify the Beauty of the World Slogan:Tourism Slogan: ''Jogja Istimew ...

Yogyakarta
,
East Java East Java ( id, Jawa Timur) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level su ...

East Java
,
Makassar Makassar () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Makassar
,
Kupang Kupang ( id, Kota Kupang, ) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara. As of 2020, it had a population of 442,758. It is the largest city and port on the island of Timor, and is a part of the Timor Leste–Indonesia–Aust ...

Kupang
,
Manado Manado () is the capital city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...
,
East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of ...
,
Sorong Sorong is the largest List of regencies and cities of Indonesia, city of the Provinces of Indonesia, Indonesian province of West Papua (province), West Papua. The city is located on the western tip of the island of New Guinea with its only land b ...

Sorong
, and
Jayapura Jayapura is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian Provinces of Indonesia, province of Papua (province), Papua. It is situated on the northern coast of New Guinea island and covers an area of . The city borders the Pacific Ocean and Yo ...
.


Language

The languages used in Maluku, especially in Ambon, has been influenced by foreign languages, often by explorers who have visited and even occupied and colonized Maluku in the past. The nations were the Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Dutch. The
Ambonese language Ambonese Malay or simply Ambonese is a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Mala ...
, as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
in Maluku, has been understood by almost all residents of Maluku Province and generally, little by little, is understood by other East Indonesian people such as those in
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

Ternate
,
Manado Manado () is the capital city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...
,
Kupang Kupang ( id, Kota Kupang, ) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara. As of 2020, it had a population of 442,758. It is the largest city and port on the island of Timor, and is a part of the Timor Leste–Indonesia–Aust ...

Kupang
, etc. because
Ambonese The Ambonese, also known as South Moluccans, are an Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific ...
is related to other languages in the provinces of
North Sulawesi North Sulawesi ( id, Sulawesi Utara) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia. It is located on the Minahasa Peninsula of Sulawesi, south of the Philippines and southeast of Sabah, Malaysia. It borders Davao Region, Davao and Soccsksa ...
,
North Maluku North Maluku ( id, Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country i ...
, Papua, West Papua, and
East Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara ( id, Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...
.
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian ...

Indonesian
, as the official language and language of unity in the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI), is used in official and formal public activities such as in government offices and in schools and in places such as museums, airports and ports. Maluku is the largest archipelago in all of Indonesia, although this area is 90% water and only 10% land. Maluku Province and
North Maluku North Maluku ( id, Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country i ...
Province together compose the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
. The large number of islands that are separated by long distances from each other also results in the increasingly diverse languages used in this province. Some of the most common languages spoken in Maluku - apart from Ambonese and Indonesian - are: *
Wemale language Wemale is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken on western Seram Island in Indonesia. It is classified by Collins (1983) as a member of the Central Maluku languages, Central Maluku subgroup. The language is divided into northern ...
, used by residents of Piru, Seruawan, Kamarian, and Rumberu in the
West Seram Regency West Seram Regency is a Regencies of Indonesia, regency of Maluku (province), Maluku, Indonesia. It is mainly located on the Seram Island, island of Seram, but includes various islands lying to the west of Seram - Manipa, Kelang, Boano and the sma ...
. * Alune language is used in three water streams, namely Tala, Mala and Malewa in the
West Seram Regency West Seram Regency is a Regencies of Indonesia, regency of Maluku (province), Maluku, Indonesia. It is mainly located on the Seram Island, island of Seram, but includes various islands lying to the west of Seram - Manipa, Kelang, Boano and the sma ...
area. * Nuaulu language, spoken by the Nuaulu tribe in the south of Seram Island, is between Elpaputi Bay and Teluk Teluti. * Bobot language, Atiahu language, used by three ethnic groups, which also included the Nuaulu family, namely Atiahu, Werinama, and Batuasa in the East Seram Regency. * Seti language (Indonesia), Seti language is spoken by the Seti people, in North Seram and East Teluti, and also as a trade language in Eastern Seram. * Tarangan language, spoken in the Aru Island region.


Religion

Most of the people of Maluku adheres to the three main religions namely
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
,52.85% of the population and Christianity ,46.3% of the population (
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
(39.39%), and
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
(6.87%) ). There are also Folk religion, Hinduism, and Buddhism. The spread of Islam was carried out by the Sultanates of Iha, Saulau, Hitu, and Hatuhaha and Arabs, Arab traders who visited Maluku. While the spread of Christianity was carried out by missionaries from
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, Spain and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. Places of worship in Maluku Province in 2013 were recorded as follows: * 2,345 churches * 2,000 mosques * 10 temples * 5 Vihara The Protestant Church of Maluku (Gereja Protestan Maluku or simply GPM) is the largest synod organization and church organization in Maluku, which has church congregations in almost the entire Sarane country throughout Maluku.


Economy

Macroeconomically, Maluku's economic conditions tend to improve every year. One indicator is, among others, an increase in the value of GDP. In 2003 Maluku's Gross regional domestic product, GRDP reached 3.7 trillion rupiah and then increased to 4.05 trillion in 2004. Economic growth in 2004 reached 4.05 percent and increased to 5.06 percent in 2005. The geographical condition of Maluku Province when viewed from the strategic side of business investment opportunities can be predicted that natural resources in the fisheries and marine sector can be used as prima donna businesses in Maluku, in addition to other sectors such as livestock and plantation subsector, trade sector and tourism sector as well as the service sector entirely has a high selling value and business potential. Currently the economy of Maluku is dominated by agriculture, forestry and fisheries that contribute to about 25.00 percent of the total.Anonymous.2015.Maluku in Figures.Indonesia : Statistic Office Maluku Province Government service sector, defence and compulsory Social Security contribute to roughly 21 percent. The business field and retail trade; cars and motorcycles repair & services at 12.59 percent; construction sector contributes 7.41 percent. Maluku's economy in 2014 has shown positive improvement as compared to 2013. The GDP growth rate in 2014 reached 6.70 percent, while in 2013 amounted to 5.26 percent. The highest economic growth is in the field of electricity and gas supply business which grew by 31.11 percent. The business service is another sector that experienced positive growth in 2014. Other economic activities also recorded positive growth, including mining and quarrying (21.47 percent); education services business field (9.52 percent); transportation and warehousing business sector (8.77 percent); processing industry (8.42 percent); information and communication (7.62 per cent); financial services business (7.61 percent); construction (7.31 percent); real estate (7.10 percent). In 2017, a Japanese oil company, Inpex Corporation acquired Abadi Field, a crude oil and natural gas field located in the Arafura Sea, near Tanimbar Islands. In 2017 the company to start the Pre FEED phase and hold a joint workshop with SKK Migas to prepare an offshore development plan for project of Block Masela.


Culture


Music

The famous musical instruments are Tifa (a type of drum) and Kulintang, Totobuang, played together in an ensemble called a Tifa totobuang. Each musical instrument from Tifa to Totobuang has different functions and supports each other to give birth to a very distinctive color of music. But this music is dominated by Tifa musical instruments. It consists of Tifa, Tifa Jekir, Tifa Dasar, Tifa Potong, Tifa Jekir Potong and Tifa Bas, plus a large Gong and Toto Buang which is a series of small gongs placed on a table with several holes as a buffer. There is also a wind instrument namely Bia Skin (Shellfish). In the culture of Maluku, there are also stringed instruments namely
Ukulele The ukulele ( ; from haw, ukulele , approximately ) is a member of the lute family of instruments of Portuguese origin and popularized in Hawaii. It generally employs four nylon strings. The Tone (musical instrument), tone and volume of the ...

Ukulele
and that can also be found in the Hawaiian culture in the United States. This can be seen when Maluku music from the past until now still has a characteristic in which there is the use of Hawaiian musical instruments both in pop songs and in accompanying traditional dances such as Katreji. Other musical instruments is the Sawat. Sawat is a blend of Maluku culture and Middle Eastern culture. In a few centuries ago, the Arabs came to spread Islam in Maluku, then there was a mixture of cultures including music. It is evident in several Sawat musical instruments, such as Tambourines and Flutes that characterize Arabian music instruments. Outside of the variety of musical instruments, Moluccan people are famous for being good at singing. Since long ago they have often sung in accompanying traditional dances. There are many famous Moluccan singers in both Indonesia and the Netherlands, such as Broery Pesulima, Daniël Sahuleka, Daniel Sahuleka, Ruth Sahanaya, Eric Papilaya, Glenn Fredly, Glen Fredly, etc.


Dance

The famous dance from the Moluccas is the Cakalele which describes the might of the Moluccas. This dance is usually performed by adult men while holding Parang and Salawaku (Shield). There are also other dances like Saureka-Reka that use the sago palm fronds. The dances performed by six women really need accuracy and speed while accompanied by a very interesting musical rhythm. The dance which is a depiction of youth association is Katreji. Katreji dance is played in pairs between women and men with varied energetic and interesting movements. This dance is almost the same as European dances in general because Katreji is also an acculturation of European (Portuguese and Dutch) culture with Maluku culture. This is more evident in every signal in changing floor patterns and movements which still use Portuguese and Dutch as a process of bilingualism. This dance is accompanied by a violin instrument, Bamboo musical instruments, bamboo flute, ukulele, karakas, guitar, tifa, and bass guitar with a more prominent western (European) musical pattern. This dance is still performed by the people of Maluku until now. In addition to Katreji, the famous European influence is Polonaise, which is usually carried out by Moluccans at the time of marriage by each party member in pairs, forming a circle formation and carrying out light movements that can be followed by everyone, both young and old. In addition, there is also a Crazy Bamboo Dance. Crazy bamboo dance is a special dance that is magical, originating from Suli Village. The uniqueness of this dance is that the dancers are burdened by bamboo which can move uncontrollably and this dance can be followed by anyone.


Tourism

Some of the famous tourist attractions in Maluku include: * Manusela National Park * Pasir Panjang Beach * Natsepa Beach, Ambon * City Gate, Ambon


See also

* Districts of Maluku * List of islands of Indonesia * List of Maluku Governors * List of rivers of Maluku (province) * Baileo


References

{{Authority control Maluku (province), Provinces of Indonesia Maluku Islands, .