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Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an
ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
on the periphery of
Archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found or used currently: *List of archaeological periods **Archaic Sumerian language, spoken between 31st - 26th centu ...
and
Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (the 5th and 4th centuries BC) in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dar ...
, and later the dominant state of
Hellenistic Greece Hellenistic Greece is the historical period of the country following Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. This culminated at ...
. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and
Antigonid The Antigonid dynasty (; grc-gre, Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman E ...
dynasties. Home to the
ancient Macedonians The Macedonians ( el, Μακεδόνες, ''Makedónes'') were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Vardar, Axios in the northeastern part of Geography of Greece#Mainland, mainland Greece. Ess ...
, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the
Greek peninsula Greece is a country of the Balkans, in Southeastern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, North Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by Turkey, and is surrounded to the east by the Aegean Sea, to the south by the Cretan Sea, Cretan and the Lib ...
,. and bordered by
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg , map_alt = , map_caption = Map of ancient Epirus by Heinrich ...
to the west, Paeonia to the north,
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
to the east and
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...
to the south. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great
city-states A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or ...
of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
,
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
and Thebes, and briefly subordinate to
Achaemenid Persia The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of ...
. During the reign of the Argead king PhilipII (359–336 BC), Macedonia subdued
mainland Greece Greece is a country of the Balkans, in Southeastern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, North Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by Turkey, and is surrounded to the east by the Aegean Sea, to the south by the Cretan Sea, Cretan and the Li ...
and the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
Odrysian kingdom The Odrysian Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: ) was a Thracians, Thracian kingdom that existed from the early 5th century BC at least until the mid-3rd century BC. It consisted mainly of present-day Bulgaria and parts of Southeastern Romania (Northern D ...

Odrysian kingdom
through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branc ...
containing wielding the ''
sarissa The sarisa or sarissa ( el, σάρισα) was a long spear or Pike (weapon), pike about in length. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in his Macedonian phalanxes as a replacement for the earlier Dory (spear), dory, which wa ...
'' pike, PhilipII defeated the old powers of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338BC. PhilipII's son
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted. During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
and conquered territory that stretched as far as the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
. For a brief period, his Macedonian Empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of
Ancient Greek civilization Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol i ...
. Greek arts and
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...
, and
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...
spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of
Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality ...
. After Alexander's death in 323BC, the ensuing
wars of the Diadochi The Wars of the Diadochi ( grc, Πόλεμοι τῶν Διαδὀχων, '), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts that were fought between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great. They disputed over the rule of h ...
, and the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divi ...
, the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
, and the
Kingdom of Pergamon Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
. Important cities such as
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
,
Pydna Pydna (in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...

Pydna
, and
Amphipolis Amphipolis ( ell, Αμφίπολη, translit=Amfipoli; grc, Ἀμφίπολις, translit=Amphipolis) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as
Thessalonica Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica (), is the List of countries by largest and second largest cities, second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its Thessaloni ...
by the usurper
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
(named after his wife
Thessalonike of Macedon Thessalonike ( el, Θεσσαλονίκη; 353 or 352 – 295 BC) was a ancient Macedonians, Macedonian princess, the daughter of Philip II of Macedon, King Philip II of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon by his ancient Thessaly, Thessalian wife o ...
).. Macedonia's decline began with the
Macedonian Wars The Macedonian Wars (214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Repr ...
and the rise of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
as the leading
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
power. At the end of the
Third Macedonian War The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC, King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus of Macedon, Perseus. He was anti-Roman and s ...
in 168BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman
client state A client state, in international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activ ...
s. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the
Fourth Macedonian War The Fourth Macedonian War (150–148 BC) was fought between Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece Classical Greece was a per ...
in 150–148BC ended with the establishment of the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
. The Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources such as gold and silver, facilitated mining operations to
mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services ...
, finance their armies and, by the reign of PhilipII, a Macedonian navy. Unlike the other ''
diadochi 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

diadochi
''
successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1996 film including Laura Girling * ''The Successor'' (TV program), a 2007 Israeli television program Mu ...
s, the
imperial cult An imperial cult is a form of state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations ...
fostered by Alexander was never adopted in Macedonia, yet Macedonian rulers nevertheless assumed roles as
high priest The term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction ...
s of the kingdom and leading patrons of domestic and international
cults In modern English, a cult is a social group that is defined by its unusual Religion, religious, spirituality, spiritual, or Philosophy, philosophical beliefs, or its Followership, common interest in a particular Cult of personality, personali ...
of the
Hellenistic religion The concept of Hellenistic religion as the late form of Ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was ...
. The authority of Macedonian kings was theoretically limited by the institution of the army, while a few municipalities within the Macedonian commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and even had democratic governments with
popular assemblies A popular assembly (or people's assembly) is a gathering called to address issues of importance to participants. Assemblies tend to be freely open to participation and operate by direct democracy Image:Landsgemeinde Glarus 2006.jpg, upright=1 ...
.


Etymology

The name Macedonia ( el, Μακεδονία, ') comes from the
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
(), which itself is derived from the
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
adjective μακεδνός (), meaning "tall, slim", also the name of a people related to the
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe) ...
(
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
), and possibly descriptive of
Ancient Macedonians The Macedonians ( el, Μακεδόνες, ''Makedónes'') were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Vardar, Axios in the northeastern part of Geography of Greece#Mainland, mainland Greece. Es ...
. It is most likely
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
with the adjective (), meaning "long" or "tall" in
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
. The name is believed to have originally meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men".; ; Eugene N. Borza writes that the "highlanders" or "Makedones" of the mountainous regions of western Macedonia are derived from northwest Greek stock; they were akin to those who at an earlier time may have migrated south to become the historical "Dorians". Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes claims that both terms are of
Pre-Greek substrate The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown pre-Indo-European language(s) spoken in prehistoric Greece before the coming of the Proto-Greek language The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is ...
origin and cannot be explained in terms of
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
morphology, however Filip De Decker rejects Beekesʼ arguments as insufficient.


History


Early history and legend

The
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
Greek historians#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
and
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
reported the
legend A legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel literature, tra ...
that the Macedonian kings of the Argead dynasty were descendants of
Temenus In Greek mythology, Temenus ( el, Τήμενος, ''Tḗmenos'') was a son of Aristomachus (Heracleidae), Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Aristodemus. Temenus was a great-great-grandson of Heracles and helped lead the fifth and final ...
, king of
Argos Argos usually refers to: * Argos, Peloponnese Argos (; Greek language, Greek: Άργος ; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος ) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the List of oldest continuously inhabited ci ...
, and could therefore claim the mythical
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in anci ...

Heracles
as one of their
ancestor An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear, is a parent A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessaril ...

ancestor
s as well as a direct lineage from
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
, chief god of the
Greek pantheon Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of the world, the lives ...
.; ; . Contradictory legends state that either
Perdiccas I of Macedon Perdiccas I ( gr, Περδίκκας, Perdíkkas) was List of ancient Macedonians, king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon. Herodotus stated: References

7th-century BC Macedonian monarchs Argead kings of Macedonia Mythology of Macedonia ...
or
Caranus of Macedon Caranus or Karanos ( gr, Κάρανος, Káranos) was the first king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon according to later traditions. According to Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an Classic ...
were the founders of the Argead dynasty, with either five or eight kings before AmyntasI. The assertion that the Argeads descended from Temenus was accepted by the ''
HellanodikaiThe ''Hellanodikai'' ( grc, , literally meaning ''Judges of the Greeks''; sing. Ἑλλανοδίκας Ancient Olympic Games The ancient Olympic Games (Ὀλυμπιακοί ἀγώνες, "Olympiakoi agones") were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can ...
, permitting
Alexander I of Macedon Alexander I of Macedon ( el, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, literally "fond of the Greeks", "patriot") was the ruler of the ancient kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his d ...
() to enter the competitions owing to his perceived Greek heritage. Little is known about the kingdom before the reign of AlexanderI's father
Amyntas I of Macedon Amyntas I (Greek language, Greek: Ἀμύντας Aʹ; 498 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon (540 – 512 / 511 BC) and then a vassal of Darius I from 512/511 to his death 498 BC, at the time of Achaemenid ...
() during the Archaic period. The
kingdom of Macedonia Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.The " ...
was situated along the
Haliacmon The Haliacmon ( el, Αλιάκμονας, ''Aliákmonas''; formerly: , ''Aliákmon'' or ''Haliákmōn'') is the longest river flowing entirely in Greece, with a total length of . In Greece there are three rivers longer than Haliakmon, Maritsa ( el, ...

Haliacmon
and Axius rivers in
Lower Macedonia Lower Macedonia ( el, Κάτω Μακεδονία, ''Kato Makedonia'') or Macedonia proper or Emathia is a geographical term used in Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects ...
, north of
Mount Olympus Mount Olympus (; el, Όλυμπος, Ólympos, also , ) is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in ...

Mount Olympus
. Historian Robert Malcolm Errington suggests that one of the earliest Argead kings established Aigai (modern
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
) as their capital in the mid-7th centuryBC. Before the 4th centuryBC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding roughly to the
western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
and
central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

central
parts of the
region of Macedonia Macedonia () is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Toda ...
in modern Greece. It gradually expanded into the region of Upper Macedonia, inhabited by the Greek Lynkestis, Lyncestae and Elimiotis, Elimiotae tribes, and into regions of Emathia, Eordaia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia, Crestonia, and Almopia, which were inhabited by various peoples such as Thracians and Phrygians., see also for the Macedonian expulsion of original inhabitants such as the Phrygians. Macedonia's non-Greek neighbors included Thracians, inhabiting territories to the northeast, Illyrians to the northwest, and Paeonians to the north, while the lands of Thessaly to the south and Epirus to the west were inhabited by Greeks with similar cultures to that of the Macedonians. A year after Darius I of Persia () launched European Scythian campaign of Darius I, an invasion into Europe against the Scythians, Paeonians, Thrace, Thracians, and several Greek city-states of the Balkans, the Persian general Megabazus used diplomacy to convince AmyntasI to submit as a Vassal state, vassal of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
, ushering in the period of Achaemenid Macedonia.; ; .
Errington is skeptical that at this point
Amyntas I of Macedon Amyntas I (Greek language, Greek: Ἀμύντας Aʹ; 498 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon (540 – 512 / 511 BC) and then a vassal of Darius I from 512/511 to his death 498 BC, at the time of Achaemenid ...
offered any submission as a vassal at all, at most a token one. He also mentions how the Macedonian king pursued his own course of action, such as inviting the exiled Athenian tyrant Hippias (tyrant), Hippias to take refuge at Anthemous in 506BC.
Achaemenid Persian hegemony over Macedonia was briefly interrupted by the Ionian Revolt (499–493BC), yet the Persian general Mardonius (general), Mardonius brought it back under Achaemenid suzerainty. Although Macedonia enjoyed a large degree of autonomy and was never made a satrapy (i.e. province) of the Achaemenid Empire, it was expected to provide troops for the Achaemenid army. AlexanderI provided Macedonian military support to Xerxes I () during the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480–479 BC, and Macedonian soldiers fought on the side of the Persians at the 479BC Battle of Platea. Following the Battle of Salamis, Greek victory at Salamis in 480BC, AlexanderI was employed as an Achaemenid diplomat to propose a peace treaty and alliance with Classical Athens, Athens, an offer that was rejected. Soon afterwards, the Achaemenid forces were Wars of the Delian League, forced to withdraw from mainland Europe, marking the end of Persian control over Macedonia.


Involvement in the Classical Greek world

Although initially a Persian vassal, AlexanderI of Macedon fostered friendly diplomatic relations with his former Greek enemies, the Athenian and
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
n-led coalition of Greek city-states. His successor Perdiccas II of Macedon, PerdiccasII () led the Macedonians to war in four separate conflicts against Athens, leader of the Delian League, while incursions by the Thracian ruler Sitalces of the
Odrysian kingdom The Odrysian Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: ) was a Thracians, Thracian kingdom that existed from the early 5th century BC at least until the mid-3rd century BC. It consisted mainly of present-day Bulgaria and parts of Southeastern Romania (Northern D ...

Odrysian kingdom
threatened Macedonia's territorial integrity in the northeast. The Athenian statesman Pericles promoted colonization of the Strymon River near the Kingdom of Macedonia, where the colonial city of
Amphipolis Amphipolis ( ell, Αμφίπολη, translit=Amfipoli; grc, Ἀμφίπολις, translit=Amphipolis) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
was founded in 437/436BC so that it could provide Athens with a steady supply of silver and gold as well as timber and Pitch (resin), pitch to support the Athenian navy. Initially Perdiccas II did not take any action and might have even welcomed the Athenians, as the Thracians were foes to both of them. This changed due to an Athenian alliance with a brother and cousin of PerdiccasII who had rebelled against him.. Thus, two separate wars were fought against Athens between 433 and 431BC. The Macedonian king retaliated by promoting the rebellion of Athens' allies in Chalcidice and subsequently won over the strategic city of Potidaea. After capturing the Macedonian cities Therma and Veria, Beroea, Athens besieged Potidaea but failed to overcome it; Therma was returned to Macedonia and much of Chalcidice to Athens in a peace treaty brokered by Sitalces, who provided Athens with military aid in exchange for acquiring new Thracian allies. PerdiccasII sided Peloponnesian League, with Sparta in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) between Athens and Sparta, and in 429 BC Athens retaliated by persuading Sitalces to invade Macedonia, but he was forced to retreat owing to a shortage of provisions in winter. In 424 BC, Arrhabaeus, a local ruler of Lynkestis in Upper Macedonia, rebelled against his suzerain, overlord Perdiccas, and the Spartans agreed to help in putting down the revolt. At the Battle of Lyncestis the Macedonians panicked and fled before the fighting began, enraging the Spartan general Brasidas, whose soldiers looted the unattended Macedonian baggage train. Perdiccas then changed sides and supported Athens, and he was able to put down Arrhabaeus's revolt. Brasidas died in 422 BC, the year Athens and Sparta struck an accord, the Peace of Nicias, that freed Macedonia from its obligations as an Athenian ally. Following the 418BC Battle of Mantinea (418 BC), Battle of Mantinea, the victorious Spartans formed an alliance with History of Argos, Argos, a military pact PerdiccasII was keen to join given the threat of Spartan allies remaining in Chalcidice. When Argos suddenly switched sides as a pro-Athenian democracy, the Athenian navy was able to form a blockade against Macedonian seaports and invade Chalcidice in 417BC. PerdiccasII sued for peace in 414BC, forming an alliance with Athens that was continued by his son and successor Archelaus I of Macedon, ArchelausI (). Athens then provided naval support to ArchelausI in the 410BC Macedonian siege of
Pydna Pydna (in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...

Pydna
, in exchange for timber and naval equipment. Although Archelaus I was faced with some internal revolts and had to fend off an invasion of Illyrians led by Sirras of Lynkestis, he was able to project Macedonian power into Thessaly where he sent military aid to his allies. Although he retained Aigai as a ceremonial and religious center, ArchelausI moved the capital city, capital of the kingdom north to
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
, which was then positioned by a lake with a river connecting it to the Aegean Sea. He improved Macedonia's currency by minting coins with a Silver coin, higher silver content as well as issuing separate Coinage metals, copper coinage.. His royal court attracted the presence of well-known intellectuals such as the Athenian playwright Euripides. When ArchelausI was assassinated (perhaps following a Homosexuality in ancient Greece, homosexual love affair with royal pages at his court), the kingdom was plunged into chaos, in an era lasting from 399 to 393BC that included the reign of four different monarchs: Orestes of Macedon, Orestes, son of ArchelausI; Aeropus II of Macedon, AeropusII, uncle, regent, and murderer of Orestes; Pausanias of Macedon, Pausanias, son of AeropusII; and Amyntas II of Macedon, AmyntasII, who was married to the youngest daughter of ArchelausI. Very little is known about this turbulent period; it came to an end when Amyntas III of Macedon, AmyntasIII (), son of Arrhidaeus and grandson of AmyntasI, killed Pausanias and claimed the Macedonian throne. Amyntas III was forced to flee his kingdom in either 393 or 383BC (based on conflicting accounts), owing to a massive invasion by the Illyrian Dardani led by Bardylis.; see also for further details; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus provided a seemingly conflicting account about Illyrian invasions occurring in 393BC and 383BC, which may have been representative of a single invasion led by Bardylis of the Dardani. The pretender to the throne Argaeus II of Macedon, Argaeus ruled in his absence, yet AmyntasIII eventually returned to his kingdom with the aid of Thessalian allies. AmyntasIII was also nearly overthrown by the forces of the Chalcidian city of Olynthos, but with the aid of Teleutias, brother of the Spartan king Agesilaus II, the Macedonians forced Olynthos to surrender and dissolve their Chalcidian League in 379BC. Alexander II of Macedon, Alexander II (), son of Eurydice I of Macedon, EurydiceI and AmyntasIII, succeeded his father and immediately invaded Thessaly to wage war against the ''Tagus (title), tagus'' (supreme Thessalian military leader) Alexander of Pherae, capturing the city of Larissa. The Thessalians, desiring to remove both AlexanderII and Alexander of Pherae as their overlords, appealed to Pelopidas of Thebes for aid; he succeeded in recapturing Larissa and, in the peace agreement arranged with Macedonia, received aristocratic hostages including AlexanderII's brother and future king PhilipII (). When Alexander was assassinated by his brother-in-law Ptolemy of Aloros, the latter acted as an overbearing regent for Perdiccas III of Macedon, PerdiccasIII (), younger brother of AlexanderII, who eventually had Ptolemy executed when reaching the age of majority in 365BC. The remainder of Perdiccas III's reign was marked by political stability and financial recovery. However, an Athenian invasion led by Timotheus (general), Timotheus, son of Conon, managed to capture Methoni, Pieria, Methone and Pydna, and an Illyrian invasion led by Bardylis succeeded in killing PerdiccasIII and 4,000 Macedonian troops in battle.


Rise of Macedon

Philip II was twenty-four years old when he acceded to the throne in 359BC. Through the use of deft diplomacy, he was able to convince the Thracians under Berisades to cease their support of Pausanias (pretender), Pausanias, a pretender to the throne, and the Athenians to halt their support of Argaeus II of Macedon, another pretender. He achieved these by bribing the Thracians and their Paeonia (kingdom), Paeonian allies and establishing a treaty with Athens that relinquished his claims to Amphipolis. He was also able to make peace with the Illyrians who Battle of Erigon Valley, had threatened his borders. Philip II spent his initial years radically transforming the Ancient Macedonian army, Macedonian army. A reform of its organization, equipment, and training, including the introduction of the Macedonian phalanx armed with Pike (weapon), long pikes (i.e. the ''
sarissa The sarisa or sarissa ( el, σάρισα) was a long spear or Pike (weapon), pike about in length. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in his Macedonian phalanxes as a replacement for the earlier Dory (spear), dory, which wa ...
''), proved immediately successful when tested against his Illyrian and Paeonian enemies. Confusing accounts in ancient sources have led modern scholars to debate how much PhilipII's royal predecessors may have contributed to these reforms and the extent to which his ideas were influenced by his Adolescence, adolescent years of captivity in Thebes as a political hostage during the Theban hegemony, especially after meeting with the general Epaminondas. The Macedonians, like the other Greeks, traditionally practiced monogamy, but PhilipII practiced polygamy and married seven wives with Cleopatra Eurydice, perhaps only one that did not involve the loyalty of his aristocratic subjects or new allies..
Müller is skeptical about the claims of Plutarch and Athenaeus that PhilipII of Macedon married Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon, a younger woman, purely out of love or due to his own midlife crisis. Cleopatra was the daughter of the general Attalus (general), Attalus, who along with his father-in-law Parmenion were given command posts in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) soon after this wedding. Müller also suspects that this marriage was one of political convenience meant to ensure the loyalty of an influential Macedonian noble house.
His first marriages were to Phila of Elimeia of the Upper Macedonian aristocracy as well as the Illyrian princess Audata to ensure a marriage alliance. To establish an alliance with Larissa in Thessaly, he married the Thessalian noblewoman Philinna in 358BC, who bore him a son who would later rule as Philip III Arrhidaeus (). In 357BC, he married Olympias to secure an alliance with Arybbas of Epirus, Arybbas, the King of Epirus and the Molossians. This marriage would bear a son who would later rule as AlexanderIII (better known as
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
) and claim descent from the legendary Achilles by way of his Aeacidae, dynastic heritage from Epirus. It is unclear whether or not the Achaemenid Persian kings influenced PhilipII's practice of polygamy, although his predecessor AmyntasIII had three sons with a possible second wife Gygaea: Archelaus, Arrhidaeus, and Menelaus (son of Amyntas III), Menelaus. PhilipII had Archelaus put to death in 359BC, while PhilipII's other two half brothers fled to Olynthos, serving as a ''casus belli'' for the Olynthian War (349–348BC) against the Chalcidian League. While Athens was preoccupied with the Social War (357–355 BC), PhilipII retook Amphipolis from them in 357BC and the following year recaptured Pydna and Potidaea, the latter of which he handed over to the Chalcidian League as promised in a treaty. In 356BC, he took Crenides (Macedonia), Crenides, refounding it as Philippi, while his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrian king Grabos II of the Grabaei. During the 355–354BC siege of Methone, PhilipII lost his right eye to an arrow wound, but managed to capture the city and treated the inhabitants cordially, unlike the Potidaeans, who had been enslaved.; ; .
Cawkwell contrarily provides the date of this siege as 354–353 BC.
Philip II then involved Macedonia in the Third Sacred War (356–346BC). It began when Phocis (ancient region), Phocis captured and plundered the temple of Apollo at Delphi instead of submitting unpaid fines, causing the Amphictyonic League to declare war on Phocis and a civil war among the members of the Thessalian League aligned with either Phocis or Thebes. PhilipII's initial campaign against Pherae in Thessaly in 353BC at the behest of Larissa ended in two disastrous defeats by the Phocian general Onomarchus.; ; ; .
Conversely, Buckler provides the date of this initial campaign as 354BC, while affirming that the second Thessalian campaign ending in the Battle of Crocus Field occurred in 353BC.
PhilipII in turn defeated Onomarchus in 352BC at the Battle of Crocus Field, which led to PhilipII's election as leader (''archon'') of the Thessalian League, provided him a seat on the Amphictyonic Council, and allowed for a marriage alliance with Pherae by wedding Nicesipolis, niece of the tyrant Jason of Pherae. Philip II had some early involvement with the Achaemenid Empire, especially by supporting satraps and mercenaries who rebelled against the central authority of the Achaemenid king. The satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia Artabazos II, who was in rebellion against Artaxerxes III, was able to take refuge as an exile at the Macedonian court from 352 to 342 BC. He was accompanied in exile by his family and by his mercenary general Memnon of Rhodes. Barsine, daughter of Artabazos, and future wife of Alexander the Great, grew up at the Macedonian court. After campaigning against the Thracian ruler Cersobleptes, in 349BC, PhilipII began his war against the Chalcidian League, which had been reestablished in 375BC following a temporary disbandment. Despite an Athenian intervention by Charidemus, Olynthos was captured by PhilipII in 348BC, and its inhabitants were Slavery in ancient Greece, sold into slavery, including some Athenian citizenship, Athenian citizens. The Athenians, especially in a series of speeches by Demosthenes known as the ''Olynthiacs'', were unsuccessful in persuading their allies to counterattack and in 346BC concluded a treaty with Macedonia Peace of Philocrates, known as the Peace of Philocrates. The treaty stipulated that Athens would relinquish claims to Macedonian coastal territories, the Chalcidice, and Amphipolis in return for the release of the enslaved Athenians as well as guarantees that PhilipII would not attack Athenian settlements in the Thracian Chersonese. Meanwhile, Phocis and Thermopylae were captured by Macedonian forces, the Pythia, Delphic temple robbers were executed, and PhilipII was awarded the two Phocian seats on the Amphictyonic Council and the position of master of ceremonies over the Pythian Games. Athens initially opposed his membership on the council and refused to attend the games in protest, but they eventually accepted these conditions, perhaps after some persuasion by Demosthenes in his oration ''On the Peace''. Over the next few years, Philip II reformed local governments in Thessaly, campaigned against the Illyrian ruler Pleuratus I, deposed Arybbas in
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg , map_alt = , map_caption = Map of ancient Epirus by Heinrich ...
in favor of his brother-in-law Alexander I of Epirus, AlexanderI (through PhilipII's marriage to Olympias), and defeated Cersebleptes in Thrace. This allowed him to extend Macedonian control over the Hellespont in anticipation of an invasion into Classical Anatolia, Achaemenid Anatolia. In 342BC, PhilipII conquered History of Plovdiv, a Thracian city in what is now Bulgaria and renamed it Philippopolis (Thracia), Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). War broke out with Athens in 340BC while PhilipII was engaged in two ultimately unsuccessful sieges of Perinthus and Byzantion, followed by a successful campaign against the Scythians along the Danube and Macedonia's involvement in the Fourth Sacred War against Amphissa (city), Amphissa in 339BC. Thebes ejected a Macedonian garrison from Nicaea, Locris, Nicaea (near Thermopylae), leading Thebes to join Athens, Megara, Corinth, Achaea, and Euboea in a final confrontation against Macedonia at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338BC. After the Macedonian victory at Chaeronea, PhilipII installed an oligarchy in Thebes, yet was lenient toward Athens, wishing to utilize their navy in a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire. He was then chiefly responsible for the formation of the League of Corinth that included the major Greek city-states except Sparta. Despite the Kingdom of Macedonia's official exclusion from the league, in 337BC, PhilipII was elected as the leader (''hegemon'') of its council (''synedrion'') and the commander-in-chief (''strategos autokrator'') of a forthcoming campaign to invade the Achaemenid Empire. Philip's plan to punish the Persians for the suffering of the Greeks and to liberate the Greek cities of Asia Minor as well as perhaps the panhellenic fear of another Persian invasion of Greece, contributed to his decision to invade the Achaemenid Empire. The Persians offered aid to Perinthus and Byzantion in 341–340BC, highlighting Macedonia's strategic need to secure Thrace and the Aegean Sea against increasing Achaemenid encroachment, as the Persian king Artaxerxes III further consolidated his control over satrapies in Geography of Anatolia, western Anatolia. The latter region, yielding far more wealth and valuable resources than the Balkans, was also coveted by the Macedonian king for its sheer economic potential. When Philip II married Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon, Cleopatra Eurydice, niece of general Attalus (general), Attalus, talk of providing new potential heirs at the wedding feast infuriated PhilipII's son Alexander, a veteran of the Battle of Chaeronea, and his mother Olympias. They fled together to Epirus before Alexander was recalled to Pella by PhilipII.; . When PhilipII arranged a marriage between his son Arrhidaeus and Ada of Caria, daughter of Pixodarus, the Persian satrap of Caria, Alexander intervened and proposed to marry Ada instead. PhilipII then cancelled the wedding altogether and exiled Alexander's advisors Ptolemy I, Ptolemy, Nearchus, and Harpalus. To reconcile with Olympias, PhilipII had their daughter Cleopatra of Macedon, Cleopatra marry Olympias' brother (and Cleopatra's uncle) AlexanderI of Epirus, but PhilipII was assassinated by his bodyguard, Pausanias of Orestis, during their wedding feast and succeeded by Alexander in 336BC.


Empire

Modern scholars have argued over the possible role of Alexander III of Macedon, AlexanderIII "the Great" and his mother Olympias in the assassination of PhilipII, noting the latter's choice to exclude Alexander from his planned invasion of Asia, choosing instead for him to act as regent of Greece and deputy ''hegemon'' of the League of Corinth, and the potential bearing of another male heir between PhilipII and his new wife, Cleopatra Eurydice.; .
Without implicating Alexander III of Macedon as a potential suspect in the plot to assassinate Philip II of Macedon, N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank discuss possible Macedonian as well as foreign suspects, such as Demosthenes and Darius III: .
AlexanderIII () was immediately proclaimed king by Popular assembly, an assembly of the army and leading aristocrats, chief among them being Antipater and Parmenion. By the end of his reign and military career in 323BC, Alexander would rule over an empire consisting of
mainland Greece Greece is a country of the Balkans, in Southeastern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, North Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by Turkey, and is surrounded to the east by the Aegean Sea, to the south by the Cretan Sea, Cretan and the Li ...
, Asia Minor, the Levant, ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and much of Central Asia, Central and South Asia (i.e. modern Pakistan). Among his first acts was the burial of his father at Aigai. The members of the League of Corinth revolted at the news of PhilipII's death, but were soon quelled by military force alongside persuasive diplomacy, electing Alexander as ''hegemon'' of the league to carry out the planned invasion of Achaemenid Persia. In 335 BC, Alexander Alexander's Balkan campaign, fought against the Thracian tribe of the Triballi at Haemus Mons and along the Danube, forcing their surrender on Peuce Island. Shortly thereafter, the Illyrian king Cleitus (Dardania), Cleitus of the Dardani threatened to attack Macedonia, but Alexander took the initiative and Siege of Pelium, besieged the Dardani at Pelion (Chaonia), Pelion (in modern Albania). When Thebes had once again revolted from the League of Corinth and was besieging the Macedonian garrison in the Cadmea, Alexander left the Illyrian front and marched to Thebes, which he Battle of Thebes, placed under siege. After breaching the walls, Alexander's forces killed 6,000 Thebans, took 30,000 inhabitants as prisoners of war, and burned the city to the ground as a warning that convinced all other Greek states except Sparta not to challenge Alexander again. Throughout his military career, Alexander won every battle that he personally commanded. His first victory against the Persians in Asia Minor at the Battle of the Granicus in 334BC used a small cavalry contingent as a distraction to allow his infantry to cross the river followed by a cavalry charge from his companion cavalry.. Alexander led the cavalry charge at the Battle of Issus in 333BC, forcing the Persian king Darius III and his army to flee. DariusIII, despite having superior numbers, was again forced to flee the Battle of Gaugamela in 331BC. The Persian king was later captured and executed by his own satrap of Bactria and kinsman, Bessus, in 330BC. The Macedonian king subsequently hunted down and executed Bessus in what is now Afghanistan, securing the region of Sogdia in the process. At the 326BC Battle of the Hydaspes (modern-day Punjab), when the war elephants of King Porus of the Pauravas threatened Alexander's troops, he had them form open ranks to surround the elephants and dislodge their handlers by using their ''sarissa'' pikes. When his Macedonian troops threatened mutiny in 324BC at Opis, Babylonia (near modern Baghdad, Iraq), Alexander offered Macedonian military titles and greater responsibilities to Persian officers and units instead, forcing his troops to seek forgiveness at a staged banquet of reconciliation between Persians and Macedonians. Alexander perhaps undercut his own rule by demonstrating signs of wiktionary:megalomania, megalomania. While utilizing effective propaganda such as the cutting of the Gordian Knot, he also attempted to portray himself as a Sacred king, living god and son of Zeus following his visit to the oracle at Siwah in the Libyan Desert (in modern-day Egypt) in 331BC. His attempt in 327BC to have his men prostrate before him in Bactra in an act of ''proskynesis'' borrowed from the Persian kings was rejected as religious blasphemy by his Macedonian and Greek subjects after his court historian Callisthenes refused to perform this ritual.. When Alexander had Parmenion murdered at Ecbatana (near modern Hamadan, Iran) in 330BC, this was "symptomatic of the growing gulf between the king's interests and those of his country and people", according to Errington. His murder of Cleitus the Black in 328BC is described as "vengeful and reckless" by Dawn L. Gilley and Ian Worthington. Continuing the polygamous habits of his father, Alexander encouraged his men to marry native women in Asia, leading by example when he wed Roxana, a Sogdian princess of Bactria. He then married Stateira II, eldest daughter of DariusIII, and Parysatis II, youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III, at the Susa weddings in 324BC. Meanwhile, in Greece, the Spartan king Agis III attempted to lead a rebellion of the Greeks against Macedonia. He was defeated in 331BC at the Battle of Megalopolis by Antipater, who was serving as regent of Macedonia and deputy ''hegemon'' of the League of Corinth in Alexander's stead.; .
Gilley and Worthington discuss the ambiguity surrounding the exact title of Antipater aside from deputy ''hegemon'' of the League of Corinth, with some sources calling him a regent, others a governor, others a simple general.
N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank state that Alexander the Great left "Macedonia under the command of Antipater, in case there was a rising in Greece." .
Before Antipater embarked on his campaign in the Peloponnese, Memnon, the governor of Thrace, was dissuaded from rebellion by use of diplomacy. Antipater deferred the punishment of Sparta to the League of Corinth headed by Alexander, who ultimately pardoned the Spartans on the condition that they submit fifty nobles as hostages. Antipater's hegemony was somewhat unpopular in Greece due to his practice (perhaps by order of Alexander) of exiling malcontents and garrisoning cities with Macedonian troops, yet in 330BC, Alexander declared that the tyrannies installed in Greece were to be abolished and Greek freedom was to be restored. When Death of Alexander the Great, Alexander the Great died at Babylon in 323BC, his mother Olympias immediately accused Antipater and his faction of poisoning him, although there is no evidence to confirm this. With no official heir apparent, the Macedonian military command split, with one side proclaiming Alexander's half-brother PhilipIII Arrhidaeus () as king and the other siding with the infant son of Alexander and Roxana, Alexander IV of Macedon, AlexanderIV (). Except for the Euboeans and Boeotians, the Greeks also immediately rose up in a rebellion against Antipater known as the Lamian War (323–322BC). When Antipater was defeated at the 323BC Battle of Thermopylae (323 BC), Battle of Thermopylae, he fled to Lamia (city), Lamia where he was besieged by the Athenian commander Leosthenes. A Macedonian army led by Leonnatus rescued Antipater by lifting the siege. Antipater defeated the rebellion, yet his death in 319BC left a power vacuum wherein the two proclaimed kings of Macedonia became pawns in Wars of the Diadochi, a power struggle between the ''
diadochi 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

diadochi
'', the former generals of Alexander's army. A Partition of Babylon, council of the army convened in Babylon immediately after Alexander's death, naming PhilipIII as king and the chiliarch Perdiccas as his regent. Antipater, Antigonus Monophthalmus, Craterus, and Ptolemy formed a coalition against Perdiccas in a civil war initiated by Ptolemy's Tomb of Alexander the Great, seizure of the hearse of Alexander the Great. Perdiccas was assassinated in 321BC by his own officers during a failed campaign in Egypt against Ptolemy, where his march along the Nile River resulted in the drowning of 2,000 of his men. Although Eumenes of Cardia managed to kill Craterus in battle, this had little to no effect on the outcome of the 321BC Partition of Triparadisus in Syria (region), Syria where the victorious coalition settled the issue of a new regency and territorial rights. Antipater was appointed as regent over the two kings. Before Antipater died in 319BC, he named the staunch Argead loyalist Polyperchon as his successor, passing over his own son
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
and ignoring the right of the king to choose a new regent (since PhilipIII was considered mentally unstable), in effect bypassing the council of the army as well. Forming an alliance with Ptolemy, Antigonus, and Lysimachus, Cassander had his officer Nicanor (Antipatrid general), Nicanor capture the Munichia fortress of Athens' port town Piraeus in defiance of Polyperchon's decree that Greek cities should be free of Macedonian garrisons, sparking the Second War of the Diadochi (319–315BC). Given a string of military failures by Polyperchon, in 317BC, PhilipIII, by way of his politically engaged wife Eurydice II of Macedon, officially replaced him as regent with Cassander. Afterwards, Polyperchon desperately sought the aid of Olympias in Epirus.; . A joint force of Epirotes, Aetolians, and Polyperchon's troops invaded Macedonia and forced the surrender of PhilipIII and Eurydice's army, allowing Olympias to execute the king and force his queen to commit suicide. Olympias then had Nicanor and dozens of other Macedonian nobles killed, but by the spring of 316BC, Cassander had defeated her forces, captured her, and placed her on trial for murder before sentencing her to death. Cassander married Philip II's daughter Thessalonike of Macedon, Thessalonike and briefly extended Macedonian control into Illyria as far as Epidamnos (modern Durrës, Albania). By 313BC, it was retaken by the Illyrian king Glaucias of Taulantii. By 316BC, Antigonus had taken the territory of Eumenes and managed to eject Seleucus Nicator from his Babylonian satrapy, leading Cassander, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus to issue a joint ultimatum to Antigonus in 315BC for him to surrender various territories in Asia. Antigonus promptly allied with Polyperchon, now based in Corinth, and issued an ultimatum of his own to Cassander, charging him with murder for executing Olympias and demanding that he hand over the royal family, King AlexanderIV and the queen mother Roxana. The conflict that followed lasted until the winter of 312/311BC, when a new peace settlement recognized Cassander as general of Europe, Antigonus as "first in Asia", Ptolemy as general of Egypt, and Lysimachus as general of Thrace. Cassander had AlexanderIV and Roxana put to death in the winter of 311/310BC, and between 306 and 305BC the ''diadochi'' were declared kings of their respective territories.


Hellenistic era

The beginning of
Hellenistic Greece Hellenistic Greece is the historical period of the country following Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. This culminated at ...
was defined by the struggle between the Antipatrid dynasty, led first by
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
(), son of Antipater, and the Antigonid dynasty, led by the Macedonian general Antigonus I Monophthalmus () and his son, the future king Demetrius I of Macedon, DemetriusI (). Cassander besieged Athens in 303BC, but was forced to retreat to Macedonia when Demetrius invaded Boeotia to his rear, attempting to sever his path of retreat. While Antigonus and Demetrius attempted to recreate PhilipII's League of Corinth, Hellenic league with themselves as dual hegemons, a revived coalition of Cassander, Ptolemy I Soter () of Egypt's Ptolemaic dynasty, Seleucus I Nicator () of the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
, and Lysimachus (), List of rulers of Thrace and Dacia, King of Thrace, defeated the Antigonids at the Battle of Ipsus in 301BC, killing Antigonus and forcing Demetrius into flight. Cassander died in 297 BC, and his sickly son Philip IV of Macedon, PhilipIV died the same year, succeeded by Cassander's other sons Alexander V of Macedon () and Antipater II of Macedon (), with their mother
Thessalonike of Macedon Thessalonike ( el, Θεσσαλονίκη; 353 or 352 – 295 BC) was a ancient Macedonians, Macedonian princess, the daughter of Philip II of Macedon, King Philip II of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon by his ancient Thessaly, Thessalian wife o ...
acting as regent. While Demetrius fought against the Antipatrid forces in Greece, AntipaterII killed his own mother to obtain power. His desperate brother AlexanderV then requested aid from Pyrrhus of Epirus (), who had fought alongside Demetrius at the Battle of Ipsus, but was sent to Egypt as a hostage as part of an agreement between Demetrius and PtolemyI.. In exchange for defeating the forces of AntipaterII and forcing him to flee to the court of Lysimachus in Thrace, Pyrrhus was awarded the westernmost portions of the Macedonian kingdom. Demetrius had his nephew AlexanderV assassinated and was then proclaimed king of Macedonia, but his subjects protested against his aloof, Eastern-style autocracy.. War broke out between Pyrrhus and Demetrius in 290BC when Lanassa (wife of Pyrrhus), Lanassa, wife of Pyrrhus, daughter of Agathocles of Syracuse, left him for Demetrius and offered him her dowry of Corcyra. The war dragged on until 288BC, when Demetrius lost the support of Ancient Macedonians, the Macedonians and fled the country. Macedonia was then divided between Pyrrhus and Lysimachus, the former taking western Macedonia and the latter eastern Macedonia.; . By 286BC, Lysimachus had expelled Pyrrhus and his forces from Macedonia.; ; .
Conversely, Errington dates Lysimachus' reunification of Macedonia by expelling Pyrrhus of Epirus as occurring in 284BC, not 286BC.
In 282BC, a new war erupted between SeleucusI and Lysimachus; the latter was killed in the Battle of Corupedion, allowing SeleucusI to take control of Thrace and Macedonia.; ; . In two dramatic reversals of fortune, SeleucusI was assassinated in 281BC by his officer Ptolemy Keraunos, son of PtolemyI and grandson of Antipater, who was then proclaimed king of Macedonia before being killed in battle in 279BC by Galatians (people), Celtic invaders in the Gallic invasion of Greece. The Macedonian army proclaimed the general Sosthenes of Macedon as king, although he apparently refused the title. After defeating the Gauls, Gallic ruler Bolgios and driving out the raiding party of Brennus (3rd century BC), Brennus, Sosthenes died and left a chaotic situation in Macedonia. The Gallic invaders ravaged Macedonia until Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius, defeated them in Thrace at the 277BC Battle of Lysimachia and was then proclaimed king Antigonus II of Macedon (). In 280 BC, Pyrrhus embarked on a campaign in Magna Graecia (i.e. southern Italy) against the Roman Republic known as the Pyrrhic War, followed by his Siege of Syracuse (278 BC), invasion of Sicily.; . Ptolemy Keraunos secured his position on the Macedonian throne by giving Pyrrhus five thousand soldiers and twenty war elephants for this endeavor. Pyrrhus returned to Epirus in 275BC after the ultimate failure of both campaigns, which contributed to the rise of Rome because Colonies in antiquity, Greek cities in southern Italy such as Taranto, Tarentum now became Roman allies. Pyrrhus invaded Macedonia in 274BC, defeating the largely mercenary army of AntigonusII at the 274BC Battle of the Aous (274 BC), Battle of Aous and driving him out of Macedonia, forcing him to seek refuge with his naval fleet in the Aegean. Pyrrhus lost much of his support among the Macedonians in 273BC when his unruly Gallic mercenaries plundered the royal cemetery of Aigai. Pyrrhus pursued AntigonusII in the Peloponnese, yet AntigonusII was ultimately able to recapture Macedonia.. Pyrrhus was killed while besieging
Argos Argos usually refers to: * Argos, Peloponnese Argos (; Greek language, Greek: Άργος ; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος ) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the List of oldest continuously inhabited ci ...
in 272BC, allowing AntigonusII to reclaim the rest of Greece. He then restored the Argead dynastic graves at Aigai and annexed the Paeonia (kingdom), Kingdom of Paeonia. The Aetolian League hampered AntigonusII's control over central Greece, and the formation of the Achaean League in 251BC pushed Macedonian forces out of much of the Peloponnese and at times incorporated Athens and Sparta. While the Seleucid Empire aligned with Antigonid Macedonia against Ptolemaic Egypt during the Syrian Wars, the Ptolemaic navy heavily disrupted AntigonusII's efforts to control mainland Greece. With the aid of the Ptolemaic navy, the Athenian statesman Chremonides led a revolt against Macedonian authority known as the Chremonidean War (267–261BC). By 265BC, Athens was surrounded and besieged by AntigonusII's forces, and a Ptolemaic fleet was defeated in the Battle of Cos. Athens finally surrendered in 261BC. After Macedonia formed an alliance with the Seleucid ruler Antiochus II, a peace settlement between AntigonusII and Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt was finally struck in 255BC.. In 251 BC, Aratus of Sicyon led a rebellion against AntigonusII, and in 250BC, PtolemyII declared his support for the self-proclaimed King Alexander of Corinth. Although Alexander died in 246BC and Antigonus was able to score a naval victory against the Ptolemies Battle of Andros (246 BC), at Andros, the Macedonians lost the Acrocorinth to the forces of Aratus in 243BC, followed by the induction of Corinth into the Achaean League. AntigonusII made peace with the Achaean League in 240BC, ceding the territories that he had lost in Greece. AntigonusII died in 239BC and was succeeded by his son Demetrius II of Macedon (). Seeking an alliance with Macedonia to defend against the Aetolians, the queen mother and regent of Epirus, Olympias II of Epirus, Olympias II, offered her daughter Phthia of Macedon to DemetriusII in marriage. Demetrius II accepted her proposal, but he damaged relations with the Seleucids by divorcing Stratonice of Macedon. Although the Aetolians formed an alliance with the Achaean League as a result, DemetriusII was able to invade Boeotia and capture it from the Aetolians by 236BC.. The Achaean League managed to capture Megalopolis, Greece, Megalopolis in 235BC, and by the end of DemetriusII's reign most of the Peloponnese except Argos was taken from the Macedonians. DemetriusII also lost an ally Epirus (ancient state), in Epirus when the Deidamia II of Epirus, monarchy was toppled in a Epirote League, republican revolution.; . DemetriusII enlisted the aid of the Illyrian king Agron of Illyria, Agron to defend Acarnania against Aetolia, and in 229BC, they managed to defeat the combined navies of the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues at the Battle of Paxos. Another Illyrian ruler, Longarus of the Dardanian Kingdom, invaded Macedonia and defeated an army of DemetriusII shortly before his death in 229BC. Although his young son Philip V of Macedon, Philip immediately inherited the throne, his regent Antigonus III Doson (), nephew of AntigonusII, was proclaimed king by the army, with Philip as his heir, following a string of military victories against the Illyrians in the north and the Aetolians in Thessaly. Aratus sent an embassy to Antigonus III in 226BC seeking an unexpected alliance now that the reformist king Cleomenes III of Sparta was threatening the rest of Greece in the Cleomenean War (229–222BC). In exchange for military aid, AntigonusIII demanded the return of Corinth to Macedonian control, which Aratus finally agreed to in 225BC. In 224BC, AntigonusIII's forces took Arcadia (ancient region), Arcadia from Sparta. After forming a Hellenic league in the same vein as PhilipII's League of Corinth, he managed to defeat Sparta at the Battle of Sellasia in 222BC. Sparta was occupied by a foreign power for the first time in its history, restoring Macedonia's position as the leading power in Greece. Antigonus died a year later, perhaps from tuberculosis, leaving behind a strong Hellenistic period, Hellenistic kingdom for his successor PhilipV. Philip V of Macedon () faced immediate challenges to his authority by the Illyrian Dardani and Aetolian League. PhilipV and his allies were successful against the Aetolians and their allies in the Social War (220–217 BC), yet he made peace with the Aetolians once he heard of incursions by the Dardani in the north and the History of Carthage, Carthaginian victory over History of the Roman Republic, the Romans at the Battle of Lake Trasimene in 217BC. Demetrius of Pharos is alleged to have convinced PhilipV to first Illyrian Wars, secure Illyria in advance of an invasion of the Italian peninsula.; see also for further details.
Errington is skeptical that Philip V at this point had any intentions of invading southern Italy via Illyria once the latter was secured, deeming his plans to be "more modest", .
In 216BC, PhilipV sent a hundred Hellenistic-era warships, light warships into the Adriatic Sea to attack Illyria, a move that prompted Scerdilaidas of the Ardiaean Kingdom to appeal to the Romans for aid. Rome responded by sending ten heavy quinqueremes from Roman Sicily to patrol the Illyrian coasts, causing PhilipV to reverse course and order his fleet to retreat, averting open conflict for the time being.


Conflict with Rome

In 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War with the Carthaginian Empire, Ancient Rome, Roman authorities intercepted a ship off the Calabrian coast holding a Macedonian envoy and a Carthaginian ambassador in possession of a treaty composed by Hannibal declaring an alliance with PhilipV. Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty, The treaty stipulated that History of Carthage, Carthage had the sole right to negotiate the terms of Rome's hypothetical surrender and promised mutual aid if a resurgent Rome should seek revenge against either Macedonia or Carthage. Although the Macedonians were perhaps only interested in safeguarding their newly conquered territories in Illyria, the Romans were nevertheless able to thwart whatever grand ambitions PhilipV had for the Adriatic region during the First Macedonian War (214–205BC). In 214BC, Rome positioned a Roman navy, naval fleet at Oricus, which was assaulted along with Apollonia (Illyria), Apollonia by Macedonian forces. When the Macedonians captured Lissus in 212BC, the Roman Senate responded by inciting the Aetolian League, Sparta, Ancient Elis, Elis, Messenia, and Attalus I () of Pergamon to wage war against PhilipV, keeping him occupied and away from Italy. The Aetolian League concluded a peace agreement with PhilipV in 206BC, and the Roman Republic negotiated the Treaty of Phoenice in 205BC, ending the war and allowing the Macedonians to retain some captured settlements in Illyria. Although the Romans rejected an Aetolian request in 202BC for Rome to declare war on Macedonia once again, the Roman Senate gave serious consideration to the similar offer made by Pergamon and its ally Rhodes in 201BC. These states were concerned about PhilipV's alliance with Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire, which invaded the war-weary and financially exhausted Ptolemaic Empire in the Fifth Syrian War (202–195BC) as PhilipV captured Ptolemaic settlements in the Aegean Sea. Although Rome's envoys played a critical role in convincing Athens to join the anti-Macedonian alliance with Pergamon and Rhodes in 200BC, the ''comitia centuriata'' (people's assembly) rejected the Roman Senate's proposal for a declaration of war on Macedonia. Meanwhile, PhilipV conquered territories in the Hellespont and Bosporus as well as Ptolemaic Samos, which led Rhodes to Cretan War (205–200 BC), form an alliance with Pergamon, Byzantium, Cyzicus, and Chios against Macedonia. Despite PhilipV's nominal alliance with the Seleucid king, he lost the naval Battle of Chios (201 BC), Battle of Chios in 201BC and was blockaded at Bargylia by the Rhodian and Pergamene navies. While Philip V was busy fighting Rome's Greek allies, Rome viewed this as an opportunity to punish this former ally of Hannibal with a war that they hoped would supply a victory and require few resources..
: "Roman desire for revenge and private hopes of famous victories were probably the decisive reasons for the outbreak of the war."
The Roman Senate demanded that PhilipV cease hostilities against neighboring Greek powers and defer to an international arbitration committee for settling grievances. When the ''comitia centuriata'' finally voted in approval of the Roman Senate's declaration of war in 200BC and handed their ultimatum to PhilipV, demanding that a tribunal assess the damages owed to Rhodes and Pergamon, the Macedonian king rejected it. This marked the beginning of the Second Macedonian War (200–197BC), with Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus spearheading military operations in Apollonia. The Macedonians successfully defended their territory for roughly two years, but the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus managed to expel PhilipV from Macedonia in 198BC, forcing his men to take refuge in Thessaly.. When the Achaean League switched their loyalties from Macedonia to Rome, the Macedonian king sued for peace, but the terms offered were considered too stringent, and so the war continued. In June 197BC, the Macedonians were defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. Rome then ratified a treaty that forced Macedonia to relinquish control of much of its Greek possessions outside of Macedonia proper, if only to act as a buffer against Illyrian and Thracian incursions into Greece. Although some Greeks suspected Roman intentions of supplanting Macedonia as the new hegemonic power in Greece, Flaminius announced at the Isthmian Games of 196BC that Rome intended to preserve Greek liberty by leaving behind no garrisons and by not exacting tribute of any kind. His promise was delayed by negotiations with the Spartan king Nabis, who had meanwhile captured Argos, yet Roman forces evacuated Greece in 194BC. Encouraged by the Aetolian League and their calls to liberate Greece from the Romans, the Seleucid dynasty, Seleucid king AntiochusIII landed with his army at Demetrias, Thessaly, in 192BC, and was elected ''strategos'' by the Aetolians. Macedonia, the Achaean League, and other Greek city-states maintained their alliance with Rome. The Romans Roman–Seleucid War, defeated the Seleucids in the 191BC Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), Battle of Thermopylae as well as the Battle of Magnesia in 190BC, forcing the Seleucids to pay a war indemnity, dismantle most of its navy, and abandon its claims to any territories north or west of the Taurus Mountains in the 188BC Treaty of Apamea. With Rome's acceptance, PhilipV was able to capture some cities in central Greece in 191–189BC that had been allied to AntiochusIII, while Rhodes and Eumenes II () of Pergamon gained territories in Asia Minor. Failing to please all sides in various territorial disputes, the Roman Senate decided in 184/183BC to force PhilipV to abandon Aenus (Thrace), Aenus and Maroneia, Maronea, since these had been declared free cities in the Treaty of Apamea.; ; .
Bringmann dates this event of handing over Aenus (Thrace), Aenus and Maroneia, Maronea along the Thracian coast as 183BC, while Eckstein dates it as 184BC.
This assuaged the fear of EumenesII that Macedonia could pose a threat to his lands in the Hellespont. Perseus of Macedon () succeeded PhilipV and executed Demetrius (son of Philip V), his brother Demetrius, who had been favored by the Romans but was charged by Perseus with high treason. Perseus then attempted to form marriage alliances with Prusias II of Bithynia and Seleucus IV Philopator of the Seleucid Empire, along with renewed relations with Rhodes that greatly unsettled EumenesII. Although EumenesII attempted to undermine these diplomatic relationships, Perseus fostered an alliance with the Boeotian League, extended his authority into Illyria Abrupolis, and Thrace, and in 174BC, won the role of managing the Temple of Apollo at Delphi as a member of the Amphictyonic Council. Eumenes II came to Rome in 172 BC and delivered a speech to Senate of the Roman Republic, the Senate denouncing the alleged crimes and transgressions of Perseus. This convinced the Roman Senate to declare the
Third Macedonian War The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC, King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus of Macedon, Perseus. He was anti-Roman and s ...
(171–168BC).; see also , who says that "Rome ... as the sole remaining superpower ... would not accept Macedonia as a peer competitor or equal."
Klaus Bringmann asserts that negotiations with Macedonia were completely ignored due to Rome's "Realpolitik, political calculation" that the Macedonian kingdom had to be destroyed to ensure the elimination of the "supposed source of all the difficulties which Rome was having in the Greek world".
Although Perseus's forces were victorious against the Romans at the Battle of Callinicus in 171BC, the Macedonian army was defeated at the Battle of Pydna in June 168BC. Perseus fled to Samothrace but surrendered shortly afterwards, was brought to Rome for the Roman triumph, triumph of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, and was placed under house arrest at Alba Fucens, where he died in 166BC. The Romans abolished the Macedonian monarchy by installing four separate allied republics in its stead, their capitals located at
Amphipolis Amphipolis ( ell, Αμφίπολη, translit=Amfipoli; grc, Ἀμφίπολις, translit=Amphipolis) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
,
Thessalonica Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica (), is the List of countries by largest and second largest cities, second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its Thessaloni ...
,
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
, and Pelagonia.; ; ; see also for further details. The Romans imposed severe laws inhibiting many social and economic interactions between the inhabitants of these republics, including the banning of marriages between them and the (temporary) prohibition on gold and silver mining. A certain Andriscus, claiming Antigonid descent, rebelled against the Romans and was pronounced king of Macedonia, defeating the army of the Roman praetor Publius Juventius Thalna during the
Fourth Macedonian War The Fourth Macedonian War (150–148 BC) was fought between Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece Classical Greece was a per ...
(150–148BC). Despite this, Andriscus was defeated in 148BC at the Battle of Pydna (148 BC), second Battle of Pydna by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, whose forces occupied the kingdom. This was followed in 146BC by the Roman destruction of Carthage and victory over the Achaean League at the Battle of Corinth (146 BC), Battle of Corinth, ushering in the era of Roman Greece and the gradual establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia.


Institutions


Division of power

At the head of Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia's government was List of Macedonian kings, the king (''basileus'').Written evidence about Macedonian governmental institutions made before Philip II of Macedon's reign is both rare and non-Macedonian in origin. The main sources of early Macedonian historiography are the works of
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
,
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
, Diodorus Siculus, and Justin (historian), Justin. Contemporary accounts given by those such as Demosthenes were often hostile and unreliable; even
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
, who lived in Macedonia, provides us with terse accounts of its governing institutions. Polybius was a contemporary historian who wrote about Macedonia; later historians include Livy, Quintus Curtius Rufus, Plutarch, and Arrian. The works of these historians affirm Macedonia's hereditary monarchy and basic institutions, yet it remains unclear if there was an established constitution for Macedonian government. See: .
However, N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank write with apparent certainty and conviction when describing the Macedonian constitutional government restricting Kings of Macedon, the king and involving a popular assembly of the army. See: .
The main textual primary sources for the organization of Ancient Macedonian army, Macedonia's military as it existed under Alexander the Great include Arrian, Curtis, Diodorus, and Plutarch; modern historians rely mostly on Polybius and Livy for understanding detailed aspects of Antigonid Macedonian army, the Antigonid-period military. On this, writes: "... to this we can add the evidence provided by two magnificent archaeological monuments, the 'Alexander Sarcophagus' in particular and the 'Alexander Mosaic'... In the case of the Antigonid Macedonian army, Antigonid army ... valuable additional details are occasionally supplied by Diodorus Siculus, Diodorus and Plutarch, and by a series of inscriptions preserving sections of two sets of army regulations issued by Philip V of Macedon, Philip V."
From at least the reign of PhilipII, the king was assisted by the royal pages (''basilikoi paides''), bodyguards (''somatophylakes''), companions (''hetairoi''), friends (''philoi''), an assembly that included members of the military, and (during the Hellenistic period) magistrates. Evidence is lacking regarding the extent to which each of these groups shared authority with the king or if their existence had a basis in a formal constitutional framework.; for an argument about the absolute monarchy, absolutism of the Macedonian monarchy, see .
However, N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank write with apparent certainty and conviction when describing the Macedonian constitutional government restricting Kings of Macedon, the king and involving a popular assembly of the army. .
Before the reign of PhilipII, the only institution supported by textual evidence is the monarchy..
In 1931 Friedrich Granier was the first to propose that by the time of Philip II's reign, Macedonia had a constitutional government with laws that delegated rights and Uncodified constitution, customary privileges to certain groups, especially to its citizen soldiers, although the majority of evidence for the army's alleged right to Elective monarchy, appoint a new king and judge cases of treason stems from the reign of Alexander III of Macedon. See and .
Pietro de Francisci was the first to refute Granier's ideas and advance the theory that the Macedonian government was an autocracy ruled by the whim of the monarch, although this issue of kingship and governance is still unresolved in academia. See: as well as and for further details.


Kingship and the royal court

The earliest known government of ancient Macedonia was that of its monarchy, lasting until 167BC when it was abolished by the Romans.. The Macedonian hereditary monarchy existed since at least the time of Archaic Greece, with Homeric aristocratic roots in Mycenaean Greece. Thucydides wrote that in previous ages, Macedonia was divided into small tribal regions, each having its own petty king, the tribes of
Lower Macedonia Lower Macedonia ( el, Κάτω Μακεδονία, ''Kato Makedonia'') or Macedonia proper or Emathia is a geographical term used in Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects ...
eventually coalescing under one great king who exercised power as an overlord over the lesser kings of Upper Macedonia.. The direct line of Order of succession, father-to-son succession was broken after the assassination of Orestes of Macedon in 396BC (allegedly by his regent and successor Aeropus II of Macedon), clouding the issue of whether primogeniture was the established custom or if there was a constitutional right for an assembly of the army or Popular assembly, of the people to choose another king. It is unclear if the male offspring of Macedonian queens or Queen consort, consorts were always preferred over others given the accession of Archelaus I of Macedon, son of Perdiccas II of Macedon and a Slavery in ancient Greece, slave woman, although Archelaus succeeded the throne after murdering his father's designated heir apparent. It is known that Macedonian kings before PhilipII upheld the privileges and carried out the responsibilities of hosting foreign diplomats, determining the kingdom's foreign policies, and negotiating alliances with foreign powers.. After the Greek victory at Battle of Salamis, Salamis in 480BC, the Persian commander Mardonius (general), Mardonius had
Alexander I of Macedon Alexander I of Macedon ( el, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, literally "fond of the Greeks", "patriot") was the ruler of the ancient kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his d ...
sent to Athens as a chief envoy to orchestrate an alliance between the Achaemenid Empire and History of Athens, Athens. The decision to send Alexander was based on his Marriage of state, marriage alliance with a noble Persian house and his previous formal relationship with the city-state of Athens. With their ownership of natural resources including gold, silver, timber, and royal land, the early Macedonian kings were also capable of Bribery, bribing foreign and domestic parties with impressive gifts.. Little is known about the Judiciary, judicial system of ancient Macedonia except that the king acted as the chief judge of the kingdom. The Macedonian kings were also Commander-in-chief, supreme commanders of the military.; ; early evidence for this includes not only Alexander I's role as a commander in the Greco-Persian Wars but also the city-state of Potidaea's acceptance of Perdiccas II of Macedon as their commander-in-chief Battle of Potidaea, during their rebellion against the Delian League of Athens in 432 BC. PhilipII was also highly regarded for his acts of piety in serving as the
high priest The term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction ...
of the nation. He performed daily ritual sacrifices and led religious festivals.. Alexander imitated various aspects of his father's reign, such as granting land and gifts to loyal aristocratic followers, but lost some core support among them for adopting some of the trappings of an Eastern, Persian monarch, a "lord and master" as Carol J. King suggests, instead of a "comrade-in-arms" as was the traditional relationship of Macedonian kings with their companions. Alexander's father, PhilipII, was perhaps influenced by Persian traditions when he adopted institutions similar to those found in the Achaemenid realm, such as having a Royal Secretary, royal secretary, royal archive, royal pages, and a seated throne.


Royal pages

The royal pages were adolescent boys and young men conscripted from aristocratic households and serving the kings of Macedonia perhaps from the reign of PhilipII onward, although more solid evidence dates to the reign of Alexander the Great..
According to Carol J. King, there was no "certain reference" to this institutional group until the military campaigns of Alexander the Great in Asia..
However, N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank state that the royal pages are attested to as far back as the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon. .
Royal pages played no direct role in high politics and were conscripted as a means to introduce them to political life.. After a period of training and service, pages were expected to become members of the king's companions and personal retinue.. During their training, pages were expected to guard the king as he slept, supply him with horses, aid him in mounting his horse, accompany him on royal hunts, and serve him during ''symposium, symposia'' (i.e. formal drinking parties). Although there is little evidence for royal pages in the Antigonid period, it is known that some of them fled with Perseus of Macedon to Samothrace following Battle of Pydna, his defeat by the Romans in 168BC.


Bodyguards

Royal bodyguards served as the closest members to the king at court and on the battlefield. They were split into two categories: the ''agema'' of the ''hypaspistai'', a type of ancient special forces usually numbering in the hundreds, and a smaller group of men handpicked by the king either for their individual merits or to honor the noble families to which they belonged. Therefore, the bodyguards, limited in number and forming the king's inner circle, were not always responsible for protecting the king's life on and off the battlefield; their title and office was more a mark of distinction, perhaps used to quell rivalries between aristocratic houses.


Companions, friends, councils, and assemblies

The companions, including the elite companion cavalry and ''pezhetairoi'' infantry, represented a substantially larger group than the king's bodyguards..
The ranks of the companions were greatly increased during the reign of Philip II when he expanded this institution to include Upper Macedonian aristocrats as well as Greeks. See: .
The most trusted or highest ranking companions formed a council that served as an advisory body to the king. A small amount of evidence suggests the existence of an assembly of the army during times of war and a Direct democracy, people's assembly during times of peace.: the first recorded instance dates to 359 BC, when Philip II called together assemblies to address them with a speech and raise their morale following the death of Perdiccas III of Macedon in battle against the Illyrians. Members of the council had the right to speak freely, and although there is no direct evidence that they voted on affairs of state, it is clear that the king was at least occasionally pressured to agree to their demands. The assembly was apparently given the right to judge cases of high treason and Sentence (law), assign punishments for them, such as when Alexander the Great acted as prosecutor in the trial and conviction of three alleged conspirators in his father's assassination plot (while many others Acquittal, were acquitted). However, there is perhaps insufficient evidence to allow a conclusion that councils and assemblies were regularly upheld or constitutionally grounded, or that their decisions were always heeded by the king. At the death of Alexander the Great, the companions Partition of Babylon, immediately formed a council to assume control of his empire, but it was soon destabilized by Wars of the Diadochi, open rivalry and conflict between Diadochi, its members. The army also used mutiny as a tool to achieve political ends.For instance, when Perdiccas had Philip II's daughter Cynane murdered to prevent her own daughter Eurydice II of Macedon from marrying Philip III of Macedon, the army revolted and ensured that the marriage took place. See and for details.


Magistrates, the commonwealth, local government, and allied states

Antigonid Macedonian kings relied on various regional officials to conduct affairs of state.. This included high-ranking municipal officials, such as the military ''strategos'' and the politarch, i.e. the elected governor (''archon'') of a large city (''polis''), as well as the politico-religious office of the ''epistates''..
Although these were highly influential members of local and regional government, Carol J. King asserts that they were not collectively powerful enough to formally challenge the authority of the Macedonian king or his right to rule.
No evidence exists about the personal backgrounds of these officials, although they may have been chosen among the same group of aristocratic ''philoi'' and ''hetairoi'' who filled vacancies for army officers.. In ancient Athens, the Athenian democracy was restored on three separate occasions following the initial conquest of the city by Antipater in 322BC. When it fell repeatedly under Macedonian rule it was governed by a Macedonian-imposed oligarchy composed of the wealthiest members of the city-state.: under Antipater's oligarchy, the lower value in terms of property for acceptable members of the oligarchy was 2,000 ''drachma''. Athenian democracy was restored briefly after Antipater's death in 319 BC, yet his son
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
reconquered the city, which came under the regency of Demetrius of Phalerum. Demetrius lowered the property limit for oligarchic members to 1,000 ''drachma'', yet by 307 BC he was exiled from the city and direct democracy was restored. Demetrius I of Macedon reconquered Athens in 295 BC, yet democracy was once again restored in 287 BC with the aid of Ptolemy I of Egypt. Antigonus II Gonatas, son of Demetrius I, reconquered Athens in 260 BC, followed by a succession of Macedonian kings ruling over Athens until the Roman Republic conquered both Macedonia and then
mainland Greece Greece is a country of the Balkans, in Southeastern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, North Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by Turkey, and is surrounded to the east by the Aegean Sea, to the south by the Cretan Sea, Cretan and the Li ...
by 146 BC.
Other city-states were handled quite differently and were allowed a greater degree of autonomy. After PhilipII conquered Amphipolis in 357BC, the city was allowed to retain its democracy, including its constitution, popular assembly, city council (''Boule (ancient Greece), boule''), and yearly elections for new officials, but a Macedonian garrison was housed within the city walls along with a Macedonian royal commissioner (''epistates'') to monitor the city's political affairs. Philippi, the city founded by PhilipII, was the only other city in the Macedonian commonwealth that had a democratic government with popular assemblies, since the assembly (''Ecclesia (ancient Athens), ecclesia'') of Thessaloniki seems to have had only a passive function in practice. Some cities also maintained their own municipal revenues.. The Macedonian king and central government administered the revenues generated by Greek temple, temples and priesthoods. Within the Macedonian commonwealth, some evidence from the 3rd centuryBC indicates that foreign relations were handled by the central government. Although individual Macedonian cities nominally participated in Panhellenic events as independent entities, in reality, the granting of ''asylia'' (inviolability, diplomatic immunity, and the right of asylum at sanctuaries) to certain cities was handled directly by the king. Likewise, the city-states within contemporary Greek ''Koinon, koina'' (i.e., federations of city-states, the ''sympoliteia'') obeyed the federal decrees voted on collectively by the members of their league.Unlike the sparse Macedonian examples, ample textual evidence of this exists for the Achaean League, Acarnanian League, and Achaean League; see . In city-states belonging to a league or commonwealth, the granting of ''proxenia'' (i.e. the hosting of foreign ambassadors) was usually a right shared by local and central authorities. Abundant evidence exists for the granting of ''proxenia'' as being the sole prerogative of central authorities in the neighboring Epirote League, and some evidence suggests the same arrangement in the Macedonian commonwealth. City-states that were Alliance, allied with Macedonia issued their own decrees regarding ''proxenia''. Foreign leagues also formed alliances with the Macedonian kings, such as when the Cretan League signed treaties with Demetrius II Aetolicus and Antigonus III Doson ensuring enlistment of Cretan mercenaries into the Macedonian army, and elected Philip V of Macedon as honorary protector (''prostates'') of the league..


Military


Early Macedonian army

The basic structure of the Ancient Macedonian army was the division between the companion cavalry (''hetairoi'') and the foot companions (''pezhetairoi''), augmented by various allied troops, foreign levied soldiers, and mercenaries. The foot companions existed perhaps since the reign of
Alexander I of Macedon Alexander I of Macedon ( el, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, literally "fond of the Greeks", "patriot") was the ruler of the ancient kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his d ...
. Macedonian cavalry, wearing muscled cuirasses, became renowned in Greece during and after their involvement in the Peloponnesian War, at times siding with either Athens or Sparta. Macedonian infantry in this period consisted of poorly trained shepherds and farmers, while the cavalry was composed of noblemen. As evidenced by early 4th century BC artwork, there was a pronounced Spartan influence on the Macedonian army before PhilipII.. Nicholas Viktor Sekunda states that at the beginning of PhilipII's reign in 359BC, the Macedonian army consisted of 10,000 infantry and 600 cavalry,. yet Malcolm Errington cautions that these figures cited by ancient authors should be treated with some skepticism.


Philip II and Alexander the Great

After spending years as a political hostage in Thebes, PhilipII sought to imitate the Greek example of Military exercise, martial exercises and the issuing of Ancient Greek military personal equipment, standard equipment for citizen soldiery, and succeeded in transforming the Macedonian army from a levied force of unprofessional farmers into a well-trained, professional army.. PhilipII adopted some of the military tactics of his enemies, such as the ''embolon'' (flying wedge) cavalry formation of the Scythians.. His infantry wielded ''peltai'' shields that replaced the earlier ''hoplon''-style shields, were equipped with Greek helmet (disambiguation), protective helmets, greaves, and either cuirasses breastplates or ''kotthybos'' stomach bands, and armed with ''
sarissa The sarisa or sarissa ( el, σάρισα) was a long spear or Pike (weapon), pike about in length. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in his Macedonian phalanxes as a replacement for the earlier Dory (spear), dory, which wa ...
'' Pike (weapon), pikes and daggers as secondary weapons.According to Sekunda, Philip II's infantry were eventually equipped with heavier armor such as cuirasses, since the ''Third Philippic'' of Demosthenes in 341 BC described them as hoplites instead of lighter peltasts: ; see also for further details.
However, Errington argues that breastplates were not worn by the phalanx pikemen of either Philip II or Philip V's reigns (during which sufficient evidence exists). Instead, he claims that breastplates were worn only by military officers, while pikemen wore the ''kotthybos'' stomach bands along with their helmets and greaves, wielding a daggers as secondary weapons along with their shields. See .
The elite ''hypaspistai'' infantry, composed of handpicked men from the ranks of the ''pezhetairoi'', were formed during the reign of PhilipII and saw continued use during the reign of Alexander the Great. PhilipII was also responsible for the establishment of the royal bodyguards (''somatophylakes'').. For his lighter missile troops, Philip II employed mercenary Cretan archers as well as Thracian, Paeonian, and Illyrian javelin throwers, Sling (weapon), slingers, and archers. He hired engineers such as Polyidus of Thessaly and Diades of Pella, who were capable of building state of the art siege engines and artillery that fired large Crossbow bolt, bolts. Following the acquisition of the lucrative mines at Krinides (renamed Philippi), the royal treasury could afford to field a permanent, professional standing army. The increase in state revenues under PhilipII allowed the Macedonians to build a small navy for the first time, which included triremes. The only Macedonian cavalry units attested under Alexander were the companion cavalry, yet he formed a ''Hipparchus (cavalry officer), hipparchia'' (i.e. unit of a few hundred horsemen) of companion cavalry composed entirely of ethnic Persian people, Persians while campaigning in Asia.. When marching his forces into Asia, Alexander brought 1,800 cavalrymen from Macedonia, 1,800 Thessalian cavalry, cavalrymen from Thessaly, 600 cavalrymen from the rest of Greece, and 900 ''prodromoi'' cavalry from
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
.. Antipater was able to quickly raise a force of 600 native Macedonian cavalry to fight in the Lamian War when it began in 323BC. The most elite members of Alexander's ''hypaspistai'' were designated as the ''agema'', and a new term for ''hypaspistai'' emerged after the Battle of Gaugamela in 331BC: the ''argyraspides'' (silver shields). The latter continued to serve after the reign of Alexander the Great and may have been of Asian origin..
: in regards to both the ''argyraspides'' and ''chalkaspides'', "these titles were probably not functional, perhaps not even official."
Overall, his pike-wielding phalanx infantry numbered some 12,000 men, 3,000 of which were elite ''hypaspistai'' and 9,000 of which were ''pezhetairoi''..
However, in discussing the discrepancies among List of Greek historiographers, ancient historians about the size of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
's army, N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank choose Diodorus Siculus' figure of 32,000 infantry as the most reliable, while disagreeing with his figure for cavalry at 4,500, asserting it was closer to 5,100 horsemen. .
Alexander continued the use of Cretan archers and introduced native Macedonian archers into the army. After the Battle of Gaugamela, archers of West Asian backgrounds became commonplace..


Antigonid period military

Antigonid Macedonian army, The Macedonian army continued to evolve under the Antigonid dynasty. It is uncertain how many men were appointed as ''somatophylakes'', which numbered eight men at the end of Alexander the Great's reign, while the ''hypaspistai'' seem to have morphed into assistants of the ''somatophylakes''.; : "Other developments in Macedonian army organization are evident after Alexander the Great, Alexander. One is the evolution of the ''hypaspistai'' from an elite unit to a form of military police or bodyguard under Philip V of Macedon, Philip V; the only thing the two functions had in common was the particular closeness to the king." At the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197BC, the Macedonians commanded some 16,000 phalanx pikemen.. Alexander the Great's royal squadron of companion cavalry contained 800 men, the same number of cavalrymen in the sacred squadron (Latin language, Latin: ''sacra ala''; Greek language, Greek: ''hiera ile'') commanded by Philip V of Macedon during the Social War (220–217 BC), Social War of 219BC.. The regular Macedonian cavalry numbered 3,000 at Callinicus, which was separate from the sacred squadron and royal cavalry. While Macedonian cavalry of the 4th century BC had fought without shields, the use of shields by cavalry was adopted from the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe, Celtic invaders of the 270s BC who settled in Galatia, central Anatolia. Thanks to Military Decree of Amphipolis, contemporary inscriptions from Amphipolis and Greia dated 218 and 181BC, respectively, historians have been able to partially piece together the organization of the Antigonid army under PhilipV.; for the evolution of Macedonian military titles, such as its command by ''tetrarchai'' officers assisted by ''grammateis'' (i.e. secretaries or clerks), see . From at least the time of Antigonus III Doson, the most elite Antigonid-period infantry were the peltasts, lighter and more maneuverable soldiers wielding ''peltai'' javelins, swords, and a smaller bronze shield than Macedonian phalanx pikemen, although they sometimes served in that capacity.;
: "The other development, which happened at the latest under Antigonus III Doson, Doson, was the formation and training of a special unit of ''peltastai'' separate from the Macedonian phalanx, phalanx. This unit operated as a form of royal guard similar in function to the earlier ''hypaspistai''."
Among the peltasts, roughly 2,000 men were selected to serve in the elite ''agema'' vanguard, with other peltasts numbering roughly 3,000.. The number of peltasts varied over time, perhaps never more than 5,000 men.; the largest figure for elite Macedonian peltasts mentioned by ancient historians was 5,000 troops, an amount that existed in the Social War (220–217 BC). They fought alongside the phalanx pikemen, divided now into ''chalkaspides'' (bronze shield) and ''leukaspides'' (white shield) regiments. The Antigonid Macedonian kings continued to expand and equip Ancient navies and vessels, the navy.
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
maintained Hellenistic-era warships, a small fleet at
Pydna Pydna (in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...

Pydna
, Demetrius I of Macedon had one at Pella, and Antigonus II Gonatas, while serving as a general for Demetrius in Greece, used the navy to secure the Macedonian holdings in Demetrias, Chalkis, Piraeus, and Corinth.. The navy was considerably expanded during the Chremonidean War (267–261BC), allowing the Macedonian navy to defeat the Ptolemaic Egyptian navy at the 255BC Battle of Cos and 245BC Battle of Andros (246 BC), Battle of Andros, and enabling Macedonian influence to spread over the Cyclades. AntigonusIII Doson used the Macedonian navy to invade Caria, while PhilipV sent 200 ships to fight in the Battle of Chios (201 BC), Battle of Chios in 201BC. The Macedonian navy was reduced to a mere six vessels as agreed in the 197BC peace treaty that concluded the Second Macedonian War with the Roman Republic, although Perseus of Macedon quickly assembled some ''lemboi'' at the outbreak of the
Third Macedonian War The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC, King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus of Macedon, Perseus. He was anti-Roman and s ...
in 171BC.


Society and culture


Language and dialects

Following its adoption as the court language of Philip II of Macedon's regime, authors of ancient Macedonia wrote their works in Koine Greek, the ''lingua franca'' of late
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
and
Hellenistic Greece Hellenistic Greece is the historical period of the country following Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. This culminated at ...
.; ; see also for further details.
Edward M. Anson contends that the native spoken language of the Macedonians was a dialect of Greek and that in the roughly 6,300 Macedonian-period inscriptions discovered by archaeologists about 99% were written in the Greek language, using the Greek alphabet. .
Rare textual evidence indicates that the native Macedonian language was either a dialect of Greek language, Greek similar to Thessalian Greek and Northwestern Greek,; ; .
states that the native language of the ancient Macedonians as preserved in the rare documents written in a language other than Koine Greek also betray a slight Phonetics, phonetic influence from the languages of the original inhabitants of the region who were Cultural assimilation, assimilated or expelled by the invading Macedonians; Hatzopoulos also asserts that little is known about these languages aside from Phrygian language, Phrygian spoken by the Bryges who migrated to Anatolia.
affirms that the Macedonian language was merely a dialect of Greek that used loanwords from Thracian language, Thracian and Illyrian languages, which "does not surprise modern philologists" but ultimately provided Macedonia's political enemies with the "proof" they needed to level the charge that Macedonians were not Greek.
or a Hellenic languages, language closely related to Greek.; Hamp, Eric; Adams, Douglas (2013).
The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages
", ''Sino-Platonic Papers'', vol 239. Accessed 16 January 2017.
Joseph 2001: "Ancient Greek is generally taken to be the only representative (though note the existence of different dialects) of the Greek or Hellenic branch of Indo-European. There is some dispute as to whether Ancient Macedonian (the native language of Philip and Alexander), if it has any special affinity to Greek at all, is a dialect within Greek (see below) or a sibling language to all the known Ancient Greek dialects. If the latter view is correct, then Macedonian and Greek would be the two subbranches of a group within Indo-European which could more properly be called Hellenic."
: ancient Macedonian is closely related to Greek, and Macedonian and Greek are descended from a common Greek-Macedonian idiom that was spoken till about the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.
The vast majority of surviving inscriptions from ancient Macedonia were written in Attic Greek and its successor Koine. Attic (and later Koine) Greek was the preferred language of the Ancient Macedonian army, although it is known that Alexander the Great once shouted an emergency order in Macedonian to his royal guards during the Symposium, drinking party where he killed Cleitus the Black.. Macedonian became Extinct language, extinct in either the Hellenistic or the Roman period, and entirely replaced by Koine Greek..For instance, Cleopatra VII Philopator, the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, spoke Koine Greek as a first language and by her reign (51–30 BC) or some time before it the Macedonian language was no longer used. See .


Religious beliefs and funerary practices

By the 5th century BC, the Macedonians and the southern Greeks worshiped more or less the List of Greek mythological figures, same deities of the Greek pantheon. In Macedonia, political and religious offices were often intertwined. For instance, the head of state for the city of Amphipolis also served as the priest of Asklepios, Greek god of medicine; a similar arrangement existed at Cassandreia, where a cult priest honoring the city's founder
Cassander Cassander ( Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, ''Kassandros Antipatrou''; "son of Antipatros": c. 355 BC – 297 BC) was king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon ( ...

Cassander
was the nominal head of the city. The main sanctuary of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
was maintained at Dion, Pieria, Dion, while another at Veria was dedicated to Herakles and was patronized by Demetrius II Aetolicus (). Meanwhile, foreign Ancient Egyptian religion, cults from Egypt were fostered by the royal court, such as the temple of Sarapis at Thessaloniki. The Macedonians also had relations with "international" cults; for example, Macedonian kings Philip III of Macedon and Alexander IV of Macedon made votive offerings to the internationally esteemed Samothrace temple complex of the Cabeiri mystery cult.. In the three royal tombs at
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
, professional painters decorated the walls with a mythological scene of Hades abducting Persephone and royal hunting scenes, while lavish grave goods including Ancient Greek military personal equipment, weapons, armor, drinking vessels, and personal items were housed with the dead, whose bones Cremation, were burned before Ancient Greek funeral and burial practices, burial in golden coffins. Some grave goods and decorations were common in other Macedonian tombs, yet some items found at Vergina were distinctly tied to royalty, including a diadem, luxurious goods, and arms and armor. Scholars have debated about the identity of the tomb occupants since Manolis Andronikos, the discovery of their remains in 1977–1978, and recent research and forensic examination have concluded that at least one of the persons buried was PhilipII.; .
Rosella Lorenzi (10 October 2014).
Remains of Alexander the Great's Father Confirmed Found: King Philip II's bones are buried in a tomb along with a mysterious woman-warrior
." ''Seeker''. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
Located near Tomb1 are the above-ground ruins of a ''heroon'', a shrine for Cult (religion), cult worship of the dead. In 2014, the ancient Macedonian Kasta Tomb was discovered outside of Amphipolis and is the largest ancient tomb found in Greece (as of 2017).


Economics and social class

Young Macedonian men were typically expected to engage in hunting and martial combat as a by-product of their transhumance lifestyle of herding livestock such as goats and sheep, while horse breeding and raising cattle were other common pursuits. Some Macedonians engaged in farming, often with irrigation, land reclamation, and horticulture activities supported by the Macedonian state.; for a specific example of land reclamation near
Amphipolis Amphipolis ( ell, Αμφίπολη, translit=Amfipoli; grc, Ἀμφίπολις, translit=Amphipolis) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
during the reign of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
, see .
The Macedonian economy and state finances were mainly supported by logging and by mining valuable minerals such as copper, iron, gold, and silver. The conversion of these raw materials into finished products and the sale of those products encouraged the growth of urban centers and a gradual shift away from the traditional rustic Macedonian lifestyle during the course of the 5thcenturyBC.. The Macedonian king was an autocracy, autocratic figure at the head of both government and society, with arguably unlimited authority to handle affairs of state and public policy, but he was also the leader of a very personal regime with close relationships or connections to his ''hetairoi'', the core of the Macedonian aristocracy. These aristocrats were second only to the king in terms of power and privilege, filling the ranks of his administration and serving as commanding officers in the military. It was in the more bureaucratic regimes of the Hellenistic kingdoms that succeeded Alexander the Great's empire where greater social mobility for members of society seeking to join the aristocracy could be found, especially in Ptolemaic Egypt. Although governed by a king and martial aristocracy, Macedonia seems to have lacked the widespread History of slavery, use of slaves seen in contemporaneous Greek states.


Visual arts

By the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon, ArchelausI in the 5th century BC, the ancient Macedonian elite was importing customs and artistic traditions from other regions of Greece while retaining more archaic, perhaps Homeric, funerary rites connected with the symposium that were typified by items such as the decorative metal kraters that held the ashes of deceased Macedonian nobility in their tombs.. Among these is the large bronze Derveni Krater from a 4th-centuryBC tomb of Thessaloniki, decorated with scenes of the Greek god Dionysus and Cult of Dionysus, his entourage and belonging to an aristocrat who had had a military career. Macedonian metalwork usually followed Pottery of ancient Greece, Athenian styles of vase shapes from the 6thcenturyBC onward, with drinking vessels, jewellery, containers, crowns, diadems, and Ancient Greek coinage, coins among the many metal objects found in Macedonian tombs.. Surviving Macedonian painted artwork includes frescoes and murals, but also decoration on Ancient Greek sculpture, sculpted artwork such as statues and reliefs. For instance, trace colors still exist on the bas-reliefs of the late 4th-century BC Alexander Sarcophagus. Macedonian paintings have allowed historians to investigate the clothing fashions as well as military gear worn by the
ancient Macedonians The Macedonians ( el, Μακεδόνες, ''Makedónes'') were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Vardar, Axios in the northeastern part of Geography of Greece#Mainland, mainland Greece. Ess ...
. Aside from metalwork and painting, mosaics are another significant form of surviving Macedonian artwork. The Stag Hunt Mosaic of Pella, with its three-dimensional qualities and illusionist style, show clear influence from painted artwork and wider Hellenistic art trends, although the rustic theme of hunting was tailored to Macedonian tastes.. The similar Lion Hunt Mosaic of Pella illustrates either a scene of Alexander the Great with his companion Craterus, or simply a conventional illustration of the royal diversion of hunting. Mosaics with mythological themes include scenes of Dionysus riding a panther and Helen of Troy being abducted by Theseus, the latter of which employs illusionist qualities and realistic shading similar to Macedonian paintings. Common themes of Macedonian paintings and mosaics include warfare, hunting, and aggressive masculine sexuality (i.e. abduction of women for rape or marriage); these subjects are at times combined within a single work and perhaps indicate a metaphorical connection.This metaphorical connection between warfare, hunting, and aggressive masculine sexuality seems to be affirmed by later Byzantine literature, particularly in the Acritic songs about Digenes Akritas. See for details.


Theatre, music and performing arts

Philip II was assassinated in 336 BC at the theatre of Aigai, amid games and spectacles celebrating the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra of Macedon, Cleopatra.. Alexander the Great was allegedly a great admirer of both theatre and music. He was especially fond of the Play (theatre), plays by Classical Athenian tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, whose works formed part of a proper Education in ancient Greece, Greek education for his new eastern subjects alongside studies in the Greek language, including the Epic Cycle, epics of Homer.. While he and his army were stationed at Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre (in modern-day Lebanon), Alexander had his generals act as judges not only for athletic contests but also for stage performances of Greek tragedies. The contemporaneous famous actors Thessalus (actor), Thessalus and Athenodorus performed at the event.The actor Athenodorus performed despite risking a fine for being absent from the simultaneous Dionysia festival of Athens where he was scheduled to perform (a fine that his patron Alexander agreed to pay). See for details. History of music, Music was also appreciated in Macedonia. In addition to the agora, the Gymnasium (ancient Greece), gymnasium, the theatre, and Religious sanctuary, religious sanctuaries and Ancient Greek temple, temples dedicated to Greek gods and goddesses, one of the main markers of a true Greek city in the empire of Alexander the Great was the presence of an odeon (building), odeon for Concert, musical performances. This was the case not only for Alexandria in History of Egypt, Egypt, but also for cities as distant as Ai-Khanoum in what is now modern-day History of Afghanistan, Afghanistan..


Literature, education, philosophy, and patronage

Perdiccas II of Macedon was able to host well-known Classical Greek intellectual visitors at his royal court, such as the lyric poet Melanippides and the renowned medical doctor Hippocrates, and Pindar's ''encomium, enkomion'' written for
Alexander I of Macedon Alexander I of Macedon ( el, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, literally "fond of the Greeks", "patriot") was the ruler of the ancient kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his d ...
may have been composed at his court. ArchelausI received many more Greek scholars, artists, and celebrities at his court than his predecessors. His honored guests included the History of painting#Egypt, Greece, and Rome, painter Zeuxis (painter), Zeuxis, the Ancient Greek architecture, architect Callimachus (sculptor), Callimachus, the poets Choerilus of Samos, Timotheus of Miletus, and Agathon, as well as the famous Athenian playwright Euripides.; ; .
Although Archelaus I of Macedon was criticized by the philosopher Plato, supposedly hated by Socrates, and the first known Macedonian king to be given the label of barbarian, the historian
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
held the Macedonian king in glowing admiration, especially for his engagement in Panhellenic sports and fostering of literary culture. See .
The philosopher
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
, who studied at the Platonic Academy of Athens and established the Aristotelianism, Aristotelian school of thought, moved to Macedonia, and is said to have tutored the young Alexander the Great, as well as serving as an esteemed diplomat for PhilipII. Among Alexander's retinue of artists, writers, and philosophers was Pyrrho of Elis, founder of Pyrrhonism, the school of philosophical skepticism. During the Antigonid period, Antigonos Gonatas fostered cordial relationships with Menedemos of Eretria, founder of the Eretrian school of philosophy, and Zeno of Citium, Zenon, the founder of Stoicism.. In terms of early Greek historiography and later Roman historiography, Felix Jacoby identified thirteen possible ancient List of Greek historiographers, historians who wrote about Macedonia in his ''Fragmente der griechischen Historiker''.. Aside from accounts in
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
and Thucydides, the works compiled by Jacoby are only fragmentary, whereas other works are completely lost, such as the history of an Illyrian war fought by Perdiccas III of Macedon, Perdiccas III written by Antipater. The Macedonian historians Marsyas of Pella and Marsyas of Philippi wrote histories of Macedonia, the Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemaic king Ptolemy I Soter authored a history about Alexander, and Hieronymus of Cardia wrote a history about Alexander's royal successors..
For Marsyas of Pella, see also for further details.
Following the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian military officer Nearchus wrote a work of his travel literature, voyage from the mouth of the Indus river to the Persian Gulf.. The Macedonian Craterus (historian), historian Craterus published a compilation of decrees made by Ecclesia (ancient Athens), the popular assembly of the Athenian democracy, ostensibly while attending the school of Aristotle. Philip V of Macedon had manuscripts of the history of PhilipII written by Theopompus gathered by his court scholars and disseminated with further copies.


Sports and leisure

When Alexander I of Macedon petitioned to compete in the foot race of the ancient Olympic Games, the event organizers at first denied his request, explaining that only Greeks were allowed to compete. However, AlexanderI produced proof of an Argead royal genealogy showing ancient Argive Temenid lineage, a move that ultimately convinced the Olympic ''
HellanodikaiThe ''Hellanodikai'' ( grc, , literally meaning ''Judges of the Greeks''; sing. Ἑλλανοδίκας . PhilipII allegedly heard of the Olympic victory of his horse (in either an individual horse race or chariot race) on the same day his son Alexander the Great was born, on either 19 or 20July 356BC. Non-royal Macedonians also competed in and won various Olympic contests by the 4th century BC. In addition to literary contests, Alexander the Great staged Music competition, competitions for music and athletics across his empire.


Dining and cuisine

Ancient Macedonia produced only a few fine foods or beverages that were highly appreciated elsewhere in the Greek world, including eels from the Strymonian Gulf and special History of wine, wine produced in Chalcidice.. The earliest known use of flat bread as a plate for meat was made in Macedonia during the 3rdcenturyBC, which perhaps influenced the later Trencher (tableware), trencher bread of medieval Europe. Cattle and goats were consumed, although there was no notice of Macedonian mountain History of cheese, cheeses in literature until the Middle Ages. The comedic playwright Menander wrote that Macedonian dining habits penetrated History of Athens, Athenian high society; for instance, the introduction of meats into the dessert course of a meal. The Macedonians also most likely introduced ''mattye'' to Athenian cuisine, a dish usually made of chicken or other spiced, salted, and sauced meats served Full course dinner, during the wine course. This particular dish was derided and connected with licentiousness and drunkenness in a play by the Athenian comic poet Alexis (poet), Alexis about the declining morals of Athenians in the age of Demetrius I of Macedon. The ''symposium'' in the Macedonian and wider Greek realm was a banquet for the nobility and privileged class, an occasion for feasting, drinking, entertainment, and sometimes Symposium (Plato), philosophical discussion. The ''hetairoi'', leading members of the Macedonian aristocracy, were expected to attend such feasts with their king.. They were also expected to accompany him on royal hunts for the acquisition of game meat as well as for sport.


Ethnic identity

Ancient authors and modern scholars alike disagree about the ethnic identity of the ancient Macedonians. Ernst Badian notes that nearly all surviving references to antagonisms and differences between Greeks and Macedonians exist in the written speeches of Arrian, who lived at the time of the Roman Empire, when any notion of an ethnic disparity between Macedonians and other Greeks was incomprehensible. Hatzopoulos argues that there was no real ethnic difference between Macedonians and Greeks, only a political distinction contrived after the creation of the League of Corinth in 337BC (which was led by Macedonia through the league's elected ''hegemon'' PhilipII, when he was not a member of the league itself),.
Hatzopoulos stresses the fact that Macedonians and other peoples such as the Epirus (ancient state), Epirotes and History of Cyprus, Cypriots, despite speaking a Greek dialect, worshiping in Greek cults, engaging in Panhellenic games, and upholding traditional Greek institutions, nevertheless occasionally had their territories excluded from contemporary geographic definitions of "Greece, Hellas" and were even considered barbarians by some. See: ; Johannes Engels comes to a similar conclusion about the comparison between Macedonians and Epirotes, saying that the "Greekness" of the Epirotes, despite them not being considered as refined as southern Greeks, never came into question. Engels suggests this perhaps because the Epirotes did not try to dominate the Greek world as Philip II of Macedon had done. See: .
N. G. L. Hammond asserts that ancient views differentiating Macedonia's ethnic identity from the rest of the Greek-speaking world should be seen as an expression of conflict between two different political systems: the democratic system of the city-states (e.g. Athens) versus the monarchy (Macedonia). Other academics who concur that the difference between the Macedonians and Greeks was a political rather than a true ethnic discrepancy include Michael B. Sakellariou, Malcolm Errington,.
: "Ancient allegations that the Macedonians were non-Greek all had their origin in Athens at the time of the struggle with PhilipII. Then as now, political struggle created the prejudice. The orator Aeschines once even found it necessary, to counteract the prejudice vigorously fomented by his opponents, to defend Philip on this issue and describe him at a meeting of the Athenian Popular Assembly as being 'entirely Greek'. Demosthenes' allegations were lent an appearance of credibility by the fact, apparent to every observer, that the life-style of the Macedonians, being determined by specific geographical and historical conditions, was different to that of a Greek city-state. This alien way of life was, however, common to western Greeks of Epirus, Akarnania and Aitolia, as well as to the Macedonians, and their fundamental Greek nationality was never doubted. Only as a consequence of the political disagreement with Macedonia was the issue raised at all."
and Craige B. Champion.: "Demosthenes could drop the barbarian category altogether in advocating an Athenian alliance with the Great King against a power that ranked below any so-called barbarian people, the Macedonians. In the case of Aeschines, PhilipII could be 'a barbarian due for the vengeance of God', but after the orator's embassy to Pella in 346, he became a 'thorough Greek', devoted to Athens. It all depended upon one's immediate political orientation with Macedonia, which many Greeks instinctively scorned, was always infused with deep-seated ambivalence." Anson argues that some Hellenic authors expressed complex or even ever-changing and ambiguous ideas about the exact ethnic identity of the Macedonians, who were considered by some such as
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
in his ''Politics (Aristotle), Politics'' as barbarians and others as semi-Greek or fully Greek.; this was manifested in the different Family tree of the Greek gods, mythological genealogies concocted for the Macedonian people, with Hesiod's ''Catalogue of Women'' claiming that the Macedonians descended from Makedon (mythology), Macedon, son of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
and Thyia, and was therefore a nephew of Hellen, progenitor of the Greeks. See: ; .
By the end of the 5th century BC, Hellanicus of Lesbos asserted Macedon was the son of Aeolus, the latter a son of Hellen and ancestor of the Aeolians, one of the major tribes of the Greeks. As well as belonging to tribal groups such as the Aeolians,
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe) ...
, Achaeans (tribe), Achaeans, and Ionians, Anson also stresses the fact that some Greeks even distinguished their ethnic identities based on the ''polis'' (i.e. city-state) they originally came from. See: .
Roger D. Woodard asserts that in addition to persisting uncertainty in modern times about the proper classification of the Macedonian language and its relation to Greek, ancient authors also presented conflicting ideas about the Macedonians.For instance, Demosthenes when labeling PhilipII of Macedon as a barbarian whereas Polybius called Greeks and Macedonians as ''homophylos'' (i.e. part of the same race or Kinship, kin). See: ; Johannes Engels also discusses this ambiguity in ancient sources: . Simon Hornblower argues on the Greek identity of the Macedonians, taking into consideration their origin, language, cults and customs. Any preconceived ethnic differences between Greeks and Macedonians faded by 148BC soon after the Macedonian Wars, Roman conquest of Macedonia and then Macedonia (Roman province), the rest of Greece with the defeat of the Achaean League by the Roman Republic at the Battle of Corinth (146 BC).


Technology and engineering


Architecture

Macedonian architecture, although utilizing a mixture of different forms and styles from the rest of Greece, did not represent a unique or diverging style from other Architecture of ancient Greece, ancient Greek architecture. Among the classical orders, Macedonian architects favored the Ionic order, especially in the peristyle courtyards of private homes.. There are several surviving examples, albeit in ruins, of Macedonian palatial architecture, including a palace at the site of the capital Pella, the summer residence of
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
near the old capital Aigai, and the royal residence at Demetrias near modern Volos. At Vergina, the ruins of three large banquet halls with marble-tiled floors (covered in the debris of roof tiles) with floor plan dimensions measuring roughly 16.7 x 17.6 m (54.8 x 57.7 ft) demonstrate perhaps the earliest examples of monumental timber roof trusses, triangular roof trusses, if dated before the reign of Antigonus II Gonatas or even the onset of the Hellenistic period.. Later Macedonian architecture also featured arches and vault (architecture), vaults.. The palaces of both Vergina and Demetrias had walls made of sundried bricks, while the latter palace had four corner towers around a central courtyard in the manner of a fortified residence fit for a king or at least a military governor. Macedonian rulers also sponsored works of architecture outside of Macedonia proper. For instance, following his victory at the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), PhilipII raised a round memorial building at Olympia, Greece, Olympia known as the Philippeion, decorated inside with statues depicting him, his parents Amyntas III of Macedon and Eurydice I of Macedon, his wife Olympias, and his son Alexander the Great. The ruins of roughly twenty Greek theatres survive in the present-day Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace, regions of Macedonia and Thrace in Greece: sixteen open-air theatres, three Odeon (building), odea, and a possible theatre in Veria undergoing excavation.


Military technology and engineering

By the Hellenistic period, it became common for Greek states to finance the development and proliferation of ever more powerful torsion siege engines, Naval warfare, naval ships, and standardized designs for Ancient Greek military personal equipment, arms and armor. Under PhilipII and Alexander the Great, improvements were made to siege artillery such as bolt-shooting ballistae and siege engines such as huge rolling siege towers. E.W.Marsden and M.Y.Treister contend that the Macedonian rulers Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his successor Demetrius I of Macedon had the most powerful siege artillery of the Hellenistic world at the end of the 4thcenturyBC. Battle of Salamis (306 BC), The siege of Salamis, Cyprus, in 306BC necessitated the building of large siege engines and drafting of craftsmen from parts of West Asia.. The siege tower commissioned by DemetriusI for the Macedonian Siege of Rhodes (305–304 BC) and defended by over three thousand soldiers was built at a height of nine Storey, stories. It had a base of , eight wheels that were steered in either direction by pivots, three sides covered in iron plates to protect them from fire, and mechanically opened windows (shielded with wool-stuffed leather curtains to soften the blow of ballistae rounds) of different sizes to accommodate the firing of missiles ranging from arrows to larger bolts.. During the siege of Echinus (Phthiotis), Echinus by Philip V of Macedon in 211BC, the besiegers built Mining (military), tunnels to protect the soldiers and sappers as they went back and forth from the camp to the siege works. These included two siege towers connected by a makeshift wickerwork curtain wall (fortification), curtain wall mounted with stone-shooting ballistae, and sheds to protect the approach of the battering ram. Despite the early reputation of Macedon as a leader in siege technology, Alexandria in
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divi ...
became the center for technological improvements to the catapult by the 3rdcenturyBC, as evidenced by the writings of Philo of Alexandria.


Other innovations

Although perhaps not as prolific as other areas of Greece in regards to technological innovations, there are some inventions that may have originated in Macedonia aside from siege engines and artillery. The Rotation around a fixed axis, rotary-operated olive press for producing olive oil may have been invented in ancient Macedonia or another part of Greece, or even as far east as the Levant or Anatolia. History of glass, Mold-pressed glass first appeared in Macedonia in the 4thcenturyBC (although it could have simultaneously existed in the Achaemenid Empire); the first known clear, translucent glass pieces of the Greek world have been discovered in Macedonia and Rhodes and date to the second half of the 4thcenturyBC. Greek technical and scientific literature began with Classical Athens in the 5thcenturyBC, while the major production centers for technical innovation and texts during the Hellenistic period were Library of Alexandria, Alexandria, Rhodian school, Rhodes, and Pergamon.


Currency, finances, and resources

The Mint (facility), minting of silver coinage began during the reign of Alexander I of Macedon, AlexanderI as a means to pay for royal expenditures. Archelaus I of Macedon, ArchelausI increased the silver content of his coins as well as minting copper coins to promote foreign and domestic commerce. The minting of coinage significantly increased during the reigns of PhilipII and Alexander the Great, especially after the increase in state revenues following the seizure of the Pangaion Hills. During the Hellenistic period the royal houses of Macedonia,
Ptolemaic Egypt The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divi ...
, and the
Kingdom of Pergamon Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
exercised State monopoly, full monopolistic control over mining activities, largely to ensure the funding of their armies. By the end of the conquests of Alexander the Great, nearly thirty mints stretching from Macedonia to Babylon produced standard coins. The right to mint coins was shared by Central government, central and some local governments, i.e. the autonomous municipal governments of Thessaloniki, Pella, and Amphipolis within the Macedonian commonwealth. The Macedonians were also the first to issue different coins for Circulation (currency), internal and external circulation. State revenues were also raised by collecting produce from arable lands, timber from forests, and Tax#History, taxes on imports and exports at harbors. Some mines, Grove (nature), groves, History of agriculture, agricultural lands, and Logging, forests belonging to the Macedonian state were exploited by the Macedonian king, although these were often leased as assets or given as Grant (money), grants to members of the nobility such as the ''hetairoi'' and ''philoi''. Tariffs exacted on goods flowing in and out of Macedonian seaports existed from at least the reign of Amyntas III of Macedon, AmyntasIII, and Callistratus of Aphidnae (d.c.350BC) aided Perdiccas III of Macedon, PerdiccasIII in doubling the kingdom's annual profits on customs duties from 20 to 40 Talent (measurement), talents. After the defeat of Perseus of Macedon, Perseus at Battle of Pydna, Pydna in 168BC, the Roman Senate allowed the reopening of iron and copper mines, but forbade the mining of gold and silver by the four newly established autonomous
client state A client state, in international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activ ...
s that replaced the monarchy in Macedonia. The law may originally have been conceived by the Senate due to the fear that material wealth gained from gold and silver mining operations would allow the Macedonians to fund an armed rebellion. The Romans were perhaps also concerned with stemming inflation caused by an increased money supply from Macedonian silver mining. The Macedonians continued minting silver coins between 167 and 148BC (i.e. just before the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia), and when the Romans lifted the ban on Macedonian silver mining in 158BC it may simply have reflected the local reality of this illicit practice continuing regardless of the Senate's decree..


Legacy

The reigns of Philip II and Alexander the Great witnessed the demise of Classical Greece and the birth of Hellenistic civilization, following the Hellenization, spread of Greek culture to the Near East during and after Alexander's conquests. Macedonians then migrated to Egypt and parts of Asia, but the intensive colonization of foreign lands sapped the available manpower in Macedonia proper, weakening the kingdom in its fight with other Hellenistic powers and contributing to its downfall and conquest by the Romans. However, the diffusion of Greek culture and language cemented by Alexander's conquests in West Asia and North Africa served as a "precondition" for the Mithridatic Wars, later Roman expansion into these territories and Byzantine Greeks, entire basis for the Byzantine Empire, according to Errington. The ethnic Macedonian rulers of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid successor states accepted men from all over the Greek world as their ''hetairoi'' companions and did not foster a national identity like the Antigonids. Modern scholarship has focused on how these Hellenistic successor kingdoms were influenced more by their Macedonian origins than Eastern or southern Greek traditions. While Spartan Constitution, Spartan society remained mostly insular and Athens continued placing Solonian Constitution, strict limitations on acquiring citizenship, the Cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitan Hellenistic cities of Asia and northeastern Africa bore a greater resemblance to Macedonian cities and contained a mixture of subjects including natives, Greek and Macedonian colonists, and Greek-speaking Hellenized Easterners, many of whom were the product of intermarriage between Greeks and native populations. The deification of Macedonian monarchs perhaps began with the death of PhilipII, but it was his son Alexander the Great who unambiguously claimed to be a Imperial cult, living god..
As pharaoh of the Egyptians, he was already titled Ra, Son of Ra and considered the living incarnation of Horus by his Egyptian subjects (a belief that the Ptolemaic kingdom, Ptolemaic successors of Alexander would foster for Ptolemaic dynasty, their own dynasty in Egypt). See: and for details.
Following his visit to the oracle of Didyma in 334BC that suggested his divinity, Alexander traveled to the Oracle of Ammon, Oracle of Zeus Ammon—the Interpretatio graeca, Greek equivalent of the Egyptian Amun-Ra—at the Siwa Oasis of the Libyan Desert in 332BC to confirm his Sacred king, divine status.; .
After the priest and Oracle of Ammon, Oracle of Zeus Ammon at the Siwa Oasis convinced him that PhilipII was merely his mortal father and Zeus his actual father, Alexander began styling himself as the 'Son of Zeus', which brought him into contention with some of his Greek subjects who adamantly believed that living men could not be immortals. See and for details.
Although the Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great, maintained ancestral cults and deified their rulers, kings were not worshiped in the Kingdom of Macedonia. While Zeus Ammon was known to the Greeks prior to Alexander's reign, particularly at the Colonies in antiquity, Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya, Alexander was the first Macedonian monarch to patronize Egyptian mythology, Egyptian, Persian mythology, Persian, and Babylonian religion, Babylonian priesthoods and deities, strengthening the fusion of Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Near Eastern and Greek religious beliefs. After his reign, the Mysteries of Isis, cult of Isis gradually spread throughout the Hellenistic and Religion in ancient Rome, Roman world, while beliefs in the Egyptian god Sarapis were thoroughly Hellenized by the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt before the spread of his cult to Macedonia and the Aegean region. The German historian Johann Gustav Droysen argued that the conquests of Alexander the Great and creation of the Hellenistic world allowed for the growth and History of Christianity, establishment of Christianity in the Roman era..


See also


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

Online * * Hamp, Eric; Adams, Douglas (2013).
The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages
, ''Sino-Platonic Papers'', vol 239. Accessed 16 January 2017. * Joseph, Brian D. (2001).

" Ohio State University, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. Accessed 16 January 2017. Print * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

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External links


Ancient Macedonia
a
Livius
by Jona Lendering
Heracles to Alexander The Great: Treasures From The Royal Capital of Macedon, A Hellenic Kingdom in the Age of Democracy
Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford
"Macedonia, ancient kingdom"
entry from the ''Encyclopædia Britannica''
"The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander the Great"
from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Timeline of Art History {{DEFAULTSORT:Macedonia (Ancient Kingdom) Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Ancient Macedonia Hellenistic Macedonia Kingdoms in Greek Antiquity, Macedon, Kingdom Former monarchies of Europe, Macedonia Kingdom, Greek 146 BC States and territories established in the 9th century BC 9th-century BC establishments in Greece 1st-millennium BC disestablishments in Greece Ancient history States and territories disestablished in the 2nd century BC Places in the deuterocanonical books, Macedonia Historical transcontinental empires