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The modern Lydian mode is a seven-tone
musical scale In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspe ...

musical scale
formed from a rising pattern of pitches comprising three
whole tones In Western culture, Western music theory, a major second (sometimes also called whole tone or a whole step) is a second spanning two semitones (). A second is a interval (music), musical interval encompassing two adjacent staff positions (se ...
, a
semitone A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically. It is defined as the interval between two adjacent not ...
, two more whole tones, and a final semitone. : Because of the importance of the
major scale The major scale (or Ionian mode) is one of the most commonly used musical scales In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of t ...

major scale
in modern music, the Lydian mode is often described as the scale that begins on the fourth
scale degree In music theory, the term ''scale degree'' refers to the position of a particular note (music), note on a scale (music), scale relative to the Tonic (music), tonic, the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. D ...
of the major scale, or alternatively, as the major scale with the fourth scale degree raised half a step. This sequence of pitches roughly describes the scale underlying the fifth of the eight Gregorian (church) modes, known as Mode V or the authentic
mode Mode ( la, modus meaning "manner, tune, measure, due measure, rhythm, melody") may refer to: Language * Grammatical mode or grammatical mood, a category of verbal inflections that expresses an attitude of mind ** Imperative mood ** Subjunctive mo ...
on F, theoretically using B but in practice more commonly featuring B. The use of the B as opposed to B would have made such piece in the modern day F
major scale The major scale (or Ionian mode) is one of the most commonly used musical scales In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of t ...

major scale
.


Ancient Greek Lydian

The name Lydian refers to the ancient kingdom of
Lydia Lydia (Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acou ...

Lydia
in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
. In Greek music theory, there was a Lydian scale or "
octave species In early Greek music theory, an octave species (εἶδος τοῦ διὰ πασῶν, or σχῆμα τοῦ διὰ πασῶν) is a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditone Pythagorean ditone as four just perfect fifths In music Mus ...
" extending from ''parhypate hypaton'' to ''trite diezeugmenon'', equivalent in the
diatonic genus In the musical system of ancient Greece, genus (Greek: γένος 'genos'' grammatical number, pl. γένη 'genē'' Latin: ''genus'', pl. ''genera'' "type, kind") is a term used to describe certain classes of Intonation (music), intonations ...
to the modern
Ionian mode Ionian mode is a Mode (music), musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale also called the major scale. It is the name assigned by Heinrich Glarean in 1547 to his new Gregorian mode#Authentic mode, authentic mode on C (mode 11 in his numberi ...
(the
major scale The major scale (or Ionian mode) is one of the most commonly used musical scales In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of t ...

major scale
). : In the
chromatic - '' Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta'', mov. I, fugue subject: chromatic . Leeuw, Ton de (2005). ''Music of the Twentieth Century'', p.93. . Diatonic ( el, διατονική) and chromatic ( el, χρωματική) are terms in mu ...
and enharmonic genera, the Lydian scale was equivalent to C D E F G A B C, and C C E F F A B C, respectively, where signifies raising the pitch by approximately a
quarter tone A quarter tone () is a pitch halfway between the usual notes of a chromatic scale or an interval (music), interval about half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which itself is half a major second, whole tone. Quarter tones divide ...
. : :


Medieval Lydian mode

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, this mode was described in two ways. The first way is the diatonic
octave species In early Greek music theory, an octave species (εἶδος τοῦ διὰ πασῶν, or σχῆμα τοῦ διὰ πασῶν) is a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditone Pythagorean ditone as four just perfect fifths In music Mus ...
from F up to F an octave above, divided at C to produce two segments: : The second is as a mode with a final on F and an
ambitus In ancient Roman law, ''ambitus'' was a crime of political corruption Political corruption or Malpolitics is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can ...
extending to F an octave higher and in which the note C was regarded as having an important melodic function. Many theorists of the period observed that B is used more typically than B in compositions in Lydian mode.


Modern Lydian mode

The Lydian scale can be described as a
major scale The major scale (or Ionian mode) is one of the most commonly used musical scales In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. ''The Oxford Companion to Music'' describes three interrelated uses of t ...

major scale
with the fourth
scale degree In music theory, the term ''scale degree'' refers to the position of a particular note (music), note on a scale (music), scale relative to the Tonic (music), tonic, the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. D ...

scale degree
raised a semitone, making it an
augmented fourth Augment or augmentation may refer to: Language * Augment (Indo-European), a syllable added to the beginning of the word in certain Indo-European languages * Augment (Bantu languages), a morpheme that is prefixed to the noun class prefix of nouns ...
above the tonic, e.g., an F-major scale with a B rather than B. This mode's augmented fourth and the
Locrian modeThe Locrian mode is either a musical mode In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale In music theory, a scale is any set of musical note (music), notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch (music), pitch. A scale o ...
's diminished fifth are the only modes to have a
tritone In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects ...

tritone
above the tonic. : In Lydian mode, the tonic,
dominant Domination or dominant may refer to: Society * World domination, which is mainly a conspiracy theory * Colonialism in which one group (usually a nation) invades another region for material gain or to eliminate competition * Chauvinism in which a p ...
, and
supertonic In music, the supertonic is the second Degree (music), degree () of a diatonic scale, one Steps and skips, step above the Tonic (music), tonic. In the Solfège#Movable do solf%C3%A8ge, movable do solfège system, the supertonic note is sung as ''re ...
triads are all
major Major is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. I ...
. The
subdominant In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements su ...

subdominant
is diminished. The triads built on the remaining three scale degrees are
minor Minor may refer to: * Minor (law), a person under the age of certain legal activities. ** A person who has not reached the age of majority * Academic minor, a secondary field of study in undergraduate education Music theory *Minor chord ** Barbe ...
.


Notable compositions in the Lydian mode


Classical (Ancient Greek)

The ''Paean and Prosodion to the God'', familiarly known as the
Second Delphic Hymn
Second Delphic Hymn
, composed in 128 BC by Athénaios Athenaíou is predominantly in the Lydian ''tonos'', both diatonic and chromatic, with sections also in Hypolydian.


Medieval

The 12th-century "Hymn to St. Magnus" from the
Orkney Islands Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes ...

Orkney Islands
, referencing
Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney Saint Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, sometimes known as Magnus the Martyr, was from 1106 to about 1115. Magnus's grandparents, and his wife , had two sons, Erlend and Paul, who were twins. Through Ingibiorg's father and his wife, the fa ...
, is in
Gregorian mode A Gregorian mode (or church mode) is one of the eight systems of pitch organization used in Gregorian chant. History The name of Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, wa ...
or church mode V (F white notes), extending from the E below to the octave above, with B's throughout, in two-part harmony of mostly parallel thirds. The Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite, missa est of
Guillaume de Machaut Guillaume de Machaut (, ; also Machau and Machault; – April 1377) was a French composer and poet who was the central figure of the style in late medieval music. His dominance of the genre is such that modern musicologists use his death to s ...
's ''
Messe de Nostre Dame ''Messe de Nostre Dame'' (''Mass of Our Lady'') is a polyphonic mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a c ...
'' feature extensive use of F and B, as well as F and B.


Romantic

A rare, extended use of the Lydian mode in the
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...

Classical
repertoire is
Simon Sechter Simon Sechter. Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber, 1840 Simon Sechter (11 October 1788 – 10 September 1867) was an Austrian music theory, music theorist, teacher, Organ (music), organist, conducting, conductor and composer. He was one of the most prol ...
's 1822 ''Messe in der lydischen Tonart'' (Mass in the Lydian Mode). A more famous example from around the same time is the third movement of
Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (, ; baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. Beethoven remains one of the most admired composers in the history of Western music; his works rank amongst the most performed of the classi ...

Ludwig van Beethoven
's String Quartet No. 15 in A minor, Op. 132 (1825), titled by the composer "Heiliger Dankgesang eines Genesenen an die Gottheit, in der lydischen Tonart" ("Holy Song of Thanksgiving by a Convalescent to the Divinity, in the Lydian Mode"). The alternating passages in F use the Lydian scale with sharp fourth scale degree exclusively.
Charles-Valentin Alkan Charles-Valentin Alkan (; 30 November 1813 – 29 March 1888) was a French-Jewish composer and virtuoso pianist. At the height of his fame in the 1830s and 1840s he was, alongside his friends and colleagues Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt ...

Charles-Valentin Alkan
's ''Allegro barbaro'' (Étude Op. 35, No. 5, published in 1848) is written strictly in F Lydian, with no B's present at all.
Anton Bruckner Josef Anton Bruckner (; ) was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies A symphony is an extended musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the mel ...

Anton Bruckner
employed the sharpened fourth of the Lydian scale in his motet '' Os justi'' (1879) more strictly than Renaissance composers ever did when writing in this mode.


Modern

In the 20th century, composers began once again to exploit modal scales with some frequency.
George Enescu George Enescu ( – 4 May 1955), known in France as Georges Enesco, was a Romanian musician. Enescu is regarded as one of the greatest musicians in Romanian history; he was a composer, violinist, pianist, conducting, conductor, and teacher. He ...

George Enescu
, for example, includes Lydian-mode passages in the second and third movements of his 1906 Decet for Winds, Op. 14. An example from the middle of the century is the scherzo movement of
Carlos Chávez Carlos Antonio de Padua Chávez y Ramírez (13 June 1899 – 2 August 1978) was a Mexican composer, conducting, conductor, music theorist, educator, journalist, and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. He was influenced ...
's Symphony No. 3 (1951–54). The movement opens with a
fugue In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated con ...
subject, featuring extremely wide leaps, in C Lydian with following entries in F and G Lydian. Alexei Stanchinsky wrote a Prelude in Lydian mode earlier in the 20th century.


Jazz

In ''
Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization The ''Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization'' is a 1953 jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text of the Lydian Chromatic Concept (LCC), or Lydian Chromatic Theory (LCT). Russell's work postulates ...
'', George Russell developed a theory that became highly influential in the jazz world, inspiring the works of people such as
Miles Davis Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926September 28, 1991) was an American trumpeter The trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in Classical music, classical and jazz musical ensemble, ensembles. The trumpet group ranges from the piccolo ...

Miles Davis
,
John Coltrane John William Coltrane (September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in ...
,
Ornette Coleman Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman (March 9, 1930 – June 11, 2015) was an American jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time t ...

Ornette Coleman
, and
Woody Shaw Woody Herman Shaw Jr. (December 24, 1944 – May 10, 1989) was an American jazz trumpeter, flugelhorn The flugelhorn (), also spelled fluegelhorn, flugel horn, or flügelhorn, is a brass instrument 332x332px, A tenor horn (alto horn) in E, ...

Woody Shaw
.


Popular

*"Billy Goat Hill" (1961) by the Kingston Trio *"Waltz #1" from the 1998 album '' XO'' by
Elliott Smith Steven Paul Smith (August 6, 1969 – October 21, 2003), known professionally as Elliott Smith, was an American singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. Smith was born in Omaha, Nebraska Omaha ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. s ...

Elliott Smith
(D Lydian). *Passage beginning at the words "Much as I definitely enjoy solitude" in the song "
Possibly Maybe "Possibly Maybe" is a song by Björk, released as the fifth single from her 1995 album ''Post (Björk album), Post''. It is a song with deep electronic tones and soft beats that reflects on potential love. Released in the United Kingdom as the fi ...
" by
Björk Björk Guðmundsdóttir ( ; ; born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic Eclectic may refer to: Music * Eclectic (Eric Johnson an ...

Björk
. *
XTC XTC were an English rock band formed in Swindon Swindon () is a large town in Wiltshire, England, between Bristol, to the west, and Reading, Berkshire, Reading, the same distance to the east; the town is west of London. At the United King ...

XTC
's "Jason and the Argonauts" from their ''
English Settlement ''English Settlement'' is the fifth studio album and first double album by the English rock music, rock band XTC, released 12 February 1982 on Virgin Records. It marked a turn towards the more pastoral pop songs that would dominate later XTC rel ...
'' album. *"
Pretty Ballerina "Pretty Ballerina" is a song written by pianist Michael Brown (rock musician), Michael Brown that was released as a single by his band the Left Banke in December 1966. It peaked at number 15 on the Billboard Hot 100, ''Billboard'' Hot 100 chart a ...
" (1966) by The Left Banke *"
Mihalis Mihalis is a Greek given name, equivalent to the English form Michael Michael is a masculine given name derived from the Hebrew phrase ''mī kāʼēl'', 'Who slike-El', in Aramaic: ܡܝܟܐܝܠ (''Mīkhāʼēl'' ). The theophoric name is a rhetori ...
" (1978) by
David Gilmour David Jon Gilmour ( ; born 6 March 1946) is an English songwriter, guitarist, and singer who was a member of rock band Pink Floyd Pink Floyd were an English Rock music, rock band formed in London in 1964. Gaining an early following ...

David Gilmour
*" Flying in a Blue Dream" (1989) by
Joe Satriani Joseph Satriani (born July 15, 1956)Prato, Greg"Joe Satriani – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". ''AllMusic AllMusic (previously known as All Music Guide and AMG) is an American online music database. It catalogs more than three ...

Joe Satriani


Folk

* Many Polish folksongs, including the
mazurka The mazurka (Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided ...
, are in the Lydian mode; the first six notes of this mode were sometimes known as the "Polish mode".


See also

*
Lydian chord In jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all ...
, a chord that is related to the Lydian scale *
Lydian dominant scale In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concep ...
*
Kalyani (raga) Kalyani is a melakarta raga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music. It was called Kalyan but is now more popularly called Yaman (raga), Yaman in Hindustani Music. Its Western equivalent is the Lydian mode. Kalyani in Carnatic music In South ...
, the equivalent scale (
melakarta Mēḷakartā is a collection of fundamental musical scales (raga A ''raga'' or ''raag'' (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic ...
) in
Carnatic music Carnatic music, known as or in the South Indian languages, is a system of music commonly associated with South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic ...


Notes


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Beato, Rick. 2018.
What Makes This Song Great? Ep. 2: The Police
. YouTube (26 January; accessed 28 March 2018). * Benward, Bruce, and Marilyn Nadine Saker. 2009. ''Music in Theory and Practice'', eighth edition, vol. 2. Boston: McGraw-Hill. . * Chase, Wayne. 2006. ''How Music Really Works!: Musical and Lyrical Techniques of the Masters'', second edition. Vancouver: Roedy Black Publishing Inc. ; . * Jones, George Thaddeus. 1974. ''Music Theory: The Fundamental Concepts of Tonal Music Including Notation, Terminology, and Harmony''. Barnes & Noble Outline Series 137. New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco, London: Barnes & Noble. . * Miller, Scott. 2002. ''Mel Bay's Getting Into ... Jazz Fusion Guitar''. Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay Publications. .


External links



* ttp://gosk.com/scales/lydian-scale-for-guitar.php Lydian mode in six positions for guitarat GOSK.com
Lydian Mode – AnalysisLydian mode theory and improvisation application
{{DEFAULTSORT:Lydian Mode Modes (music)