London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the as ' and retains boundaries close to its medieval ones.See also: . Since the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the around this core, historically split between the of , , , , and , which largely comprises , governed by the .The Greater London Authority consists of the and the . The London Mayor is distinguished from the , who heads the running the . The , to the west of the City of London, has for centuries held the national and . London, as one of the world's , exerts strong influence on its , , , , , , , , , and . Its (€801.66 billion in 2017) makes it the biggest in and one of the major s in the world. In 2019 it had the second highest number of s in Europe after and the of any city in Europe after . With Europe's largest concentration of higher education institutions, it includes in and s, the in s, and the comprehensive . The city is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city in the world. In , London became the first city to host three . Over recent decades, as a result of increased , London has become one of the most cities in the world, and over 300 languages are now spoken in the city. The mid-2018 population of of about 9 million, made it Europe's . It accounts for 13.4 per cent of the UK population. is the in Europe, after , and , with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The is the in Europe after Istanbul's and Moscow's, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London has four s: the ; ; the , along with , and ; and the historic settlement in , where the defines the (0° ) and . Other landmarks include , the , , , and . It has , galleries, libraries and , including the , , , , and s. The is the oldest system in the world.


''London'' is an ancient name, already attested in the first century AD, usually in the form ; for example, handwritten tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70–80 include the word ('in London'). Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in 's , written around 1136. Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources: (usually {{lang, la, Londinium), (usually {{lang, ang, Lunden), and (usually {{lang, cy, Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from ; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as {{lang, cel-x-proto, *Londonjon or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as {{lang, la, Londinium and borrowed into .{{Cite journal , last1=Bynon , first1=Theodora , year=2016 , title=London's Name , journal= Transactions of the Philological Society , volume=114 , issue=3 , pages=281–97 , doi=10.1111/1467-968X.12064 The toponymy of the form is debated. Prominent was 's 1998 argument that it derived from pre-Celtic *{{PIE, ''(p)lowonida'', meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested this was a name given to the part of the that flows through London, from which the settlement gained the form of its name, {{lang, cel-x-proto, *Lowonidonjon.{{Cite journal , last=Coates , first=Richard , year=1998 , title=A new explanation of the name of London , journal=Transactions of the Philological Society , volume=96 , issue=2 , pages=203–229 , doi=10.1111/1467-968X.00027 However, most work has accepted a plain Celtic origin. Recent studies favour an explanation of a Celtic derivative of a root *{{PIE, ''lendh-'' ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix {{lang, cel-x-proto, *-injo- or {{lang, cel-x-proto, *-onjo- (used to form place-names). has specifically suggested that the name originally meant "place that floods (periodically, tidally)". Until 1889, the name "London" applied officially only to the , but since then it has also referred to the and to . In writing, "London" is occasionally to "LDN".{{clarify, date=February 2020 Such usage originated in and often appears in a , ing an or handle.


{{main, History of London, Timeline of London


In 1993, remains of a bridge were found on the south foreshore upstream from .{{Cite journal , last=Denison , first=Simon , title=First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall , journal=British Archaeology , date=July 1999 , issue=46 , url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba46/ba46news.html , access-date=15 April 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427021948/http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba46/ba46news.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live This either crossed the or reached a now-lost island in it. Two of the timbers were to 1750–1285 BCE. In 2010, foundations of a large timber structure, dated to 4800–4500 BCE, were found on the Thames's south foreshore downstream from Vauxhall Bridge.{{Cite web , last=Milne , first=Gustav , title=London's Oldest Foreshore Structure! , url=http://www.thamesdiscovery.org/frog-blog/london-s-oldest-find-discovered-at-vauxhall , website=Frog Blog , publisher=Thames Discovery Programme , access-date=15 April 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430002236/http://www.thamesdiscovery.org/frog-blog/london-s-oldest-find-discovered-at-vauxhall , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live The function of the structure is unclear. Both structures are on the south bank of the Thames, where the now-underground flows into the Thames.

Roman London

{{main, Londinium Despite the evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the about four years after the invasion of 43 CE.{{Cite book , title=Roman London , last=Perring , first=Dominic , year=1991 , publisher=Routledge , location=London , isbn=978-0-203-23133-3 , page=1 This only lasted until about 61 CE, when the tribe led by stormed it and burnt it to the ground.{{Cite web , title=British History Timeline - Roman Britain , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/romanbritain_timeline_noflash.shtml , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191143/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/romanbritain_timeline_noflash.shtml , archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=7 June 2008 , website=, publisher= The next, planned incarnation of prospered, superseding as capital of the of in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of about 60,000.

Anglo-Saxon and Viking period London

With the early 5th-century collapse of Roman rule, London ceased to be a capital and the walled city of was effectively abandoned, although continued around until about 450. From about 500, an settlement known as developed slightly west of the old Roman city.{{Cite web , url=http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Past/MissingLink/Themes/TML_themes_Lundenwic.htm , title=The early years of Lundenwic , publisher=The , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080610043903/http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Past/MissingLink/Themes/TML_themes_Lundenwic.htm , archive-date=10 June 2008 , url-status=dead By about 680 the city had become a major port again, but there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.{{Cite web , url=https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/viking_attacklist.html?showall=1 , title=Viking Attacks , access-date=19 January 2016 , last1=Wheeler , first1=Kip , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101055729/https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/viking_attacklist.html?showall=1 , archive-date=1 January 2016 , url-status=dead The applied over much of eastern and northern England, its boundary running roughly from London to as an area of political and geographical control imposed by the incursions formally agreed by the , and the king in 886. The ' records that Alfred "refounded" London in 886. Archaeological research shows this involved abandonment of and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until a dramatic increase in about 950.{{Cite encyclopedia , last=Vince , first=Alan , year=2001 , title=London , editor=Lapidge, Michael , editor2=Blair, John , editor3=Keynes, Simon , editor4=Scragg, Donald , encyclopedia=The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England , publisher=Blackwell , isbn=978-0-631-22492-1 By the 11th century, London was clearly the largest town in England. , rebuilt in style by King , was one of the grandest churches in Europe. had been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of : "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a ."

Middle Ages

After winning the , was crowned in newly completed on Christmas Day 1066.{{Cite web , last=Ibeji , first=Dr Mike , date=17 February 2011 , title=History – 1066 – King William , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_06.shtml , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090922053048/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_06.shtml , archive-date=22 September 2009 , access-date=29 March 2021 , website=, publisher= William built the , the first of many such in rebuilt in stone in the south-eastern corner of the city, to intimidate the inhabitants.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/architecture_02.shtml , title=A History of British Architecture — White Tower , last=Tinniswood , first=Adrian , author-link=Adrian Tinniswood , publisher=BBC , access-date=5 May 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090213124332/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/architecture_02.shtml , archive-date=13 February 2009 , url-status=live In 1097, began building , close by the abbey of the same name. It became the basis of a new .{{Cite web , url=http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/building.cfm , title=UK Parliament — Parliament: The building , date=9 November 2007 , publisher=UK Parliament , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080311032051/http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/building.cfm , archive-date=11 March 2008 , url-status=dead{{Cite web , url=http://www.parliament.uk/parliament/guide/palace.htm , title=Palace of Westminster , publisher=UK Parliament , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080404171249/http://www.parliament.uk/parliament/guide/palace.htm , archive-date=4 April 2008 , url-status=dead In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto followed the royal English court around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed, for most purposes at , although the royal treasury, having been moved from , came to rest in the . While the developed into a true governmental capital, its distinct neighbour, the , remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre and flourished under its own unique administration, the . In 1100, its population was some 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.{{Cite book , last1=Schofield , first1=John , last2=Vince , first2=Alan, author2-link=Alan Vince , title=Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting , publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group , year=2003 , isbn=978-0-8264-6002-8 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Qu7QLC7g7VgC&pg=PA26 , page=26 Disaster struck in the form of the in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population. London was the focus of the in 1381.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/richard_ii_king.shtml , title=Richard II (1367–1400) , publisher=BBC , access-date=12 October 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191132/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/richard_ii_king.shtml , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live London was also a centre of England's before their by in 1290. Violence against Jews occurred in 1190, when it was rumoured that the new king had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation.{{Cite web , last1=Jacobs , first1=Joseph , year=1906 , title=England , url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5764-england , website= , publisher= In 1264 during the , 's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts.{{Citation , publisher=Continuum , ol=24816680M , isbn=978-1-84725-186-2 , location=London , title=The King's Jews , url=https://archive.org/details/kingsjewsmoneyma00mund , first=Robin R. , last=Mundill , lccn=2010282921 , oclc=466343661 , date=2010 , pages=88–99

Early modern

During the the produced a gradual shift to . Much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.{{Cite book , last=Pevsner , first=Nikolaus , title=London - The Cities of London and Westminster , publisher= , edition=2nd , volume=1 , publication-date=1 January 1962 , pages=48 , asin=B0000CLHU5 In 1475, the set up a main trading base (') of England in London, called the ''Stalhof'' or '. It remained until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of , and sold the property to .{{Cite EB1911 , wstitle=Steelyard, Merchants of the cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the , where it was considered indispensable. Yet English maritime enterprise hardly reached beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the was normally through and over the ; any ships passing through the to or from England were likely to be Italian or . The reopening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565 spurred a burst of commercial activity. The was founded. grew and monopoly traders such as the were founded as trade expanded to the . London became the main port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from about 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605. In the 16th century and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the . By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still compact. There was an assassination attempt on in Westminster, in the of 5 November 1605.{{Cite book , title=James I , last=Durston , first=Christopher , year=1993 , publisher=Routledge , location=London , isbn=978-0-415-07779-8 , pag
, url=https://archive.org/details/jamesi0000durs/page/59
In 1637, the government of attempted to reform administration in the London area. This called for the Corporation of the city to extend its jurisdiction and administration over expanding areas around the city. Fearing an attempt by the Crown to diminish the , coupled with a lack of interest in administering these additional areas or concern by city guilds of having to share power, caused the Corporation's "The Great Refusal", a decision which largely continues to account for the unique governmental status of the . In the the majority of Londoners supported the cause. After an initial advance by the in 1642, culminating in the battles of and , London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the . The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months. The fortifications failed their only test when the entered London in 1647, and they were levelled by Parliament the same year. London was by disease in the early 17th century,{{Cite web , url=http://urbanrim.org.uk/plague%20list.htm , title=A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England 1348–1665 , publisher=Urban Rim , date=4 December 2009 , access-date=3 May 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090508010316/http://urbanrim.org.uk/plague%20list.htm , archive-date=8 May 2009 , url-status=dead culminating in the of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.{{Cite web , title=Story of the plague , url=http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/plague/story.html , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110513041728/http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/plague/story.html , archive-date=13 May 2011 , publisher= The broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.{{Cite book , last=Pepys , first=Samuel , author-link=Samuel Pepys , title=The Diary of Samuel Pepys , volume=45: August/September 1666 , date=2 September 1666 , orig-year=1893 , editor= (decipherer) , editor2= , url=http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/4167/pg4167.html , isbn=978-0-520-22167-3 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130813025236/http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/4167/pg4167.html , archive-date=13 August 2013 , url-status=live Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by {{Cite web , last=Schofield , first=Dr. John , date=17 February 2011 , title=BBC - History - British History in depth: London After the Great Fire , url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/after_fire_01.shtml , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090410000142/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/after_fire_02.shtml , archive-date=10 April 2009 , access-date=29 March 2021 , website=www.bbc.co.uk , language=en-GB{{Cite web , title=Rebuilding after the fire , url=http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Special/LondonsBurning/Themes/1405/ , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080201204641/http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Special/LondonsBurning/Themes/1405/ , archive-date=1 February 2008 , access-date=27 April 2008 , publisher={{Cite journal , last=Reddaway , first=Thomas Fiddian , url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-229X.1940.tb00765.x , title=The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire , journal=History , publisher=Jonathan Cape , year=1940 , volume=25 , issue=98 , pages=97–112 , doi=10.1111/j.1468-229X.1940.tb00765.x , access-date=28 March 2021 as Surveyor of London.{{Cite book , last=Jardine , first=Lisa , title=The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man Who Measured London , date=18 January 2005 , publisher= , isbn=978-0060538989 , publication-date=18 January 2005 In 1708 's masterpiece, , was completed. During the , new districts such as were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in . In the east, the expanded downstream. London's development as an international matured for much of the 18th century. In 1762, acquired , which was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was said to be dogged by crime, and the were established in 1750 as a professional police force. A total of more than 200 offences were punishable by death, including petty theft. Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday. became a popular place to debate ideas, as growing and development of the made news widely available, with becoming the centre of the British press. The invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies led many financiers to relocate to London and the first London international issue was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the became the world leading war fleet, acting as a major deterrent to potential economic adversaries. The repeal of the in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.{{Cite book , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Yor4DAAAQBAJ , title=Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium , last=Coispeau , first=Olivier , date=2016 , publisher=World Scientific , isbn=978-981-310-884-4 According to Samuel Johnson: {{quote, You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford., , 1777{{Cite web , url=http://www.samueljohnson.com/tiredlon.html , title=When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: Samuel Johnson , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427035831/http://www.samueljohnson.com/tiredlon.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live , df=dmy

Late modern and contemporary

London was the world's from about 1831 to 1925,{{Cite web , title=London: The greatest city , url=http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/i-m/london4.html , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090419104109/http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/i-m/london4.html , archive-date=19 April 2009 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Channel4.com with a population density of 325 per hectare.{{Cite book , last=Bertaud , first=Alain , title=Order without Design: How Markets Shape Cities , publisher= , year=2018 , isbn=978-0262038768 London's overcrowded conditions led to epidemics, claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866. Rising led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the was created out of county areas surrounding the capital. The city was the target of many attacks during an early campaign, the , between 1912 and 1914, which saw historic landmarks such as and bombed. {{multiple image , direction = vertical , align = right , width = 220 , image1 = British recruits August 1914 Q53234.jpg , caption1 = British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914, during , image2 = LondonBombedWWII full.jpg , caption2 = A bombed-out London street during , {{anchor, German air attacksLondon was in the , and during the , and other bombings by the German ' killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city. The were held at the original , while London was still recovering from the war. From the 1940s, London became home to many immigrants, primarily from countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in the world. In 1951, the was held on the . The of 1952 led to the , which ended the "s" for which London had been notorious. Starting mainly in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for worldwide , exemplified by the sub-culture associated with the , and . The role of trendsetter revived in the era. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded in response to the growth of the urban area and a new was created. During in Northern Ireland, London was hit in 1973 to bomb attacks by the , for two decades, starting with the . Racial inequality was highlighted by the . Greater London's population declined in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s. The principal ports for London moved downstream to and , with the area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the development. This was borne out of London's increasing role as an international financial centre in the 1980s. The was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the . The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, leaving London with no central administration until 2000 and the creation of the . To mark the 21st century, the , and were constructed. On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the , as the first city to stage the three times. On 7 July 2005, three trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a .{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/default.stm , title=7 July Bombings: Overview , work=BBC News , location=London , access-date=28 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061225041921/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/default.stm , archive-date=25 December 2006 , url-status=live In 2008, ' named London alongside and as , hailing them as the world's three most influential . In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, its highest since 1939.{{Cite web , title=Population Growth in London, 1939–2015 , url=http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/resource/0a026346-960e-49e6-b968-a386d2cfe55f , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150219160246/http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/resource/0a026346-960e-49e6-b968-a386d2cfe55f , archive-date=19 February 2015 , url-status=dead , website=London Datastore , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=7 July 2015}
/ref> During the in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but most London constituencies voted for remaining.


Local government

{{main, Local government in London, History of local government in London, List of heads of London government The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier. Citywide administration is coordinated by the (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.{{Cite web , title=Who runs London - Find Out Who Runs London and How , url=http://www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/who-runs-london, access-date=28 March 2021 , website= , publisher= The GLA consists of two elected components: the , who has , and the , which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is , . The mayor since 2016 has been , the first mayor of a major Western capital. The mayor's strategy is published as the , which was most recently revised in 2011.{{Cite web , title=The London Plan , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/londonplan , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120508220051/http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/londonplan , archive-date=8 May 2012 , access-date=25 May 2012 , website= , publisher= The local authorities are the councils of the 32 s and the .{{Cite web , title=London Government Directory - London Borough Councils , url=http://directory.londoncouncils.gov.uk/ , access-date=29 March 2017 , website= , publisher= They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, , local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as , are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA). The is the for Greater London, run by the . It is the third largest fire service in the world.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/WhoWeAre.asp , title=Who we are , publisher=London Fire Brigade , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429034538/http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/WhoWeAre.asp , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=dead are provided by the , the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance service in the world.{{Cite web , url=http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/about_us.aspx , title=About us , publisher=London Ambulance Service NHS Trust , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427031902/http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/about_us.aspx , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead The charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. and the operate on the ,{{Cite web , date=2010 , title=Station list - HM Coastguard Stations , url=http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/aboutus/mcga-online/mcga-sailing-cg66/dops_-_all-cg66-stationlist.htm , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101108134307/http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/aboutus/mcga-online/mcga-sailing-cg66/dops_-_all-cg66-stationlist.htm , archive-date=8 November 2010 , access-date=25 August 2009 , website= , publisher={{Cite news , date=2 January 2002 , title=Thames lifeboat service launched , work=, url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1739401.stm , url-status=live , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20040526015753/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1739401.stm , archive-date=26 May 2004 which is under the jurisdiction of the from to the sea.

National government

London is the seat of the . Many government departments, as well as the residence at , are based close to the , particularly along .{{Cite web , title=Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street , url=https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/prime-ministers-office-10-downing-street , access-date=25 March 2021 , website=uk.gov There are 73 members of Parliament (MPs) from London, elected from local parliamentary in the national . {{as of, 2019, December, 49 are from the , 21 are , and three are . The ministerial post of was created in 1994. The current Minister for London is MP.

Policing and crime

{{main, Crime in London Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the , is provided by the , overseen by the mayor through the (MOPAC). The City of London has its own police force – the .{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/policing.jsp , title=Policing , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080121173357/http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/policing.jsp , archive-date=21 January 2008 , url-status=dead The are responsible for police services on , , and services.{{Cite web , date=2021 , title=About Us , url=https://www.btp.police.uk/police-forces/british-transport-police/areas/about-us/about-us/ , access-date=28 March 2021 , website= The is a special police force in London, which does not generally become involved with policing the general public. Crime rates vary widely across different areas of London. Crime figures are made available nationally at and level. In 2015, there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014. The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000. Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There were 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.


{{main, Geography of London


, also known as Greater London, is one of nine and the top subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis.London is not a city in the usual UK sense of having granted by the Crown. The small at its core once comprised the whole settlement, but as its urban area grew, the resisted attempts to amalgamate the City with its , causing "London" to be defined several ways.{{Cite journal , last1=Beavan , first1=Charles , last2=Bickersteth , first2=Harry , title=Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court , publisher=Saunders and Benning , year=1865 , url=https://archive.org/details/reportscasesinc14romigoog Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the , in which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.{{Cite book , last=Stationery Office , title=The Inner London Letter Post , publisher=H.M.S.O , year=1980 , isbn=978-0-10-251580-0 , page=128{{Cite book , title=London Postcode and Administrative Boundaries , publisher=Geographers' A-Z Map Company , author=Geographers' A-Z Map Company , year=2008 , edition=6 , isbn=978-1-84348-592-6 The London telephone (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some just outside included. The Greater London boundary has been in places.{{Cite web , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1993/Uksi_19930441_en_1.htm , title=The Essex, Greater London and Hertfordshire (County and London Borough Boundaries) Order , year=1993 , publisher=Office of Public Sector Information , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100107231348/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1993/Uksi_19930441_en_1.htm , archive-date=7 January 2010 , url-status=live Further urban expansion is now prevented by the ,{{Cite book , last=Dilys , first=M Hill , title=Urban Policy and Politics in Britain , publisher=St. Martin's Press , year=2000 , isbn=978-0-312-22745-6 , pag
, url=https://archive.org/details/urbanpolicypolit0000hill/page/268
although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, producing a separately defined . Beyond this is the vast .{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/assembly/reports/plansd/london_regional_200104.pdf , title=London in its Regional Setting , publisher=London Assembly , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080527193714/http://www.london.gov.uk/assembly/reports/plansd/london_regional_200104.pdf , archive-date=27 May 2008 , url-status=dead Greater London is split for some purposes into and ,{{Cite book , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1963/cukpga_19630033_en_1 , title=London Government Act 1963 , publisher=Office of Public Sector Information , access-date=6 May 2008 , isbn=978-0-16-053895-7 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817142118/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1963/cukpga_19630033_en_1 , archive-date=17 August 2010 , url-status=dead and by the River Thames into and , with an informal area. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally the original at near the junction of and , are about {{Coord, 51, 30, 26, N, 00, 07, 39, W, type:city(7,000,000)_region:GB.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/08/15/charingcross_feature.shtml , title=London — Features — Where is the Centre of London? , publisher=BBC , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817141948/http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/08/15/charingcross_feature.shtml , archive-date=17 August 2010 , url-status=live However, the geographical centre of London on one definition is in the , 0.1 miles to the north-east of .


Within London, both the and the have and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are .{{Cite web , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1997/ukpga_19970023_en_1 , title=Lieutenancies Act 1997 , publisher=OPSI , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100522210452/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1997/ukpga_19970023_en_1 , archive-date=22 May 2010 , url-status=dead The area of includes areas that are part of the of , Kent, , Essex and .{{Cite book , last=Barlow , first=I.M. , title=Metropolitan Government , publisher= , year=1991 , isbn=9780415020992 , location=London , page=346 London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.{{refn, According to the ''Collins English Dictionary'' definition of 'the seat of government', London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the ''Oxford English Reference Dictionary'' definition of 'the most important town' and many other authorities., group=note Its position was formed through , making its status as ''de facto'' capital a part of the . The capital of England was moved to London from as the developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the , and thus the political capital of the nation.{{Cite journal , last=Schofield , first=John , title=When London became a European capital , date=June 1999 , journal=British Archaeology , publisher=Council for British Archaeology , issue=45 , issn=1357-4442 , url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/BA/ba45/ba45regs.html , access-date=6 May 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425074539/http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba45/ba45regs.html , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=dead More recently, Greater London has been defined as a and in this context is known as ''London''.


Greater London encompasses a total area of {{convert, 1583, km2, sqmi, an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of {{convert, 4542, PD/km2, PD/sqmi. The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of {{convert, 8382, km2, sqmi has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of {{convert, 1510, PD/km2, PD/sqmi. Modern London stands on the , its primary geographical feature, a river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The is a surrounded by gently rolling hills including , , and . Historically London grew up at the on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive lands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.{{Cite book , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=M9qvtYYhRtAC&pg=PR11 , title=London: A History , first=Francis , last=Sheppard , page=10 , publisher=Oxford University Press , year=2000 , isbn=978-0-19-285369-1 , access-date=6 June 2008 Since the the Thames has been extensively , and many of its London now flow . The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.{{Cite web , url=http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/flooding/?version=1&lang=_e , title=Flooding , publisher=UK , access-date=19 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060215080725/http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/flooding/?version=1&lang=_e , archive-date=15 February 2006 , url-status=dead The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in level by the slow 'tilting' of the British Isles (up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of , and Ireland) caused by .{{Cite web , url=http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/sealevels/?version=1&lang=_e , title="Sea Levels" – UK Environment Agency , publisher= , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080523225152/http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/sealevels/?version=1&lang=_e , archive-date=23 May 2008 , url-status=dead In 1974 a decade of work began on the construction of the across the Thames at to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.


{{main, Climate of London {{climate chart , , 2.3, 8.1, 55.2 , 2.1, 8.4, 40.9 , 3.9, 11.3, 41.6 , 5.5, 14.2, 43.7 , 8.7, 17.9, 49.4 , 11.7, 22.4, 45.1 , 13.9, 23.5, 44.5 , 13.7, 23.2, 49.5 , 11.4, 19.9, 49.1 , 8.4, 15.5, 68.5 , 4.9, 11.1, 59.0 , 2.7, 8.3, 55.2 , float=right , clear=none London has a temperate (: ''Cfb ''). Rainfall records have been kept in the city since at least 1697, when records began at . At Kew, the most rainfall in one month is {{Convert, 189, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in November 1755 and the least is {{Convert, 0, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in both December 1788 and July 1800. Mile End also had {{Convert, 0, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in April 1893. The wettest year on record is 1903, with a total fall of {{Convert, 969, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= and the driest is 1921, with a total fall of {{Convert, 308, mm, in, order=flip, abbr=. The average annual precipitation amounts to about 600 mm, lower than cities such as , , and . Nevertheless, despite its relatively low annual precipitation, London still receives 109.6 rainy days on the 1.0 mm threshold annually – higher than or at least very similar to the cities mentioned. Temperature extremes in London range from {{convert, 38.1, °C, °F, 1 at Kew on 10 August 2003 down to {{convert, -16.1, °C, °F at Northolt on 1 January 1962. Records for have been kept at London since 1692. The highest pressure ever reported is {{convert, 1049.8, mbar, inHg on 20 January 2020. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. London's average July high is 23.5 °C (74.3 °F). On average each year, London experiences 31 days above {{convert, 25, °C, °F, 1 and 4.2 days above {{convert, 30.0, °C, °F, 1. During the prolonged heat led to hundreds of heat-related deaths. There was also a previous spell of 15 consecutive days above {{convert, 32.2, °C, °F, 1 in England in 1976 which also caused many heat related deaths. A previous temperature of {{convert, 37.8, °C, °F in August 1911 at the Greenwich station, though this was later disregarded as non-standard.{{Cite web , date=1911 , title=Monthly Weather Report of the Meteorological Office , url=https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/mohippo/pdf/i/7/aug1911.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171113123406/https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/mohippo/pdf/i/7/aug1911.pdf , archive-date=13 November 2017 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Wyman and Sons, Ltd. Droughts can also, occasionally, be a problem, especially in summer. Most recently in Summer 2018 and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December. However, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the spring of 1893. Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy snow is rare but snow usually falls at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable effect, making the centre of London at times {{convert, 5, C-change, 0 warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, {{convert, 15, mi west of London, with the London Weather Centre. {{London weatherbox {{Weather box, location = , elevation: {{convert, 47, m, ft, 0, abbr=on, 1981–2010 normals , collapsed = y , metric first = y , single line = y , Jan record high C = 14.4 , Feb record high C = 19.7 , Mar record high C = 21.7 , Apr record high C = 25.6 , May record high C = 30.0 , Jun record high C = 32.8 , Jul record high C = 35.3 , Aug record high C = 37.5 , Sep record high C = 30.0 , Oct record high C = 25.6 , Nov record high C = 18.9 , Dec record high C = 15.0 , Jan high C = 8.1 , Feb high C = 8.6 , Mar high C = 11.6 , Apr high C = 14.6 , May high C = 18.1 , Jun high C = 21.0 , Jul high C = 23.4 , Aug high C = 23.1 , Sep high C = 20.0 , Oct high C = 15.5 , Nov high C = 11.3 , Dec high C = 8.4 , year high C = 15.3 , Jan mean C = 5.6 , Feb mean C = 5.7 , Mar mean C = 8.1 , Apr mean C = 10.3 , May mean C = 13.5 , Jun mean C = 16.4 , Jul mean C = 18.6 , Aug mean C = 18.5 , Sep mean C = 15.7 , Oct mean C = 12.2 , Nov mean C = 8.6 , Dec mean C = 5.9 , year mean C = 11.6 , Jan low C = 3.1 , Feb low C = 2.7 , Mar low C = 4.6 , Apr low C = 5.9 , May low C = 8.9 , Jun low C = 11.8 , Jul low C = 13.7 , Aug low C = 13.8 , Sep low C = 11.4 , Oct low C = 8.8 , Nov low C = 5.8 , Dec low C = 3.4 , year low C = 7.8 , Jan record low C = -9.4 , Feb record low C = -9.4 , Mar record low C = -7.8 , Apr record low C = -2.2 , May record low C = -1.1 , Jun record low C = 5.0 , Jul record low C = 7.2 , Aug record low C = 6.1 , Sep record low C = 2.8 , Oct record low C = -3.3 , Nov record low C = -5.0 , Dec record low C = -7.2 , precipitation colour = green , Jan precipitation mm = 41.6 , Feb precipitation mm = 36.3 , Mar precipitation mm = 40.3 , Apr precipitation mm = 40.1 , May precipitation mm = 44.9 , Jun precipitation mm = 47.4 , Jul precipitation mm = 34.6 , Aug precipitation mm = 54.3 , Sep precipitation mm = 51.0 , Oct precipitation mm = 61.1 , Nov precipitation mm = 57.5 , Dec precipitation mm = 48.4 , year precipitation mm = 557.4 , unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm , Jan precipitation days = 11.4 , Feb precipitation days = 8.5 , Mar precipitation days = 9.8 , Apr precipitation days = 9.0 , May precipitation days = 9.2 , Jun precipitation days = 7.4 , Jul precipitation days = 6.3 , Aug precipitation days = 8.1 , Sep precipitation days = 8.6 , Oct precipitation days = 10.9 , Nov precipitation days = 10.9 , Dec precipitation days = 9.5 , year precipitation days = 109.4 , Jan sun = 44.7 , Feb sun = 65.4 , Mar sun = 101.7 , Apr sun = 148.3 , May sun = 170.9 , Jun sun = 171.4 , Jul sun = 176.7 , Aug sun = 186.1 , Sep sun = 133.9 , Oct sun = 105.4 , Nov sun = 59.6 , Dec sun = 45.8 , year sun = 1410.0 , source 1 = {{cite web , url=https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/u10hb54gm, title= Greenwich 1981–2010 averages , access-date=20 November 2018, publisher=Met Office , source 2 =


{{main, List of districts of London, London boroughs Places within London's vast urban area are identified using district names, such as , , and . These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or . Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 s in addition to the ancient City of London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/city-government/boroughs.jsp , title=London boroughs — London Life, GLA , publisher=London Government , access-date=3 November 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071213025156/http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/city-government/boroughs.jsp , archive-date=13 December 2007 , url-status=dead{{Cite book , last1=Dogan , first1=Mattei , first2=John D. , last2=Kasarda , title=The Metropolis Era , publisher=Sage , year=1988 , page=99 , isbn=978-0-8039-2603-5 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_GFPAAAAMAAJ&q=1965,+32+boroughs+of+london The City of London is the main financial district,{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/business-and-jobs/financial-centre.jsp , title=London as a financial centre , publisher=Mayor of London , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080106051217/http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/business-and-jobs/financial-centre.jsp , archive-date=6 January 2008 , url-status=dead and has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the to the east. The is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1608619.stm , title=West End still drawing crowds , work=BBC News , access-date=6 June 2008 , date=22 October 2001 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511121403/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1608619.stm , archive-date=11 May 2011 , url-status=live includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/money/2006/apr/17/tax.g2 , title=Super Rich , date=17 April 2006 , work=The Guardian , access-date=7 June 2008 , location=London , first=James , last=Meek , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501134745/http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2006/apr/17/tax.g2 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live The average price for properties in is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of central London.{{Cite web , url=https://www.rbkc.gov.uk/planningandconservation/planningpolicy/idoc.ashx?docid=bf56bda1-575c-435b-92ac-9a71625c1746&version=-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161010131732/https://www.rbkc.gov.uk/planningandconservation/planningpolicy/idoc.ashx?docid=bf56bda1-575c-435b-92ac-9a71625c1746&version=-1 , url-status=dead , archive-date=10 October 2016 , title=Information on latest house prices in the Royal Borough , publisher=Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/aug/08/housing-london-jump-19-per-cent-year , title=Average house prices in London jump 19 percent in a year , first=Rupert , last=Jones , work=The Guardian , location=London , date=8 August 2014 , access-date=24 September 2014 The is the area closest to the original , known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.{{Cite news , url=http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8487518/site/newsweek/ , date=6 July 2005 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060829024354/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8487518/site/newsweek/ , archive-date=29 August 2006 , title=Tomorrow's East End , work=Newsweek , author=Flynn, Emily , location=New York , url-status=dead The surrounding area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the including the and , which was developed into the for the .


{{main, Architecture of London, List of tallest buildings and structures in London, List of demolished buildings and structures in London London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the , are constructed from . Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the of 1666, these being a few trace remains, the and a few scattered survivors in the city. Further out is, for example, the , England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal in about 1515. Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by , neoclassical financial institutions such as the and the , to the early 20th century and the 1960s . The disused—but soon{{when, date=March 2021 to be rejuvenated—1939 by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of , most notably and .{{Cite web , url=http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Paddington_Station.html , title=Paddington Station , publisher=Great Buildings , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110525164017/http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Paddington_Station.html , archive-date=25 May 2011 , url-status=dead The density of London varies, with high employment density in the and , high residential densities in , and lower densities in . in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the , which originated nearby. and , at the north and south ends of , respectively, have royal connections, as do the and in . is a nationally recognised monument in , one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster .{{Cite news , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=A1&xml=/property/2008/03/27/lpgreen127.xml , title=Eco homes: Wooden it be lovely... ? , work=The Daily Telegraph , access-date=12 October 2008 , location=London , first=Sarah , last=Lonsdale , date=27 March 2008 , archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20130308205754/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/greenproperty/3360810/Eco-homes-Wooden-it-be-lovely...-.html , archive-date=8 March 2013 , url-status=dead In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as , , the and , are mostly in the two financial districts, the and . High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London (see ), including the 95-storey , the . Other notable modern buildings include in with its distinctive oval shape,{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2129199.stm , title=Inside London's new 'glass egg' , date=16 July 2002 , work=BBC News , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090528025840/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2129199.stm , archive-date=28 May 2009 , url-status=live the plus the in / and by . What was formerly the , by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the .


{{Wide image, Palace of Westminster from the dome on Methodist Central Hall (cropped).jpg, 1000px, The and (Big Ben) on the right foreground, the on the left foreground and with in the background; seen in September 2014

Natural history

The suggests that London is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 per cent green space or open water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the supports 120 species of fish. They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London's areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 (SSSIs), two s and 76 s. are common in the capital, including s living by the , and s, s, s and s. On the other hand, native reptiles such as s, s, s and , are mostly only seen in . Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000 es, so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile (6 per square kilometre) of London. These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the , where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Another broke into the grounds of , reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth II's prized s. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole.{{Cite web , title=The Garden Mammal Survey Report 2001 , url=http://www.mammal.org.uk/sites/default/files/Summary%20Report%20to%20participants%20August%202001.PDF, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130202114736/http://www.mammal.org.uk/sites/default/files/Summary%20Report%20to%20participants%20August%202001.PDF, url-status=dead, archive-date=2 February 2013 , website=The Mammal Society , publisher=The Mammal Society , access-date=23 November 2015 Other mammals found in are , , , , , , and . In wilder areas of Outer London, such as , a wide variety of mammals are found, including , , , and , , , , shrew, and , in addition to red fox, grey squirrel and hedgehog. A dead was found at The Highway, in , about a mile from the , which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city. Ten of England's eighteen species of s have been recorded in Epping Forest: , and s, , , , , , and . Among the strange sights in London have been a whale in the Thames, while the BBC Two programme "Natural World: Unnatural History of London" shows s using the to get around the city, a that takes fish from s outside , and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages. Herds of and also roam freely within much of and . A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.{{Cite news , author=Bishop , first=Rachael , date=5 November 2012 , title=Richmond Park Deer Cull Begins , work=Sutton & Croydon Guardian , location=London , url=http://www.yourlocalguardian.co.uk/news/local/wandsworthnews/10026864.Richmond_Park_deer_cull_begins/ , url-status=live , access-date=25 March 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200307135458/https://www.yourlocalguardian.co.uk/news/10026864.richmond-park-deer-cull-begins/ , archive-date=7 March 2020 Epping Forest is also known for its , which can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population of , black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near . , which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the 20th century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.


{{main, Demography of London {{Table London top 10 birth countries The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population were making it the city with the after New York, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad. The table to the right shows the commonest countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the in . Increasing industrialisation swelled London's population throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was the most populous city in the world. It peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939, just before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 by the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter. However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond Greater London and numbered 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider had a population of 12–14 million, depending on the definition used.{{Cite web , url=http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html , title=The Principal Agglomerations of the World , website=City Population , access-date=3 March 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100704112702/http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html , archive-date=4 July 2010 , url-status=live{{Cite web , url=http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf#page=119 , title=British urban pattern: population data , access-date=22 February 2010 , date=March 2007 , website=ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions , publisher= , page=119 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924002318/http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf#page=119 , archive-date=24 September 2015 According to , London is the second in Europe. A net 726,000 immigrants arrived there in the period 1991–2001.{{Cite web , last=Leppard , first=David , date=10 April 2005 , title=Immigration Rise Increases Segregation in British Cities , url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article379434.ece , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080211185641/http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article379434.ece , archive-date=11 February 2008 , access-date=25 March 2021 , website= The region covers {{convert, 1579, km2, sqmi, giving a population density of {{convert, 5177, PD/km2, PD/sqmi, more than ten times that of any other .{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/regional_snapshot/RS_Lon.pdf , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080624195152/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/regional_snapshot/RS_Lon.pdf , archive-date=24 June 2008 , title=Population density of London: by London borough, 2006 , publisher=UK Statistics Authority , url-status=live In population terms, London is the 19th and the 18th region.{{Cite news , title='Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-27360032 , access-date=11 May 2014 , work=BBC News , date=11 May 2014{{Cite news , url=https://money.cnn.com/2004/06/11/pf/costofliving/ , title=World's Most Expensive Cities 2004 , publisher=CNN , access-date=16 August 2007 , date=11 June 2004 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501115458/http://money.cnn.com/2004/06/11/pf/costofliving/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live

Age structure and median age

Children younger than 14 constituted 20.6% of the population in Outer London in 2018, and 18% in Inner London. The 15–24 age group was 11.1% in Outer and 10.2% in Inner London, those aged 25–44 years 30.6% in Outer London and 39.7% in Inner London, those aged 45–64 years 24% and 20.7% in Outer and Inner London respectively. Those aged 65 and over are 13.6% in Outer London, but only 9.3% in Inner London.{{Cite web , author= , date=20 April 2020 , title=The Age Distribution of the Population , url=https://www.trustforlondon.org.uk/data/londons-population-age/ , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702033916/https://www.trustforlondon.org.uk/data/population-age-groups/ , archive-date=2 July 2020 , access-date=27 March 2021 , website= The of London in 2018 was 36.5, which was younger than the UK median of 40.3.

Ethnic groups

{{main, Ethnic groups in London {{multiple image , caption_align = center , header_align = center , align = right , direction = vertical , width = 250 , header = Maps of Greater London showing percentage distribution of selected races according to the 2011 Census , image1 = White Greater London 2011 census.png , alt1 = White , caption1 = White , image2 = Asian Greater London 2011 census.png , alt2 = Asian , caption2 = Asian , image3 = Black Greater London 2011 census.png , alt3 = Black , caption3 = Black According to the , based on estimates, 59.8 per cent of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were , with 44.9% , 2.2% , 0.1% / and 12.1% classified as ."2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales"
. Retrieved 3 July 2014
Meanwhile 20.9% of Londoners were of and mixed-Asian descent, 19.7% being of full Asian descents and those of mixed-Asian heritage 1.2% of the population. accounted for 6.6%, followed by and at 2.7% each. peoples accounted for 1.5% and for 1.3%. A further 4.9% were classified as "Other Asian". 15.6% of London's population were of and mixed-Black descent. 13.3% of full Black descent, with mixed-Black heritage comprising 2.3%. accounted for 7.0% of London's population, with 4.2% as and 2.1% as "Other Black". 5.0% were of . As of 2007, and children outnumbered children by about three to two in state schools across London.{{Cite news , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564365/One-fifth-of-children-from-ethnic-minorities.html , title=One fifth of children from ethnic minorities , author=Paton, Graeme , date=1 October 2007 , work=The Daily Telegraph , access-date=7 June 2008 , location=London , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081206094854/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564365/One-fifth-of-children-from-ethnic-minorities.html , archive-date=6 December 2008 , url-status=live Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4% were White, 19.8% Asian, 19% Black, 10.8% Mixed and 4% another ethnic group. In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that more than 300 languages were spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities had populations of more than 10,000.{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/jan/21/britishidentity1 , title=Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth , work=The Guardian , location=London , access-date=6 May 2008 , first=Leo , last=Benedictus , date=21 January 2005 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501134732/http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/jan/21/britishidentity1 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live Figures from the show that {{as of, 2010, alt=in 2010, London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36.7% of 's population were born outside the UK.{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/H-A.asp , title=Census 2001: London , publisher= , access-date=3 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511142104/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/H-A.asp , archive-date=11 May 2011 , url-status=live Some of the German-born population were likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the in Germany.{{Cite book , url=http://www.ippr.org.uk/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=308 , title=Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities , last=Kyambi , first=Sarah , date=2005 , access-date=20 January 2007 , isbn=978-1-86030-284-8 , publisher=Institute for Public Policy Research , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501123816/http://www.ippr.org.uk/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=308 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead Estimates by the indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria.{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-jul09-jun10.zip , title=Table 1.4: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, July 2009 to June 2010 , publisher=Office for National Statistics , access-date=7 March 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110506152443/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-jul09-jun10.zip , archive-date=6 May 2011 , url-status=dead The figure given was the central estimate. See the source for 95% s.


{{main, Religion in London According to the , the largest religious groupings were Christians (48.4%), followed by those of (20.7%), (12.4%), no response (8.5%), (5.0%), (1.8%), (1.5%), (1.0%) and other (0.6%). London has traditionally been Christian, and has a , particularly in the City of London. The well-known in the City and south of the river are administrative centres,{{Cite web , date=7 April 2008 , title=About Saint Paul's, url=http://www.stpauls.co.uk/page.aspx?theLang=001lngdef&pointerid=97320F44yHMK9hndcXZBD5sVH4m52Yc0, url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080407082352/http://www.stpauls.co.uk/page.aspx?theLang=001lngdef&pointerid=97320F44yHMK9hndcXZBD5sVH4m52Yc0 , archive-date=7 April 2008 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Dean and Chapter St Paul's while the , principal bishop of the and worldwide , has his main residence at in the .{{Cite web , title=Lambeth Palace Library , url=http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org/ , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430174131/http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org/ , archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=27 April 2008 , website= {{multiple image , direction = vertical , image1 = St Paul's Cathedral from The south east.jpg, caption1=, the seat of the , image2 = London Temple.jpg, caption2=The is the second-largest in England and Europe. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between and .{{Cite web , url=http://www.westminster-abbey.org/ , title=Westminster Abbey , publisher=Dean and Chapter of Westminster , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110505083817/http://www.westminster-abbey.org/ , archive-date=5 May 2011 , url-status=live The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby , which is the largest cathedral in .{{Cite web , url=http://www.westminstercathedral.org.uk/home.html , title=Westminster Cathedral , publisher=Westminster Cathedral , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080327041736/http://www.westminstercathedral.org.uk/home.html , archive-date=27 March 2008 , url-status=dead Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is low within the denomination. Church attendance continues a long, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.{{Cite journal , url=http://www.cofe.anglican.org/info/statistics/2007provisionalattendance.pdf , archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20140709133529/http://www.churchofengland.org/about-us/facts-stats.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=9 July 2014 , title=Church of England Statistics , publisher=Church of England , access-date=6 June 2008 London also has sizeable , , , and communities. Notable mosques include the in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the on the edge of {{Cite web , url=http://www.iccuk.org/index.php?article=1&PHPSESSID=rbt2vceqs1bpn9567k0kiv9hu5 , title=London Central Mosque Trust Ltd , publisher=London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. & The Islamic Cultural Centre , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426193641/http://www.iccuk.org/index.php?article=1&PHPSESSID=rbt2vceqs1bpn9567k0kiv9hu5 , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=live and the of the . After the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy ern Arab Muslims based themselves around , Kensington and in West London.{{Cite web , author=Bill , first=Peter , date=30 May 2008 , title=The $300 Billion Arabs Are Coming , url=https://www.standard.co.uk/news/the-300-billion-arabs-are-coming-6890813.html , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430181240/http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23488244-the-300-billion-arabs-are-coming.do, archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=25 March 2021 , website= There are large communities in the eastern boroughs of and . Large Hindu communities are found in the north-western boroughs of and , the latter hosting what was until 2006, Europe's largest , .{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/05/19/hindu_london_feature.shtml , title=Hindu London , date=6 June 2005 , publisher=BBC London , access-date=3 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060218161357/http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/05/19/hindu_london_feature.shtml , archive-date=18 February 2006 , url-status=live London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the . There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2898761.stm , title=£17 m Sikh temple opens , date=30 March 2003 , work=BBC News , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071003094649/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2898761.stm , archive-date=3 October 2007 , url-status=live The majority of live in London, with notable Jewish communities in , , , , , and in . in the is affiliated to London's historic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. has the largest membership of any Orthodox synagogue in Europe, overtaking synagogue (also in London) in 1998.{{Cite web , url=http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Israel/Partnerships/Regions/Kavimut/Britain+Communities/Stanmore+11.htm , publisher=The Jewish Agency for Israel , title=Stanmore , access-date=12 October 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426075317/http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Israel/Partnerships/Regions/Kavimut/Britain+Communities/Stanmore+11.htm , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=dead The was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.{{Cite news , last=Paul , first=Jonny , date=10 December 2006 , url=https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/jpost/access/1178443551.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Dec+10%2C+2006&author=JONNY+PAUL%2C+Jerusalem+Post+correspondent&pub=Jerusalem+Post&edition=&startpage=05&desc=Livingstone+apologizes+to+UK+Jews , title=Livingstone apologizes to UK's Jews , work=The Jerusalem Post , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427064159/http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1164881856232&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live


is an accent heard across London, mainly spoken by and Londoners. It is mainly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the 18th century, although it has been suggested that the Cockney style of speech is much older. John Camden Hotten, in his ''Slang Dictionary'' of 1859, makes reference to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the s of the East End. Since the turn of the century Cockney dialect is less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties. is an intermediate accent between Cockney and . It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary. (MLE) is a becoming increasingly common in multicultural areas amongst young, working-class people from diverse backgrounds. It is a fusion of an array of ethnic accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence. (RP) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard for . It has no specific geographical correlate, although it is also traditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and south-eastern England. It is mainly spoken by and Londoners.


{{main, Economy of London London's in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of . London has five major business districts: the city, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world. London is the world's most expensive office market according to world property journal (2015) report. {{As of, 2015 the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – the same value as that of Brazil's annual GDP. The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics. On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.

The City of London

London's finance industry is based in the and , the two major in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.{{Cite news , date=29 November 2007 , title=The City of London's tumble - After the fall , work= , location=London , url=https://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TDNDRPTT , url-status=dead , access-date=15 May 2009 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20121208172611/http://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TDNDRPTT , archive-date=8 December 2012{{Cite news , date=13 September 2007 , title=Magnets for Money , work= , location=London , url=https://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9753240 , url-status=dead , access-date=15 May 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090805052952/http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9753240 , archive-date=5 August 2009 London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time. This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading . Still, {{as of, 2016, lc=y London tops the world rankings on the (GFCI), and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index. London's largest industry is finance, and its s make it a large contributor to the UK's . Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS. Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the . However, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance. Along with headquarters, the is home to the , , and insurance market. Over half the UK's top 100 listed companies (the ) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of companies have offices in London.{{Cite web, date=9 June 2009, title=London Stock Exchange, url=http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090609022757/http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/, archive-date=9 June 2009, access-date=27 April 2008, website=, publisher=

Media and technology

Media companies are , and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.{{Cite web , url= http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/2CAE66FB-2DD5-41A5-B916-8FFC37276059/0/BC_RS_lpuk_0511_FR.pdf , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20060525075622/http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/2CAE66FB-2DD5-41A5-B916-8FFC37276059/0/BC_RS_lpuk_0511_FR.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-date=25 May 2006 , title=London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6 , date=November 2005 , website=Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London , page=19 , access-date=19 June 2006 The is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion. The is the second largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million s of cargo each year. A growing number of technology companies are based in London, notably in , also known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014 the city was among the first to receive a . In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future in the 2014/15 list by . The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by , and .


{{main, Tourism in London {{Multiple image , direction=vertical , image1=British Museum from NE 2 (cropped).JPG , caption1=The , image2=Galería Nacional, Londres, Inglaterra, 2014-08-07, DD 036.JPG, , caption2=The London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015. Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy. The city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK. {{As of, 2016 London was the world top city destination as ranked by users. In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue) #: 6,820,686 #: 5,908,254 # (South Kensington): 5,284,023 #: 5,102,883 #: 4,712,581 # (South Kensington): 3,432,325 #: 3,356,212 #: 3,235,104 #: 2,785,249 #: 2,145,486 The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.


{{main, Transport in London, Infrastructure in London Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,{{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/ , title=Transport for London , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100104235448/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/ , archive-date=4 January 2010 , url-status=live but the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by (TfL). The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the or ' was created. Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the .{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp#transport , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071019055413/http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp , archive-date=19 October 2007 , title=How do I find out about transport in London? , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=5 June 2008 , url-status=dead


{{main, Airports of London London is a major international air transport hub with the . Eight airports use the word ''London'' in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, also serve London, catering primarily to flights. *, in , West London, was for many years the for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, .{{Cite web, date=2020, title=Heathrow Airport Travel Report 2019, url=https://www.heathrow.com/content/dam/heathrow/web/common/documents/company/heathrow-2-0-sustainability/futher-reading/Heathrow-Airport-Travel-Report-2019.pdf, access-date=25 March 2021, website=, publisher=LHR Airports Limited, page=38 In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.{{cite web , url=http://www.heathrow-airport-uk.info/heathrow-airport-terminal-5.htm , title=Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 , publisher=TMC Ltd , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430195211/http://www.heathrow-airport-uk.info/heathrow-airport-terminal-5.htm , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=dead In 2014, gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic. *,{{cite web , url=http://www.gatwickairport.com/ , title=BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport , publisher=BAA , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429215757/http://www.gatwickairport.com/ , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=live south of London in , handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airport and is the main base of , the UK's largest airline by number of passengers. *,{{cite book , url=http://www.stanstedairport.com/ , title=BAA Stansted: Stansted Airport , year=2008 , publisher=BAA , access-date=27 April 2008 , isbn=978-0-86039-476-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429151324/http://www.stanstedairport.com/ , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=live north-east of London in , has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airport and is the main base of , the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers. *, to the north of London in , is used by several budget airlines for short-haul flights.{{cite book , url=http://www.london-luton.co.uk/en/ , title=London Luton Airport , year=1969 , publisher=London Luton Airport , access-date=27 April 2008 , isbn=978-0-11-510256-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501023741/http://www.london-luton.co.uk/en , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead *, the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in , East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable traffic.{{cite web , url=http://www.londoncityairport.com/Default.aspx , title=London City Airport — Corporate Information , publisher=London City Airport Ltd. , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110423115236/http://www.londoncityairport.com/Default.aspx , archive-date=23 April 2011 , url-status=dead *, east of London in , is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines. In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport.


Underground and DLR

The , commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest{{Cite book , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1604.aspx , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070502045940/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1604.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=2 May 2007 , title=London Underground: History , author=Transport for London , access-date=30 December 2012 , isbn=978-0-904711-30-1 , year=1981 and third longest{{Cite news , url=https://www.citymetric.com/transport/what-largest-metro-system-world-1361 , title=What is the largest metro system in the world? , date=5 September 2015 , work=City Metric , access-date=12 June 2018 , location=London , archive-date=12 June 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190612085224/https://www.citymetric.com/transport/what-largest-metro-system-world-1361 , url-status=dead system in the world. The system serves 270 {{Cite journal , title=Key facts , publisher=Transport for London , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070529041317/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=29 May 2007 , access-date=15 October 2009 and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the .{{Cite book , url=http://de.geocities.com/u_london/london.htm , title=London Underground , last=Schwandl , first=Robert , year=2001 , publisher=UrbanRail.net , access-date=24 September 2006 , isbn=978-3-936573-01-5 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061006013919/http://de.geocities.com/u_london/london.htm , archive-date=6 October 2006 , url-status=dead It dates from 1863.{{Cite news , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-20641351 , title=Oyster card celebrates 150th Tube anniversary , work=BBC News , date=10 December 2012 , access-date=10 January 2013 Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.{{Cite press release , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/static/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.html , title=Tube breaks record for passenger numbers , publisher=Transport for London , date=27 December 2007 , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427025251/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/static/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the . The , which opened in 1987, is a second, more using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the , and .


There are more than 360 in the on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into , with the exception of the trains connecting in the north and in the south via and airports.{{Cite web , url=http://www.firstcapitalconnect.co.uk/Main.php?sEvent=HomePage , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100130091433/http://www.firstcapitalconnect.co.uk/Main.php?sEvent=HomePage , archive-date=30 January 2010 , title=First Capital Connect , publisher=First Capital Connect , access-date=27 April 2008 , url-status=dead London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers—, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes station) each year.{{Cite web , url=http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/server/show/nav.1529 , title=Rail Station Usage , publisher=Office of Rail Regulation , access-date=24 October 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070705115621/http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/server/show/nav.1529 , archive-date=5 July 2007 , url-status=live {{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/default.asp?onload=entryexit , title=Tube exits , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=24 October 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070514062729/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/default.asp?onload=entryexit , archive-date=14 May 2007 , url-status=dead {{rws, Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing. With the need for more rail capacity in London, is expected to open in 2021. It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the with a branch to . It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.

Inter-city and international

London is the centre of the network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London. and , which are both in London, are the starting points of the and the – the two main railway lines in Britain. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (for ), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .{{Cite web , last=Smithers , first=Andrew , date=8 December 2020 , title=Great Britain National Rail Train Operators , url=https://www.nationalrail.co.uk/TOCs%20AS%20v46%20Dec%202020.pdf , access-date=27 March 2021 , website= London also has convenient rail connections with out of . These airports include (via ), (via ), (via ), (via or ) and (via ). Some international railway services to were operated during the 20th century as s, such as the ' to and the ' to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link with , , , , , and other European tourist destinations via the rail link and the . The first trains started in June 2009 linking to London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/highspeed/ , title=Highspeed , publisher=Southeastern , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501110057/http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/highspeed/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead There are plans for a linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire.


Although levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and waste. As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as from the Channel Tunnel and ports, and for at .August 2007
Rail Freight Strategy

Buses, coaches and trams

London's runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus stops.{{Cite web , title=What we do – Buses , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/what-we-do/buses , website=Transport for London , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=5 April 2014 In 2019/1920 the network had over 2 billion commuter trips per year. Since 2010 and average of £1.2 billion is taken in revenue each year. London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the world{{Cite web , date=20 June 2017 , title=Most Accessible Cities Around The World, url=https://www.sunrisemedical.com.au/blog/world-accessible-cities, access-date=26 March 2021, website=Sunrise Medical and from the third quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. London's coach hub is , an building opened in 1932. The coach station was initially run by a group of coach companies under the name of London Coastal Coaches; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalisation of the country's coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company. In 1988, the coach station was purchased by London Transport which then became . Victoria Coach Station has weekly passenger numbers of over 200,000 and provides services across the UK and Europe.{{failed verification, date=June 2021 London has a modern tram network, known as , centred on in . The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013. Since June 2008, has completely owned and operated Tramlink.

Cable car

London's first and to date only cable car is the , which opened in June 2012. The cable car crosses the , and links and the in the east of the city. It is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although the Emirates Air Line fares are not included in the Oyster daily capping. It cost £60 million to build and can carry up to 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction at peak times. Similar to the bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline .


{{main, Cycling in London In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a bike every day, meaning around 7% of the total population of around 8.8 million use a bike on an average day. This relatively low percentage of bicycle users may be due to the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year, equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands. has become an increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a in July 2010 was successful and generally well received.

Port and river boats

The , once the largest in the world, is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009.{{Cite web , date=10 June 2010 , title=Provisional Port Statistics 2009 , url=http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/maritime/ports/provportstats2009 , url-status=dead , archive-url=http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110203090417/http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/maritime/ports/provportstats2009 , archive-date=3 February 2011 , access-date=26 April 2011 , website= , publisher= Most of this cargo passes through the , outside the boundary of Greater London. London has river boat services on the Thames known as , which offer both commuter and tourist boat services. At major piers including ,
Battersea Power Station
and (Waterloo), services depart at least every 20 minutes during commuter times. The , with 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the and Roads.


Although the majority of journeys in central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The (around the city centre), the and roads (just within the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the , just outside the built-up area in most places) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into . A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the ) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at {{convert, 117, mi, km, abbr=on long. The and connect London to , and and . London is notorious for its traffic congestion; in 2009, the average speed of a car in the rush hour was recorded at {{convert, 10.6, mi/h, km/h, abbr=on.{{Cite web , last1=Mulholland , first1=Hélène , title=Boris Johnson mulls 'intelligent' congestion charge system for London , url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/16/boris-johnson-congestion-charge , website=The Guardian , date=16 March 2009 In 2003, a was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London. Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.{{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6735.aspx , title=Residents , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110503211945/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6735.aspx , archive-date=3 May 2011 , url-status=live The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users, reduce road traffic, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues; however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.


{{main, Education in London

Tertiary education

{{See also, List of universities and higher education colleges in London London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world. A 2014 report termed London the global capital of higher education. A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2021 ', is ranked #8 in the world, (UCL) is ranked 10th, and (KCL) is ranked 31st. The has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.{{Cite news , last=Hipwell , first=Deirdre , date=23 September 2007 , title=London School of Economics and Political Science , work=Times Online , location=London , url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/sunday_times_university_guide/article2496158.ece , url-status=dead , access-date=27 March 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081202225123/http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/sunday_times_university_guide/article2496158.ece , archive-date=2 December 2008 The is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second-best in the world by the '.{{Cite news , url=http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings , title=FT Global MBA Rankings , work=Financial Times , access-date=25 January 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110504135153/http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings , archive-date=4 May 2011 , url-status=live , location=London The city is also home to three of the world's top ten performing arts schools (as ranked by the 2020 QS World University Rankings): the (ranking 2nd in the world), the (ranking 4th) and the (ranking 6th). With {{HESA student population, INSTID=LON students in LondonCombined total from {{HESA citationIncluded institutions are , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and the . and around 48,000 in ,{{Cite web , url=https://london.ac.uk/sites/default/files/governance/university-of-london-financial-statement-2018-19.pdf , title=Financial Statements 2018–19 , publisher=University of London , access-date=1 March 2020 , page=8 the federal is the largest contact teaching university in the UK. It includes five multi-faculty universities – , , , and – and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including , the , , the , the London School of Economics, the , the , the , the and the . Members of the University of London have their own procedures, and most award their own degrees. A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including , ,{{refn, Imperial College London was a constituent college of the University of London between 1908 and 2007. Degrees during this time were awarded by the federal university; however, the college now issues its own degrees., group=note , ,{{Cite web , date=August 2008 , title=Performing Arts - Discover where to study with the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020: Performing Arts , url=http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/library/o90402_3.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090124143209/http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/library/o90402_3.pdf , archive-date=24 January 2009 , access-date=27 March 2021 , website= , , , , , and (the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe). In addition there are three international universities in London – , and . London is home to  – (part of ), (the largest medical school in Europe), , and  – and has many affiliated teaching hospitals. It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight s are based in the city – , and (the largest such centre in Europe). Additionally, many biomedical and biotechnology spin out companies from these research institutions are based around the city, most prominently in .There are a number of business schools in London, including the , (part of ), , , , , the and the . London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the , , , , , , , , the and .

Primary and secondary education

The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include , , , , , , , , , , and . There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as , , , , , , and .


{{main, Culture of London

Leisure and entertainment

{{see also, List of annual events in London, West End theatre Leisure is a major part of the London economy. A 2003 report attributed a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London at 25.6 events per 1000 people. Globally the city is one of the big four s of the world, and according to official statistics, it is the world's third-busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city, and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world. Within the in London, the entertainment district of the has its focus around , where London and world film s are held, and , with its giant electronic advertisements.{{Cite web , url=http://www.piccadillylights.co.uk/ , title=Piccadilly Lights , publisher=Land Securities , access-date=3 November 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426103109/http://www.piccadillylights.co.uk/ , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=dead London's is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's district (in ), and just to the east is , an area housing speciality shops. The city is the home of , whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century. The United Kingdom's , , , and are based in London and perform at the , the , , and the , as well as touring the country.{{Cite web , url=http://www.yourlondon.gov.uk/visiting/topic.jsp?topicid=6482&search_title=Theatres+and+concert+halls , title=Theatres and concert halls , publisher=Your London , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20080124185332/http://www.yourlondon.gov.uk/visiting/topic.jsp?topicid=6482&search_title=Theatres%2Band%2Bconcert%2Bhalls , archive-date=24 January 2008 , url-status=dead 's {{convert, 1, mi, km long Upper Street, extending northwards from , has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the United Kingdom.{{Cite journal , title=2001: Public houses , publisher=BBC History , url= https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/local_history/city/street_03.shtml?publichouses , access-date=4 June 2008 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191354/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/local_history/city/street_03.shtml?publichouses , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live Europe's busiest shopping area is , a shopping street nearly {{convert, 1, mi, km long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and , including the world-famous .{{Cite journal , url= http://www.london.gov.uk/londoner/06sep/p7a.jsp , publisher= , title=Oxford Street gets its own dedicated local police team , date=September 2006 , access-date=19 June 2007 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20070930204913/http://www.london.gov.uk/londoner/06sep/p7a.jsp , archive-date=30 September 2007 , url-status=dead , home to the equally renowned , lies to the south-west. London is home to designers , , , , and , among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, , and New York City. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of and the restaurants of .{{Cite web , url=http://www.chinatownlondon.org/ , title=Chinatown — Official website , publisher=Chinatown London , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501115502/http://www.chinatownlondon.org/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead There is a variety of , beginning with the relatively new , a fireworks display at the ; the world's second largest , the , is held on the late each year. Traditional parades include November's , a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new with a procession along the streets of the city, and June's , a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the and armies to celebrate the .{{Cite web , url=http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4820.asp , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080620233221/http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4820.asp , archive-date=20 June 2008 , title=One Queen, Two Birthdays , publisher=Royal Government , access-date=27 September 2008 , url-status=live The is a festival celebrated by the community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the , it is the second-largest street festival in the attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.

Literature, film and television

{{main, London in fiction, London in film, List of television shows set in London, London Television Archive London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in 's late 14th-century ' set out for from London—specifically, from the inn, . spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play ', was set in the city. ' (1722) by is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 . The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly and (since the early 20th century) . Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist , noted for his eyewitness account of the ; , whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early London; and , regarded as one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century.{{Cite web , url=http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/london/londoninliterature.shtml , title=London in Literature , publisher=Bryn Mawr College , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427043832/http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/london/londoninliterature.shtml , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and 's stories. Also of significance is 's ''Calendar of the London Seasons'' (1834). Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include , author of a "biography" of London, and , who writes in the genre of .{{wikisource, Calendar of the London Seasons/Calendar of the London Seasons, 'Calendar of the London Seasons', by L. E. L. London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include , , , , ,{{Cite web , url=http://filmlondon.org.uk/studio-contacts , title=Film London – studio contacts , website=Filmlondon.org.uk , access-date=27 May 2017 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810011712/http://filmlondon.org.uk/studio-contacts , archive-date=10 August 2017 , url-status=dead and a s and community centred in . has its headquarters in London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.workingtitlefilms.com/ , title=Working Title Films , publisher=Universal Studios , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426181458/http://workingtitlefilms.com/ , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=live London has been the setting for films including ' (1948), ' (1951), ' (1953), ' (1961), ' (1964), ' (1964), ' (1966), ' (1980), ' (1986), ' (1999), ' (2003), ' (2005), ' (2008) and ' (2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; , , , , , , , , , and . Since 2008, the have taken place at the . London is a major centre for television production, with studios including , and . Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera ', broadcast by the BBC since 1985.

Museums, art galleries and libraries

London is , galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major s as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the in , in 1753. Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in . The is the second , and the of the United Kingdom. There are many other research libraries, including the and , as well as , including the at , the at , the at , and the at the . In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of was developed as "", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the (for the ), the , and the . The was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits. The national gallery of British art is at , originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art. In 2000, this collection moved to , a new gallery housed in the former , which was built by the -based architecture firm of .


London is one of the major classical and capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as and , as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the (principal base of the and the ), the ( and the ), () and the (). London's two main opera houses are the and the (home to the ). The UK's largest is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several s are within the city: , , and . London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue, and , as well as many mid-sized venues, such as , the and the . Several , including the , South West Four, , and 's are all held in London. The city is home to the original and the , where recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and , derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.{{Cite book , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2006/04/06/garycrowley_londontop40_feature.shtml , title=London's top 40 artists , date=6 April 2006 , publisher=BBC , access-date=9 September 2008 , isbn=978-0-89820-135-2 London was instrumental in the development of , with figures such as the , , and all based in the city. More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include 's , , , the , , , , the , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .{{Cite web , url=http://www.londonbc.co.uk/history-of-music-in-london.html , title=History of music in London , publisher=The London Music Scene , access-date=2 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427023619/http://www.londonbc.co.uk/history-of-music-in-london.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres , , and evolved in the city from the foreign genres of , , and , alongside local . Music station was set up to support the rise of local music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom.


Parks and open spaces

{{main, Parks and open spaces in London, Royal Parks of London {{see also, List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London, List of local nature reserves in Greater London A 2013 report by the said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35,000 acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens. The largest parks in the are three of the eight , namely and its neighbour in the west, and to the north.{{Cite web , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/kensington_gardens/ , title=Kensington Gardens , year=2008 , publisher=The Royal Parks , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100527231143/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/kensington_gardens/ , archive-date=27 May 2010 , url-status=dead Hyde Park in particular is popular for and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains , the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Wax Museum.{{Cite web , url=http://www.madametussauds.com/London/About.aspx , title=Madame Tussauds — Official website , publisher=Madame Tussauds , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501102841/http://www.madametussauds.com/London/About.aspx , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead{{Cite web , title=Madame Tussauds, London , url=http://www.tourist-information-uk.com/madame-tussauds.htm , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427094710/http://www.tourist-information-uk.com/madame-tussauds.htm , archive-date=27 April 2011 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=Madame Tussauds , immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at {{convert, 256, ft, 0 is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline. Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, and .{{Cite web , year=2008 , title=Green Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/green_park/, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090904010152/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/green_park/about.cfm, archive-date=4 September 2009 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including and the remaining Royal Parks of to the southeast{{Cite web , year=2008 , title=Greenwich Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/greenwich_park/ , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120403181733/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/greenwich-park/about-the-park, archive-date=3 April 2012 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks and and (the largest) to the southwest,{{Cite web , year= , title=Bushy Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/bushy_park/ , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090122050309/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/bushy_park/ , archive-date=22 January 2009 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks{{Cite web , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/richmond_park/ , title=Richmond Park , year=2008 , publisher=The Royal Parks , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100527212545/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/richmond_park/ , archive-date=27 May 2010 , url-status=dead is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the , unlike the eight . Close to Richmond Park is , which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the list of . There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including in the and in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the {{convert, 320, ha, acre, adj=on of , and , which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres) in the east. Both are controlled by the . Hampstead Heath incorporates , a former and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.{{Cite web , url=http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.00100200800k00800f , title=Kenwood House , publisher=English Heritage , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100305202033/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.00100200800k00800f , archive-date=5 March 2010 , url-status=live Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.


. Areas that provide for walks include , , , , the eight , canals and disused railway tracks.{{Cite web , url=http://www.innerlondonramblers.org.uk/ideasforwalks.html , title=Inner London Ramblers – Walk Ideas , first=Phil , last=Marson , website=innerlondonramblers.org.uk Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the , some {{convert, 28, mi, km of which is within , and The ; this runs {{convert, 12, mi, km through along the , a . Other s, linking green spaces, have also been created, including the , the , ("Loop"), , , and the .


{{main, Sport in London London has hosted the three times: in , , and ,{{Cite web , url=http://www.olympic.org/london-1908-summer-olympics , title=London 1908 , publisher=International Olympic Committee , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425214411/http://www.olympic.org/london-1908-summer-olympics , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=live{{Cite web , url=http://www.olympic.org/london-1948-summer-olympics , title=London 1948 , publisher=International Olympic Committee , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425214340/http://www.olympic.org/london-1948-summer-olympics , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=live making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the in .{{Cite web , date=28 April 2011 , title=England - Introduction , url=http://www.thecgf.com/countries/intro.asp?loc=ENG , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429043207/http://www.thecgf.com/countries/intro.asp?loc=ENG , archive-date=29 April 2011 , access-date=3 November 2008 , website= , publisher= In 2017, London hosted the for the first time. London's is and it has six clubs in the English as of the : , , , , , and .{{Cite web , title=Barclays Premier League Clubs , url=https://www.premierleague.com/clubs , access-date=29 March 2021 , website= Other professional teams in London are , , , , , , , , and . From 1924, the original was the home of the . It hosted the , with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the as well as 's final.{{Cite web , url=http://www.wembleystadium.com/GloriousPast/greatmoments/1steverwembleyFACupFinal.htm , title=Wembley Stadium History — Official Website , publisher=Wembley National Stadium Limited. , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080403102710/http://www.wembleystadium.com/GloriousPast/greatmoments/1steverwembleyFACupFinal.htm , archive-date=3 April 2008 , url-status=dead The new serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.{{Cite journal , url=http://www.wembleystadium.com/pressbox/presspack/factsandFigures.htm , title=Wembley Stadium — Presspack — Facts and Figures , publisher=Wembley National Stadium Limited , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080516051636/http://www.wembleystadium.com/pressbox/presspack/factsandFigures.htm , archive-date=16 May 2008 , url-status=dead Two union teams are based in London, and .{{Cite web , url=http://www.premiershiprugby.com/clubs/index.php , title=Premiership Rugby: Clubs , publisher=Premier Rugby , access-date=5 August 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427075926/http://www.premiershiprugby.com/clubs/index.php , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead , and play in the and other rugby union clubs in the city include , , and . in south-west London hosts home matches for the and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.{{Cite press release , publisher=Twickenham Rugby Stadium , title=RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium in 2007 , url=http://www.rfu.com/microsites/twickenham/index.cfm?StoryID=14822 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080625050620/http://www.rfu.com/microsites/twickenham/index.cfm?StoryID=14822 , archive-date=25 June 2008 , date=3 October 2006 , url-status=dead While is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the in the second-tier , who play at the in , and the third-tier team, the from , . One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the , held at the in the south-western suburb of .{{Cite web , url=http://www.wimbledon.org/en_GB/index.html , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080423182334/http://www.wimbledon.org/en_GB/index.html , archive-date=23 April 2008 , title=Wimbledon — official website , publisher=The All England Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC) , access-date=29 April 2008 , url-status=dead Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and widely considered the most prestigious. London has two grounds, (home of ) in {{Cite web , url=http://www.lords.org/lords-ground/about-lords/ , title=About Lord's—the home of cricket — official website , year=2008 , publisher=MCC , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110505124304/http://www.lords.org/lords-ground/about-lords/ , archive-date=5 May 2011 , url-status=dead and (home of ) in .{{Cite web , url=http://www.surreycricket.com/the-brit-oval , title=The Brit Oval — Official Website , year=2008 , publisher=Surrey CCC , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090307124530/http://www.surreycricket.com/the-brit-oval/ , archive-date=7 March 2009 , url-status=dead Lord's has hosted four finals of the and is known as the ''Home of Cricket''.{{Cite web , title=Lord's (Cricket Grounds), url=http://www.espncricinfo.com/england/content/ground/57129.html , access-date=26 March 2021 , website=ESPNcricinfo.com Other key events are the annual mass-participation , in which some 35,000 runners attempt a {{convert, 26.2, mi, km, adj=on course around the city,{{Cite web , url=http://www.london-marathon.co.uk/site/ , title=Flora London Marathon 2008 , publisher=London Marathon Ltd , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080426224024/http://www.london-marathon.co.uk/site/ , archive-date=26 April 2008 , url-status=dead and the on the from to .{{Cite web , url=http://www.theboatrace.org/ , title=The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race — Official Website , publisher=The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430162037/http://www.theboatrace.org/ , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live

Notable people

{{main, List of people from London

See also

{{portal, London, Cities, England, United Kingdom * *{{-


{{reflist, group=upper-alpha, refs= and {{Reflist, group="note"




*{{Cite book , last=Ackroyd , first=Peter , title=London: The Biography , publisher=Vintage , location=London , year=2001 , isbn=978-0-09-942258-7 , page=880 , title-link=London: The Biography *{{Cite book , last=Mills , first=David , title=Dictionary of London Place Names , publisher=Oxford Paperbacks , year=2001 , isbn=978-0-19-280106-7 , oclc=45406491

External links

London.gov.uk – Greater London AuthorityVisitLondon.com
nbsp;– Official London tourism site
Museum of LondonLondon
in ', with links to numerous authoritative online sources
''In Our Time'', BBC Radio 4 discussion with Peter Ackroyd, Claire Tomalin and Iain Sinclair (28 September 2000) *{{osmrelation-inline, 175342
Old maps of London
from the Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The {{London history {{London landmarks {{Areas of London {{navboxes, title=, list= {{Governance of Greater London {{Transport in London {{London commuter belt {{Universities and colleges in London {{Megacities {{Olympic Summer Games Host Cities {{Subject bar, commons=yes, wikt=yes, n=yes, n-search=London, q=yes, s=yes, b=no, voy=yes, v=yes, d=yes, d-search=Q84 {{Authority control Capital cities in the United Kingdom