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''Logos'' (, ; grc,
λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term ...
, lógos; from , , ) is a term in
Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality ...
,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
,
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
, and
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse".Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott
''An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon''
logos, 1889.
It became a technical term in
Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality ...
beginning with
Heraclitus Heraclitus of Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἡράκλειτος ; , ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ...

Heraclitus
(), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.
Ancient Greek philosophers Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the inhabitants of ancient Greece were struggling to repel devastating invasions from the east. Greek philosophy continued throughout the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic p ...
used the term in different ways. The
sophist A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Sophists specialized in one or more subject areas, such as philosophy, rhetoric, music, athletics, and mathematics. They taught ...
s used the term to mean
discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy) ...

discourse
.
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three
modes of persuasion The modes of persuasion, modes of appeal or rhetorical appeals (Greek: ''pisteis'') are strategies of rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express ...
alongside ''
ethos Ethos ( or ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

ethos
'' and ''
pathos Pathos (, ; plural: ''pathea'' or ''pathê''; , for "suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the ...

pathos
''. Pyrrhonist philosophers used the term to refer to
dogmatic Dogma in the broad sense is any belief held unquestioningly and with undefended certainty. It may be in the form of an official system of principles or doctrines of a religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of desig ...

dogmatic
accounts of non-evident matters. The
Stoics Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophyHellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the ph ...
spoke of the ''
logos spermatikos This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy. A ; adiaphora: ἀδιάφορα: indifferent things, neither good nor bad. ;agathos: ἀγαθός: good, proper object of desire. ;anthrôpos: ἄνθρωπος: human ...
'' (the generative principle of the Universe) which foreshadows related concepts in
Neoplatonism Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, m ...
. Within
Hellenistic Judaism Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) i ...
,
Philo Philo of Alexandria (; grc, Φίλων, Phílōn; he, , Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; ), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is t ...

Philo
() adopted the term into
Jewish philosophy Jewish philosophy () includes all philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...
.''Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy'' (2nd ed): Philo Judaeus, 1999. Philo distinguished between ''logos prophorikos'' ("the uttered word") and the ''logos endiathetos'' ("the word remaining within"). The
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
identifies the Christian Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (''
theos THEOS, which translates from Greek as "God", is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating s ...
''),May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. ''The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha''. 1977. and further identifies
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
as the
incarnate Incarnation literally means ''embodied in flesh'' or ''taking on flesh''. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient being who is the material manifestation of an entity, god God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the sup ...
Logos. Early translators of the Greek
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
such as
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Jerome
(in the 4th century AD) were frustrated by the inadequacy of any single Latin word to convey the meaning of the word ''logos'' as used to describe Jesus Christ in the
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
. The
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, ...
Bible usage of was thus constrained to use the (perhaps inadequate) noun for "word", but later
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...
translations had the advantage of nouns such as in French. Reformation translators took another approach.
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a Germans, German professor of Christian theology, theology, priest, author, composer, former Order of Saint Augustine, Augustinian monk, and is best known as a seminal f ...

Martin Luther
rejected (verb) in favor of (word), for instance, although later commentators repeatedly turned to a more dynamic use involving ''the living word'' as felt by Jerome and . The term is also used in
Sufism Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is in , "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ''What is Sufi ...

Sufism
, and the analytical psychology of
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeo ...

Carl Jung
. Despite the conventional translation as "word", ''logos'' is not used for a
word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most lang ...

word
in the grammatical sense—for that, the term ''lexis'' (, ) was used.Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott
''An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon''
lexis, 1889.
However, both ''logos'' and ''lexis'' derive from the same verb (), meaning "(I) count, tell, say, speak".Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott
''An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon''
legō, 1889.


Ancient Greek philosophy


Heraclitus

The writing of
Heraclitus Heraclitus of Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἡράκλειτος ; , ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ...

Heraclitus
() was the first place where the word ''logos'' was given special attention in
ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, marking the end of the Greek Dark Ages The Greek Dark Ages is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the beginning of Archa ...
, although Heraclitus seems to use the word with a meaning not significantly different from the way in which it was used in ordinary Greek of his time. For Heraclitus, ''logos'' provided the link between rational discourse and the world's rational structure. What ''logos'' means here is not certain; it may mean "reason" or "explanation" in the sense of an objective cosmic law, or it may signify nothing more than "saying" or "wisdom". Yet, an independent existence of a universal ''logos'' was clearly suggested by Heraclitus.


Aristotle's rhetorical logos

Following one of the other meanings of the word,
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
gave ''logos'' a different technical definition in the ''
Rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
'', using it as meaning argument from reason, one of the three
modes of persuasion The modes of persuasion, modes of appeal or rhetorical appeals (Greek: ''pisteis'') are strategies of rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express ...
. The other two modes are ''
pathos Pathos (, ; plural: ''pathea'' or ''pathê''; , for "suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the ...

pathos
'' (, ), which refers to persuasion by means of emotional appeal, "putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind";Aristotle, ''Rhetoric'', in Patricia P. Matsen, Philip B. Rollinson, and Marion Sousa,
Readings from Classical Rhetoric
', SIU Press, 1990, , p. 120.
and ''
ethos Ethos ( or ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

ethos
'' (, ), persuasion through convincing listeners of one's "moral character". According to Aristotle, ''logos'' relates to "the speech itself, in so far as it proves or seems to prove". In the words of Paul Rahe: ''Logos'', ''pathos'', and ''ethos'' can all be appropriate at different times. Arguments from reason (logical arguments) have some advantages, namely that
data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ...

data
are (ostensibly) difficult to manipulate, so it is harder to argue against such an argument; and such arguments make the speaker look prepared and knowledgeable to the audience, enhancing ''ethos''. On the other hand, trust in the speaker—built through ''ethos''—enhances the appeal of arguments from reason. Robert Wardy suggests that what Aristotle rejects in supporting the use of ''logos'' "is not emotional appeal
per se Per se may refer to: * ''wikt:per_se, per se'', a Latin phrase meaning "by itself" or "in itself". *Illegal per se, Illegal ''per se'', the legal usage in criminal and antitrust law *Negligence per se, Negligence ''per se'', legal use in tort law *P ...
, but rather emotional appeals that have no 'bearing on the issue', in that the ''pathē'' they stimulate lack, or at any rate are not shown to possess, any intrinsic connection with the point at issue—as if an advocate were to try to whip an
antisemitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...

antisemitic
audience into a fury because the accused is Jewish; or as if another in drumming up support for a politician were to exploit his listeners's reverential feelings for the politician's ancestors". Aristotle comments on the three modes by stating:


Pyrrhonists

The Pyrrhonist philosopher
Sextus Empiricus Sextus Empiricus ( grc-gre, Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 AD) was a Ancient Greece, Greek Pyrrhonism, Pyrrhonist philosopher and a physician. His philosophical works are the most complete surviving account of ancient Gree ...
defined the Pyrrhonist usage of ''logos'' as "When we say 'To every logos an equal logos is opposed,' by 'every logos' we mean 'every logos that has been considered by us,' and we use 'logos' not in its ordinary sense but for that which establishes something dogmatically, that is to say, concerning the non-evident, and which establishes it in any way at all, not necessarily by means of premises and conclusion."


Stoics

Stoic philosophy Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophyHellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the ph ...
began with
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emerg ...

Zeno of Citium
, in which the ''logos'' was the active
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
pervading and animating the
Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

Universe
. It was conceived as material and is usually identified with
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...

God
or
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...

Nature
. The Stoics also referred to the ''seminal logos'' ("''
logos spermatikos This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy. A ; adiaphora: ἀδιάφορα: indifferent things, neither good nor bad. ;agathos: ἀγαθός: good, proper object of desire. ;anthrôpos: ἄνθρωπος: human ...
''"), or the law of generation in the Universe, which was the principle of the active reason working in inanimate
matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particl ...
. Humans, too, each possess a portion of the divine ''logos''. The Stoics took all activity to imply a ''logos'' or spiritual principle. As the operative principle of the world, the ''logos'' was ''
anima mundi The world soul (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...

anima mundi
'' to them, a concept which later influenced
Philo of Alexandria Philo of Alexandria (; grc, Φίλων, Phílōn; he, , Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; ), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from ...
, although he derived the contents of the term from Plato. In his Introduction to the 1964 edition of
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a vari ...

Marcus Aurelius
' ''
Meditations ''Meditations'' () is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a from 161 to 180 and a philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the (a term coined s ...

Meditations
'', the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote that "''Logos'' ... had long been one of the leading terms of
Stoicism Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, s ...
, chosen originally for the purpose of explaining how deity came into relation with the universe".


Isocrates' logos

Public discourse on ancient Greek rhetoric has historically emphasized Aristotle's appeals to ''logos'', ''pathos'', and ''ethos'', while less attention has been directed to
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Tri ...
' teachings about philosophy and ''logos'',David M. Timmerman and , ''Classical Greek Rhetorical Theory and the Disciplining of Discourse'' (London: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): 43–66 and their partnership in generating an ethical, mindful ''
polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...

polis
''. Isocrates does not provide a single definition of ''logos'' in his work, but Isocratean ''logos'' characteristically focuses on speech, reason, and civic discourse. He was concerned with establishing the "common good" of
Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens The Acropoli ...
citizens, which he believed could be achieved through the pursuit of philosophy and the application of ''logos''.


In Hellenistic Judaism


Philo of Alexandria

Philo Philo of Alexandria (; grc, Φίλων, Phílōn; he, , Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; ), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is t ...

Philo
(), a Hellenized Jew, used the term ''logos'' to mean an intermediary divine being or
demiurge In the Platonic Plato's influence on Western culture was so profound that several different concepts are linked by being called Platonic or Platonist, for accepting some assumptions of Platonism, but which do not imply acceptance of that philoso ...
. Philo followed the Platonic distinction between imperfect matter and perfect Form, and therefore intermediary beings were necessary to bridge the enormous gap between God and the material world.
Frederick Copleston Frederick Charles Copleston (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was an English Jesuit Catholic priest, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , transl ...
, ''A History of Philosophy'', Volume 1, Continuum, 2003, pp. 458–62.
The ''logos'' was the highest of these intermediary beings, and was called by Philo "the first-born of God". Philo also wrote that "the Logos of the living God is the bond of everything, holding all things together and binding all the parts, and prevents them from being dissolved and separated". Plato's Theory of Forms was located within the ''logos'', but the ''logos'' also acted on behalf of God in the physical world. In particular, the
Angel of the Lord The (or an) angel of the ( he, מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה '' malakh YHWH'' "messenger of Yahweh") is an entity appearing repeatedly in the Tanakh (Old Testament) on behalf of the Yahweh, God of Israel. The term ''malakh YHWH'', which occurs ...
in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
(
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
) was identified with the ''logos'' by Philo, who also said that the ''logos'' was God's instrument in the creation of the Universe.


Targums

The concept of ''logos'' also appears in the
Targum A targum ( arc, תרגום 'interpretation, translation, version') was an originally spoken translation of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic la ...

Targum
s (Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible dating to the first centuries AD), where the term ''memra'' (
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
for "word") is often used instead of 'the Lord', especially when referring to a manifestation of God that could be construed as
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics t ...
.


Christianity

In
Christology In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religio ...
, the Logos ( el, Λόγος, lit=word, discourse, or reason) is a name or title of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...
, seen as the pre-existent second person of the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
. The concept derives from John 1:1, which in the Douay–Rheims, , New International, and other versions of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
, reads:


Neoplatonism

Neoplatonist Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic Plato's influence on Western culture was so profound that several different concepts are linked by being called Platonic or Platonist, for accepting some assumptions of Platonism, but which do not imply accept ...
philosophers such as
Plotinus Plotinus (; grc-gre, Πλωτῖνος, ''Plōtînos'';  – 270 CE) was a major Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surround ...

Plotinus
(270 AD) used ''logos'' in ways that drew on Plato and the
Stoics Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophyHellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the ph ...
, but the term ''logos'' was interpreted in different ways throughout Neoplatonism, and similarities to Philo's concept of ''logos'' appear to be accidental. The ''logos'' was a key element in the
meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Interventio ...

meditation
s of Plotinus regarded as the first neoplatonist. Plotinus referred back to
Heraclitus Heraclitus of Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἡράκλειτος ; , ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ...

Heraclitus
and as far back as
Thales Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), ''Thalēs''; ) was a Greek mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive kn ...

Thales
in interpreting ''logos'' as the principle of meditation, existing as the interrelationship between the hypostases—the
soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...

soul
, the intellect (''
nous ''Nous'' (, ), sometimes equated to intellect In the study of the human mind, intellect refers to, describes, and identifies the ability of the human mind to reach correct conclusions about what is true True most commonly refers to truth ...

nous
''), and the
One 1 (one, also called unit, and unity) is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...
. Plotinus used a trinity concept that consisted of "The One", the "Spirit", and "Soul". The comparison with the Christian
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
is inescapable, but for Plotinus these were not equal and "The One" was at the highest level, with the "Soul" at the lowest. For Plotinus, the relationship between the three elements of his trinity is conducted by the outpouring of ''logos'' from the higher principle, and ''
eros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
'' (loving) upward from the lower principle. Plotinus relied heavily on the concept of ''logos'', but no explicit references to Christian thought can be found in his works, although there are significant traces of them in his doctrine. Plotinus specifically avoided using the term ''logos'' to refer to the second person of his trinity. However, Plotinus influenced
Gaius Marius VictorinusGaius Marius Victorinus (also known as Victorinus Afer; fl. 4th century) was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician and Neoplatonic Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonism, Platonic philosophy that emerged in the second century AD against the background ...
, who then influenced
Augustine of Hippo Augustine of Hippo (; la, Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Im ...

Augustine of Hippo
. Centuries later,
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeo ...

Carl Jung
acknowledged the influence of Plotinus in his writings. Victorinus differentiated between the ''logos'' interior to God and the ''logos'' related to the world by creation and
salvation Salvation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in re ...

salvation
. Augustine of Hippo, often seen as the father of
medieval philosophy Medieval philosophy is the philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philo ...
, was also greatly influenced by Plato and is famous for his re-interpretation of Aristotle and Plato in the light of
early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
thought. A young Augustine experimented with, but failed to achieve
ecstasy Ecstasy may refer to: * Ecstasy (emotion), a trance or trance-like state in which a person transcends normal consciousness * Religious ecstasy, a state of consciousness, visions or absolute euphoria * Ecstasy (philosophy), to be or stand outside on ...
using the meditations of Plotinus. In his '' Confessions'', Augustine described ''logos'' as the ''Divine Eternal Word'', by which he, in part, was able to motivate the early Christian thought throughout the
Hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from ar ...
world (of which the Latin speaking West was a part) Augustine's ''logos'' ''had taken body'' in Christ, the man in whom the ''logos'' (i.e. or ) was present as in no other man.


Islam

The concept of the ''logos'' also exists in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, where it was definitively articulated primarily in the writings of the classical
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
and
Islamic philosophers Muslim philosophers both profess Islam and engage in a style of Islamic philosophy, philosophy situated within the structure of the Arabic language and Islam, though not necessarily concerned with religious issues. The sayings of the sahaba, compan ...
, as well as by certain
Shi'a Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life ...
thinkers, during the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
.Boer, Tj. de and Rahman, F., "ʿAḳl", in: ''Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition'', Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. In
Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
, the concept of the ''logos'' has been given many different names by the denomination's metaphysicians, mystics, and philosophers, including ''ʿaql'' ("Intellect"), ''al-insān al-kāmil'' ("Universal Man"), ''kalimat Allāh'' ("Word of God"), ''haqīqa muḥammadiyya'' ("The Muhammadan Reality"), and ''nūr muḥammadī'' ("The Muhammadan Light").


''ʿAql''

One of the names given to a concept very much like the Christian Logos by the classical Muslim metaphysicians is ''ʿaql'', which is the "Arabic equivalent to the Greek (intellect)." In the writings of the Islamic
neoplatonist Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic Plato's influence on Western culture was so profound that several different concepts are linked by being called Platonic or Platonist, for accepting some assumptions of Platonism, but which do not imply accept ...
philosophers, such as
al-Farabi Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (; '; known in the West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-base ...

al-Farabi
() and
Avicenna Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, t ...

Avicenna
(d. 1037), the idea of the ''ʿaql'' was presented in a manner that both resembled "the late Greek doctrine" and, likewise, "corresponded in many respects to the Logos Christology." The concept of ''logos'' in Sufism is used to relate the "Uncreated" (God) to the "Created" (humanity). In Sufism, for the Deist, no contact between man and God can be possible without the ''logos''. The ''logos'' is everywhere and always the same, but its personification is "unique" within each region.
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
and
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
are seen as the personifications of the ''logos'', and this is what enables them to speak in such absolute terms. One of the boldest and most radical attempts to reformulate the neoplatonic concepts into Sufism arose with the philosopher
Ibn Arabi Ibn ʿArabi ( ar, ابن عربي) (1165 – 1240), full name ''Muhyī al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn al-ʿArabī al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭāʾī al-Andalusī al-Mursī al-Dimashqī'' ( ar, links=no, محي الد ...

Ibn Arabi
, who traveled widely in Spain and North Africa. His concepts were expressed in two major works ''The Ringstones of Wisdom'' (''Fusus al-Hikam'') and ''The Meccan Illuminations'' (''Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya''). To Ibn Arabi, every prophet corresponds to a reality which he called a ''logos'' ('' Kalimah''), as an aspect of the unique divine being. In his view the divine being would have for ever remained hidden, had it not been for the prophets, with ''logos'' providing the link between man and divinity. Ibn Arabi seems to have adopted his version of the ''logos'' concept from neoplatonic and Christian sources, although (writing in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
rather than Greek) he used more than twenty different terms when discussing it. For Ibn Arabi, the ''logos'' or "Universal Man" was a mediating link between individual human beings and the divine essence. Other Sufi writers also show the influence of the neoplatonic ''logos''. In the 15th century
Abd al-Karīm al-Jīlī Abd al-Karīm al-Jīlī, or Abdul Karim Jili (Arabic:عبدالكريم جيلى) was a Muslim Sufi saint and Mysticism, mystic who was born in 1365, in what is modern day Iraq, possibly in the neighborhood of Jil in Baghdad. He is known in Muslim ...
introduced the ''Doctrine of Logos and the Perfect Man''. For al-Jīlī, the "perfect man" (associated with the ''logos'' or the
Prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...

Prophet
) has the power to assume different forms at different times and to appear in different guises. In
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
Sufism, Şeyh Gâlib (d. 1799) articulates Sühan (''logos''-''Kalima'') in his ''Hüsn ü Aşk'' (''Beauty and Love'') in parallel to Ibn Arabi's Kalima. In the romance, ''Sühan'' appears as an embodiment of Kalima as a reference to the Word of God, the Perfect Man, and the Reality of Muhammad.


Jung's analytical psychology

Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeo ...

Carl Jung
contrasted the critical and rational faculties of ''logos'' with the emotional, non-reason oriented and mythical elements of ''
eros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
''. In Jung's approach, ''logos'' vs ''eros'' can be represented as "science vs mysticism", or "reason vs imagination" or "conscious activity vs the unconscious". For Jung, ''logos'' represented the masculine principle of rationality, in contrast to its feminine counterpart, ''
eros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
'': Jung attempted to equate ''logos'' and ''eros'', his intuitive conceptions of masculine and feminine consciousness, with the
alchemical File:Aurora consurgens zurich 044 f-21v-44 dragon-pot.jpg, Depiction of Ouroboros from the alchemical treatise ''Aurora consurgens'' (15th century), Zentralbibliothek Zürich, Switzerland Alchemy (from Arabic: ''al-kīmiyā''; from Ancient Gree ...
Sol and Luna. Jung commented that in a man the lunar
anima Anima may refer to: Animation * Ánima Estudios Ánima Estudios (stylized and also known as ÁNiMA) is a family entertainment company founded in 2002 by Fernando De Fuentes S. and Jose C. Garcia De Letona, the studio is best known for producin ...
and in a woman the solar
animus Animus may refer to: * Anima and animus, Jungian concepts * The ancient Roman concept of ''animus'' or soul Music * Animus (group), a Philadelphia, PA based Eastern Mediterranean World Fusion music group * "Animus", a track on the album ''Music o ...
has the greatest influence on consciousness. Jung often proceeded to analyze situations in terms of "paired opposites", e.g. by using the analogy with the eastern
yin and yang In Ancient Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significan ...

yin and yang
and was also influenced by the neoplatonists. In his book '' Mysterium Coniunctionis'' Jung made some important final remarks about anima and animus: And in this book Jung again emphasized that the animus compensates ''eros'', while the anima compensates ''logos''.


Rhetoric

Author and professor Jeanne Fahnestock describes ''logos'' as a "premise". She states that, to find the reason behind a
rhetor Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
's backing of a certain position or stance, one must acknowledge the different "premises" that the rhetor applies via his or her chosen diction. The rhetor's success, she argues, will come down to "certain objects of agreement...between arguer and audience". "Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic." Furthermore, ''logos'' is credited with appealing to the audience's sense of logic, with the definition of "logic" being concerned with the thing as it is known. Furthermore, one can appeal to this sense of logic in two ways. The first is through
inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning Reason is the capacity of Consciousness, consciously making sense of things, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It ...
, providing the audience with relevant examples and using them to point back to the overall statement. The second is through
deductive Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making ...
enthymeme An enthymeme ( el, ἐνθύμημα, ''enthumēma'') is a rhetorical syllogism used in oratorical practice. Originally theorized by Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek ...
, providing the audience with general scenarios and then indicating commonalities among them.


Rhema

The word ''logos'' has been used in different senses along with ''
rhema ''Rhema'' (ῥῆμα in Koine Greek, Greek) literally means an "utterance" or "thing said" in Greek. It is a word that signifies the action of utterance. In philosophy, it was used by both Plato and Aristotle to refer to propositions or sentenc ...
''. Both Plato and
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
used the term ''logos'' along with ''rhema'' to refer to sentences and propositions.''General linguistics'' by Francis P. Dinneen 1995 p. 11

/ref> The Septuagint translation of the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
into Greek uses the terms ''rhema'' and ''logos'' as equivalents and uses both for the Hebrew language, Hebrew word ''dabar'', as the Word of God. Some modern usage in Christian theology distinguishes ''rhema'' from ''logos'' (which here refers to the written scriptures) while ''rhema'' refers to the revelation received by the reader from the Holy Spirit when the Word (''logos'') is read,''What Every Christian Ought to Know'' by Adrian Rogers 2005 p. 16

/ref>
''The Fight of Every Believer'' by Terry Law p. 45
although this distinction has been criticized.James T. Draper and Kenneth Keathley,
Biblical Authority
', Broadman & Holman, 2001, , p. 113.
John F. MacArthur,
Charismatic Chaos
', Zondervan, 1993, , pp. 45–46.


See also

* -logy * Dabar * Dharma * Epeolatry * Imiaslavie * Logic * Logocracy * Logos (Christianity) * Logotherapy * Nous * Om * Panlogism * Parmenides * Ṛta * Shabda * Sophia (wisdom)


References


External links


The Apologist's Bible Commentary

Logos definition and example
* {{Authority control Ancient Greek philosophical concepts Christianity and Hellenistic philosophy Conceptions of God Critical thinking Epistemology Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic religion Heraclitus Language and mysticism Logic Metaphilosophy Metaphysical theories Metaphysics of mind Neoplatonism Ontology Philosophical anthropology Philosophical theories Philosophy of mind Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of religion Pyrrhonism Rhetoric Thought Truth