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A living wage is defined as the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs. This is not the same as a subsistence wage, which refers to a biological minimum. Needs are defined to include food, housing, and other essential needs such as clothing. The goal of a living wage is to allow a worker to afford a basic but decent standard of living through employment without government subsidies. Due to the flexible nature of the term "needs", there is not one universally accepted measure of what a living wage is and as such it varies by location and household type. A related concept is that of a
family wage A family wage is a wage that is sufficient to raise a family. This contrasts with a living wage A living wage is defined as the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs. This is not the same as a subsistence wage, which refers ...
– one sufficient to not only support oneself, but also to raise a family. The living wage differs from the
minimum wage A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration Remuneration is the pay or other financial compensationFinancial compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, ...
in that the latter can fail to meet the requirements for a basic quality of life which leaves the worker to rely on government programs for additional income. Living wages have typically only been adopted in
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
. In economic terms, the living wage is similar to the minimum wage as it is a
price floor A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product, good, commodity, or service. A price floor must be higher than the equilibrium price in order to be effective. The equilibrium ...

price floor
for labor. It thus differs from the national minimum wage in that it is not set according to a legal threshold. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, advocates define a living wage to mean that a person working 40 hours a week, with no additional income, should be able to afford the basics for a modest but decent life, such as,
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
,
shelter Shelter often refers to: * Shelter (building), a basic architectural structure or building that provides cover * Animal shelter, a facility that houses homeless, lost, or abandoned animals; mostly dogs and cats * Homeless shelter, a temporary resid ...

shelter
,
utilities A public utility company (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a ...

utilities
,
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
,
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...

health care
, and
child care Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to eighteen years. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institut ...
. Living wage advocates have further defined a living wage as the wage equivalent to the
poverty line The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline is the minimum level of income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, w ...
for a family of four. The income would have to allow the family to 'secure food, shelter, clothing, health care, transportation and other necessities of living in modern society'. A definition of a living wage used by the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
(GLA) is the threshold wage, calculated as an income of 60% of the median, and an additional 15% to allow for unforeseen events. Living wage campaigns came about partially as a response to
Reaganomics Reaganomics (; a portmanteau of '' onaldReagan'' and ''economics'' attributed to Paul Harvey), or Reaganism, refers to the Neoliberalism, neoliberal economics, economic policies promoted by United States President, U.S. President Ronald Reaga ...
and
Thatcherism Thatcherism is a form of British conservative ideology named after Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) ...
in the US and UK, respectively, which shifted
macroeconomic Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), producti ...
policy towards
neoliberalism Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...

neoliberalism
. A living wage, by increasing the purchasing power of low income workers, is supported by Keynesian and
post-Keynesian Post-Keynesian economics is a Schools of economic thought, school of economic thought with its origins in ''The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The General Theory'' of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced ...
economics which focuses on stimulating demand in order to improve the state of the economy.


History

The concept of a living wage, though it was not defined as such, can be traced back to the works of ancient Greek philosophers such as
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
and
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
. Both argued for an income that considers needs, particularly those that ensure the communal good. Aristotle saw self-sufficiency as a requirement for happiness which he defined as, ‘that which on its own makes life worthy of choice and lacking in nothing’. As he placed the responsibility in ensuring that the poor could earn a sustainable living in the state, his ideas are seen as an early example of support for a living wage. The evolution of the concept can be seen later on in medieval scholars such as
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar, Philosophy, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential ...

Thomas Aquinas
who argued for a 'just wage'. The concept of a just wage was related to that of just prices, which were those that allowed everyone access to necessities. Prices and wages that prevented access to necessities were considered unjust as they would imperil the virtue of those without access. In ''
Wealth of Nations ''An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'', generally referred to by its shortened title ''The Wealth of Nations'', is the '' magnum opus'' of the Scottish economist An economist is a practitioner in the social scien ...

Wealth of Nations
'',
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
recognized that rising real wages lead to the "improvement in the circumstances of the lower ranks of people" and are therefore an advantage to society.( 7761976). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Growth and a system of liberty were the means by which the laboring poor were able to secure higher wages and an acceptable standard of living. Rising real wages are secured by growth through increasing productivity against stable price levels, i.e. prices not affected by inflation. A system of liberty, secured through political institutions whereupon even the "lower ranks of people" could secure the opportunity for higher wages and an acceptable standard of living. Based on these writings, Smith advocated that labor should receive an equitable share of what labor produces. For Smith, this equitable share amounted to more than subsistence. Smith equated the interests of labor and the interests of land with overarching societal interests. He reasoned that as wages and rents rise, as a result of higher productivity, societal growth will occur thus increasing the quality of life for the greater part of its members. Like Smith, supporters of a living wage argue that the greater good for society is achieved through higher wages and a living wage. It is argued that government should in turn attempt to align the interests of those pursuing profits with the interests of the labor in order to produce societal advantages for the majority of society. Smith argued that higher productivity and overall growth led to higher wages that in turn led to greater benefits for society. Based on his writings, one can infer that Smith would support a living wage commensurate with the overall growth of the economy. This, in turn, would lead to more happiness and joy for people, while helping to keep families and people out of poverty. Political institutions can create a system of liberty for individuals to ensure opportunity for higher wages through higher production and thus stable growth for society. In 1891,
Pope Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII ( it, Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. He was the oldest pope (living till the age of 93), w ...

Pope Leo XIII
issued a papal bull entitled ''
Rerum novarum ''Rerum novarum'' (from its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of Musical note, notes, having the same purpose. T ...
'', which is considered the Catholic Church's first expression of a view supportive of a living wage. The church recognized that wages should be sufficient to support a family. This position has been widely supported by the church since that time, and has been reaffirmed by the papacy on multiple occasions, such as by
Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI ( it, Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christia ...
in 1931 ''
Quadragesimo anno ''Quadragesimo anno'' (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Pope Leo XIII, Leo XIII's encyclical ''Rerum novarum,'' further developing Catholic social teaching. Unlike Leo XIII, wh ...
'' and again in 1961, by
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
writing in the encyclical ''
Mater et magistra ''Mater et magistra'' is the encyclical written by Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or ...
.'' More recently,
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope John Paul II
wrote, "Hence in every case a just wage is the concrete means of verifying the whole socioeconomic system and, in any case, of checking that it is functioning justly."


Contemporary thought

Different ideas on a living wage have been advanced by modern campaigns that have pushed for localities to adopt them. Supporters of a living wage have argued that a wage is more than just compensation for labour. It is a means of securing a living and it leads to public policies that address both the level of the wage and its decency. Contemporary research by Andrea Werner and Ming Lim has analyzed the works of John Ryan, Jerold Waltman and Donald Stabile for their philosophical and ethical insights on a living wage. John Ryan argues for a living wage from a rights perspective. He considers a living wage to be a right that all labourers are entitled to from the 'common bounty of nature'. He argues that private ownership of resources precludes access to them by others who would need them to maintain themselves. As such, the obligation to fulfill the right of a living wage rests on the owners and employers of private resources. His argument goes beyond that a wage should provide mere subsistence but that it should provide humans with the capabilities to 'develop within reasonable limits all
heir Inheritance is the practice of passing on private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property Public property i ...
faculties, physical, intellectual, moral and spiritual.' A living wage for him is 'the amount of remuneration that is sufficient to maintain decently the laborer.'' Jerold Waltman, in ''A Case for the Living Wage,'' argues for a living wage not based on individual rights but from a communal, or ' civic republicanism', perspective. He sees the need for citizens to be connected to their community, and thus, sees individual and communal interests as inseparably bound. Two major problems that are antithetical to civic republicanism are poverty and inequality. A living wage is meant to address these by providing the material basis that allows individuals a degree of autonomy and prevents disproportionate income and wealth that would inevitably lead to a societal fissure between the rich and poor. A living wage further allows for political participation by all classes of people which is required to prevent the political interests of the rich from undermining the needs of the poor. These arguments for a living wage, taken together, can be seen as necessary elements for 'social sustainability and cohesion'. Donald Stabile argues for a living wage based on moral economic thought and its related themes of sustainability, capability and
externality In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plan ...

externality
. Broadly speaking, Stabile indicates that sustainability in the economy may require that people have the means for 'decent accommodation, transport, clothing and personal care'. He qualifies the statement as he sees individual necessities as contextual and therefore able to change over time, between cultures and under different macroeconomic circumstances. This suggests that the concept and definition of a living wage cannot be made objective over all places and in all times. Stabile's thoughts on capabilities make direct reference to
Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen (; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom ( ...

Amartya Sen
's work on
capability approach The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is a normative approach to human welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basi ...
. The tie-in with a living wage is the idea that income is an important, though not exclusive, means for capabilities. The enhancement of people's capabilities allows them to better function both in society and as workers. These capabilities are further passed down from parents to children. Finally, Stabile analyses the lack of a living wage as the imposition of
negative externalities In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behav ...

negative externalities
on others. These externalities take the form of depleting the stock of workers by 'exploiting and exhausting the workforce'. This leads to economic inefficiency as businesses end up overproducing their products due to not paying the full cost of labour. Other contemporary accounts have taken up the theme of
externalities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...

externalities
arising due to a lack of living wage. Muilenburg and Singh see welfare programs, such as housing and school meals, as being a subsidy for employers that allow them to pay low wages. This subsidy, taking the form of an externality, is of course paid for by society in the form of taxes. This thought is repeated by Grimshaw who argues that employers offset the social costs of maintaining their workforce through tax credits, housing, benefits and other wage subsidies. The issue was raised during the Democratic party primary election of 2016 in the United States, when presidential candidate
Bernie Sanders Bernard Sanders (born September8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Representative for the sta ...

Bernie Sanders
mentioned that "struggling working families should not have to subsidise the wealthiest family in the country", and therefore, implied that the large retailer
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational Retail companies, retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets (also called supercenters), discount department stores, and grocery stores from the United ...

Walmart
, who is owned by the wealthiest family in the country, was not paying fair wages and was being subsidised by taxpayers. Those in favor of living wage ordinances primarily research the negative impacts of insufficient minimum wages. In a cross-comparison between minimum wage and living wage ordinances, there are profound psychological impacts to living wage implementations. Those in favor of living wage oriented policies assert that it is important to acknowledge the region-specific costs that is severely lacking in minimum wage measurements. This line of thinking argues that a living wage can both enhance engagement and performance if implemented.


Implementations


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, the 1907 Harvester Judgement ruled that an employer was obliged to pay his employees a wage that guaranteed them a standard of living which was reasonable for "a human being in a civilised community" to live in "frugal comfort estimated by current... standards," regardless of the employer's capacity to pay. Justice H. B. Higgins established a wage of 7/- ( 7 shillings) per day or 42/- per week as a 'fair and reasonable' minimum wage for unskilled workers.


Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, salaries are among the lowest in the world. During 2012 wages hovered around US$38 per month depending on the exchange rate. Studies by Professor Doug Miller during 2010 to 2012, has highlighted the evolving global trade practices in ''Towards Sustainable Labour Costing in UK Fashion Retail''. This white paper published in 2013 by University of Manchester, appears to suggest that the competition among buying organisation has implications to low wages in countries such as Bangladesh. It has laid down a road map to achieve sustainable wages.


United Kingdom

Municipal regulation of wage levels began in some towns in the British Isles in 1524. National
minimum wage lawMinimum wage law is the body of law which prohibits employers from hiring employees or workers for less than a given hourly, daily or monthly minimum wage. More than 90% of all countries have some kind of minimum wage legislation. History Until r ...
began with
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
's
Trade Boards Act 1909The Trade Boards Act 1909 was a piece of social legislation passed in the United Kingdom in 1909. It provided for the creation of boards which could set minimum wage criteria that were legally enforceable. It was expanded and updated in the Trade B ...
, and the Wages Councils Act 1945 set minimum wage standards in many sectors of the economy. Wages Councils were abolished in 1993 and subsequently replaced with a single statutory national
minimum wage A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration Remuneration is the pay or other financial compensationFinancial compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, ...
by the
National Minimum Wage Act 1998 The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 creates a minimum wage across the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
, which is still in force. The rates are reviewed each year by the country's
Low Pay Commission The Low Pay Commission (LPC) is an independent body in the United Kingdom, established in 1997, that advises the government on the National Minimum Wage. It is an advisory non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public ...
. From 1 April 2016 the minimum wage has been paid as a mandatory
National Living WageThe National Living Wage is an obligatory minimum wage A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their employees—the price floor below which employees may not sell their labor. Most List of minimum wages by country ...
for workers over 25. It is being phased in between 2016 and 2020 and is set at a significantly higher level than previous minimum wage rates. By 2020 it is expected to have risen to at least £9 per hour and represent a full-time annual pay equivalent to 60% of the median UK earnings. The National Living Wage is nevertheless lower than the value of the Living Wage calculated by the
Living Wage Foundation The Living Wage Foundation is a campaigning organisation in the United Kingdom which aims to persuade employers to pay a living wage. The organisation was established in 2011, publishes an annual Living Wage figure and accreditation, accredits empl ...
. Some organisations voluntarily pay a living wage to their staff, at a level somewhat higher than the statutory level. From September 2014 all
NHS Wales NHS Wales ( cy, GIG Cymru) is the Publicly-funded health care, publicly funded healthcare system in Wales, and one of the four systems which make up the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. NHS Wales was formed as part of the public ...
staff have been paid a minimum of the "living wage" recommended by the Living Wage Commission. About 2,400 employees received an initial salary increase of up to £470 above the UK-wide
Agenda for ChangeAgenda for Change (AfC) is the current National Health Service The National Health Service (NHS) is the umbrella term for the publicly funded health care, publicly funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom (UK). Since 1948 they have been ...
rates.


United States

As of 2006, U.S. cities with living wage laws include and Albuquerque in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
;
San Francisco, California San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern Califo ...

San Francisco, California
; and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
The city of
Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago, Illinois
also passed a living wage ordinance in 2006, but it was vetoed by Mayor
Richard M. Daley Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 54th Mayor of Chicago, Illinois, from 1989 to 2011. Daley was elected mayor in 1989 and was reelected five times until declining to run for a seventh term. ...

Richard M. Daley
. Living wage laws typically cover only businesses that receive state assistance or have contracts with the government. In 2014, Wisconsin Service Employees International Union teamed up with public officials against legislation to eliminate local living wages. According to U.S. Department of Labor data, Wisconsin Jobs Now - a non-profit organization fighting inequality through higher wages - has received at least $2.5 million from SEIU organizations from 2011 to 2013. Although these ordinances are recent, a number of studies have attempted to measure the impact of these policies on wages and employment. Researchers have had difficulty measuring the impact of these policies because it is difficult to isolate a control group for comparison. A notable study defined the control group as the subset of cities that attempted to pass a living wage law but were unsuccessful. This comparison indicates that living wages raise the average wage level in cities, however, it reduces the likelihood of employment for individuals in the bottom percentile of wage distribution.


Impact

Research shows that minimum wage laws and living wage legislation impact poverty differently: evidence demonstrates that living wage legislation reduces poverty. The parties impacted by minimum wage laws and living wage laws differ as living wage legislation generally applies to a more limited sector of the population. It is estimated that workers who qualify for the living wage legislation are currently between 1-2% of the bottom quartile of wage distribution.Real life implications to living wage legislation is important to address. Raising wages can decrease job opportunities for low wage workers as it cuts costs for profit seeking organizations and companies. The pool gets smaller despite an increase in wage rates. Neumark and Adams, in their paper, "Do living wage ordinances reduce urban poverty?", state, "There is evidence that living wage ordinances modestly reduce the poverty rates in locations in which these ordinances are enacted. However, there is no evidence that state minimum wage laws do so." A study carried out in Hamilton, Canada by Zeng and Honig indicated that living wage workers have higher affective commitment and lower turnover intention. Workers paid a living wage were more likely to support the organization they work for in various ways including: "protecting the organizations public image, helping colleagues solve problems, improving their skills and techniques, providing suggestions or advice to a management team, and caring about the organization." The authors interpret these finding through
social exchange theory Social exchange theory is a sociological Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals wit ...
, which points out the mutual obligation employers and employees feel towards each other when employees perceive they are provided favorable treatment.


Living wage estimates

As of 2003, there are 122 living wage ordinances in American cities and an additional 75 under discussion.Anker, R. (2006). Living wages around the world: A new methodology and internationally comparable estimates. International Labour Review, 145(4), 308-338. Article 23 of the
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the Human rights, rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as U ...
states that "Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and for his family an existence worthy of human dignity." In addition to legislative acts, many corporations have adopted voluntary codes of conduct. The Sullivan Principles in South Africa are an example of a voluntary code of conduct that state that firms should compensate workers to at least cover their basic needs. In the table below, cross national comparable living wages were estimated for twelve countries and reported in local currencies and purchasing power parity (PPP). Living wage estimates for the year 2000 range from US$1.7 PPP per hour, in low-income examples, to approximately US$11.6 PPP per hour, in high-income examples. Living wage estimates vary considerably by area, and may be calculated in different ways. In a 2019 report, the U.S. advocacy group
National Low Income Housing Coalition The National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC) is a non-profit organization dedicated to ending America's affordable housing Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a median household income or below as rated by ...
calculated the necessary full-time hourly wage to spend 30% of income on rental of a fair-market, 2-bedroom apartment. Estimates range from a high of $36.82/hr in Hawaii (where minimum wage is $10.10/hr) to $14.26 in Arkansas (the lowest state, raising its minimum from $9.25 to $11/hr) and $9.59/hr in Puerto Rico (where minimum wage is $7.25/hr).


Living wage movements


Living Wage Foundation

The Living Wage Campaign in the United Kingdom originated in London, where it was launched in 2001 by members of the community organisation London Citizens (now Citizens UK). It engaged in a series of Living Wage campaigns and in 2005 the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
established the Living Wage Unit to calculate the London Living Wage, although the authority had no power to enforce it. The London Living Wage was developed in 2008 when Trust for London awarded a grant of over £1 million for campaigning, research and an employer accreditation scheme. The Living Wage campaign subsequently grew into a national movement with local campaigns across the UK. The
Joseph Rowntree Foundation The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) is charity which conducts and funds research aimed at solving poverty in the UK. JRF's stated aim is to "inspire action and change that will create a prosperous UK without poverty." Joseph Rowntree founded ...
funded the Centre for Research in Social Policy (CRSP) at
Loughborough University Loughborough University (abbreviated as ''Lough'' or ''Lboro'' for post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a person's n ...
to calculate a UK-wide Minimum Income Standard (MIS) figure, an average across the whole of the UK independent of the higher living costs in London. In 2011 the CRSP used the MIS as the basis for developing a standard model for setting the UK Living Wage outside of London. Citizens UK, a nationwide community organising institution developed out of London Citizens, launched the
Living Wage Foundation The Living Wage Foundation is a campaigning organisation in the United Kingdom which aims to persuade employers to pay a living wage. The organisation was established in 2011, publishes an annual Living Wage figure and accreditation, accredits empl ...
and Living Wage Employer mark. Since 2011, the Living Wage Foundation has accredited thousands of employers that pay its proposed living wage. The living wage in London is calculated by GLA Economics and the CRSP calculates the out-of-London Living Wage. Their recommended hourly rates for 2015 are £9.40 for London and £8.25 for the rest of the UK. These rates are updated annually in November. In January 2016 the Living Wage Foundation set up a new Living Wage Commission to oversee the calculation of the Living Wage rates in the UK. In 2012, research into the costs and benefits of a living wage in London was funded by the
Trust for LondonTrust for London is an independent charitable foundation which aims to tackle poverty and inequality in London and its root causes. It was established in 1891 as the City Parochial Foundation and changed its name to Trust for London in 2010. It achi ...
and carried out by
Queen Mary University of London , mottoeng = With united powers , established = 1785 – London Hospital Medical College1843 – St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College1882 – Westfield College1887 – East London College/Queen Mary College , parent = University of Londo ...

Queen Mary University of London
. Further research was published in 2014 in a number of reports on the potential impact of raising the UK's statutory national minimum wage to the same level as the Living Wage Foundation's living wage recommendation. This included two reports funded by the Trust for London and carried out by the
Institute for Public Policy Research The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) is a progressive think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research ...
(IPPR) and
Resolution Foundation The Resolution Foundation is an independent British think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research insti ...
: "Beyond the Bottom Line" and "What Price a Living Wage?" Additionally, Landman Economics published "The Economic Impact of Extending the Living Wage to all Employees in the UK". A 2014 report by the Living Wage Commission, chaired by Doctor
John Sentamu John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu, (; ; born 10 June 1949) is a retired Anglican bishop; he was Archbishop of York, Metropolitan (religion), metropolitan of Province of York, York, and Canterbury–York dispute, Primate of England until 7 June 2020. B ...

John Sentamu
, the
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most ...
, recommended that the UK government should pay its own workers a "living wage", but that it should be voluntary for the private sector. Data published in late 2014 by
New Policy Institute New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz (South Korean band), The Boyz Albums and EPs * New (album), ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartn ...
and Trust for London found 20% of employees in London were paid below the Living Wage Foundation's recommended living wage between 2011 and 2013. The proportion of residents paid less than this rate was highest in
Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lie ...
(37%) and
Brent Brent may refer to: *Brent (name), an English given and surname Place name ;In the United States *Brent, Alabama *Brent, Florida *Brent, Georgia *Brent, Missouri, a ghost town *Brent, Oklahoma ;In the United Kingdom * Brent, Cornwall *Brent K ...
(32%). Research by the
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority cy, Y Bwrdd Ystadegau , seal = , logo = UK Statistics Authority logo.svg , formed = , jurisdiction = United Ki ...
in 2014 indicated that at that time the proportion of jobs outside London paying less than the living wage was 23%. The equivalent figure within London was 19%. Research by Loughborough University, commissioned by Trust for London, shows 4 in 10 Londoners cannot afford a decent standard of living - that is one that allows them to meet their basic needs and participate in society at a minimum level. This is significantly higher than the 30% that fall below the standard in the UK as a whole. This represents 3.5 million Londoners, an increase of 400,000 since 2010/11. The research highlights the need to improve incomes through better wages, mainly, the London Living Wage, to ensure more Londoners reach a decent standard of living.
Ed Miliband Edward Samuel Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British politician serving as Shadow Secretary of State for Climate Change and Net Zero since 2021. He has been the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Donca ...

Ed Miliband
, the leader of the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
in opposition from 2010 until 2015, supported a living wage and proposed tax breaks for employers who adopted it. The Labour Party has implemented a living wage in some
local councilsLocal council may refer to: Political subdivision * Local council (Israel) * Local council (Jordan) * Local councils of Malta * An elected authority in the local government in the United Kingdom * An elected authority in the local government in Aus ...
which it controls, such as in
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...

Birmingham
and
Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main commercial centre of Wales. Cardi ...

Cardiff
councils. The
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
also supports the introduction of a living wage, believing that the national minimum wage should be 60% of net national average earnings.
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "Ourselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation ...

Sinn Féin
also supports the introduction of a living wage for
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
. Other supporters include ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' newspaper columnist
Polly Toynbee Mary Louisa "Polly" Toynbee (; born 27 December 1946) is a British journalist and writer. She has been a columnist for ''The Guardian'' newspaper since 1998. She is a social democrat and was a candidate for the Social Democratic Party (UK), Soci ...

Polly Toynbee
, Church Action on Poverty, the Scottish Low Pay Unit, and Bloomsbury Fightback!.


Republic of Ireland

There has been an active living wage campaign in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
since 2014. It is supported by The Vincentian Partnership for Social Justice (VPSJ), Nevin Economic Research Institute (NERI), TASC, Social Justice Ireland, UCD School of Social Policy, Social Work and Social Justice,
SIPTU SIPTU (; ''Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union''; ga, An Ceardchumann Seirbhísí, Tionsclaíoch, Gairmiúil agus Teicniúil) is Ireland's largest trade union, with around 200,000 members. Most of these members are in the Rep ...
, Unite the Union and the
Society of St Vincent de Paul The Society of St Vincent de Paul (SVP or SVdP or SSVP) is an international voluntary organization in the Catholic Church, founded in 1844 for the sanctification of its members by personal service of the poor. Innumerable Catholic parishes have es ...
. Below is a table of the hourly minimum wage (for adults), and the living wage recommended by the living wage campaign, for each year since 2014. It is calculated on the basis of the VPSJ’s Minimum Essential Standard of Living (MESL) research, and set by the Living Wage Technical Group, benchmarked against the cost of minimum
standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or location, rather than to an individual. Standard of living is relevant because it is considered to contribute to an individual's qualit ...
. It is supported by the political parties
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "Ourselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation ...

Sinn Féin
,
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
and the
Social Democrats Social democracy is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports Democracy, political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocatin ...
, while
Solidarity–People Before Profit Solidarity–People Before Profit ( ga, Dlúthphairtíocht–Pobal Roimh Bhrabús) is an electoral alliance in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It was formed by members of two left-wing Socialism, socialist and Trotskyism, Trotskyist political parties: ...
recommend a living wage of €15.
Aontú Aontú (Irish language, Irish , "unite") is an all-Ireland political party that was formally launched in January 2019, and operates in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. History The party was founded by Peadar Tóibín, a Teachta ...
support a living wage, with different regional rates, and have also recommended a "living pension." It has been opposed by employers including
Ibec Ibec is Ireland’s largest lobby and business representative group. Its purpose is to help build a better, sustainable future by influencing, supporting and delivering for business success. Ibec positions are shaped by its diverse membership, whic ...
and the Irish Small Firms Association (ISFA), while the supermarket chains
Lidl Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG (; ) is a German international discount retailer A discount store or discounter is a term that has been used over time and across different countries for a number of different retail formats, all of which sell products ...

Lidl
and
Aldi Aldi (stylized as ALDI) is the common brand of two German family-owned discount supermarket Chain store, chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries and an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion. The chain was founded by brothe ...
committed to pay all their employees the living wage in 2020. In 2021, the Low Pay Commission began to study the living wage, and to decide if there should be different living wages for different age categories or regions.


Asia Floor Wage

Launched in 2009, Asia Floor Wage is a loose coalition of labour and other groups seeking to implement a Living Wage throughout Asia, with a particular focus on
textile manufacturing Textile manufacturing is a major Textile industry, industry. It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric. These are then Dyeing, dyed or printed, fabricated into cloth which is then converted into useful good ...
. There are member associations in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Hong Kong S.A.R., India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Turkey as well as supporters in Europe and North America. The campaign targets multinational employers who do not pay their developing world workers a living wage.


United States living wage campaigns


New York City

The proposed law will inform tax-payers of where their investment dollars go and will hold developers to more stringent employment standards. The proposed act will require developers who receive substantial tax-payer funded subsidies to pay employees a minimum living wage. The law is designed to raise quality of life and stimulate local economy. Specifically the proposed act will guarantee that workers in large developmental projects will receive a wage of at least $10.00 an hour. The living wage will get indexed so that it keeps up with
cost of living Cost of living is the cost In production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
increases. Furthermore, the act will require that employees who do not receive health insurance from their employer will receive an additional $1.50 an hour to subsidize their healthcare expenses. Workers employed at a subsidized development will also be entitled to the living wage guarantee. Many city officials have opposed living wage requirements because they believe that they restrict business climate thus making cities less appealing to potential industries. Logistically cities must hire employees to administer the ordinance. Conversely advocates for the legislation have acknowledged that when wages aren't sufficient, low-wage workers are often forced to rely on
public assistance Welfare is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refer specifically to ''social insurance'' pro ...
in the form of
food stamps In the United States, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly yet still commonly known as the Food Stamp Program, is a federal program that provides food-purchasing assistance for Poverty in the United States, low- and no- ...

food stamps
or
Medicaid Medicaid in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . Th ...
. James Parrott of the
Fiscal Policy Institute Fiscal usually refers to government finance. In this context, it may refer to: Economics * Fiscal policy In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econo ...
testified during a May 2011 New York City Council meeting that real wages for low-wage workers in the city have declined substantially over the last 20 years, despite dramatic increases in average education levels.
report
by the Fiscal Policy Institute indicated that business tax subsidies have grown two and a half times faster than overall New York City tax collections and asks why these public resources are invested in poverty-level jobs. Mr. Parrott testified that
income inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
in New York City exceeds that of other large cities, with the highest-earning 1 percent receiving 44 percent of all income.


Miami-Dade County

The Community Coalition for a Living Wage (CCLW) was launched in 1997 in
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coast, coastal metropolis located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County in southeastern Florida, United States. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 censu ...

Miami
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
, as a partnership between local
anti-poverty Poverty reduction, poverty relief, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty. Measures, like those promoted by Henry George in his economics class ...
and
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth, the delivery of a baby * Labour (human activity), or work ** Manual labour, physical work ** Wage labour, a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * Labor (journal), ''L ...

labor
organizations Catalyst Miami, Legal Services of Greater Miami, and the South Florida AFL-CIO. The CCLW organized the successful campaign for the passage of a
Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. According to the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the county had a population of 2,701,767 making it the most populous co ...
living wage ordinance in 1999, the first of its kind in the South. The ordinance requires
Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. According to the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, the county had a population of 2,701,767 making it the most populous co ...
and its contractors to pay all employees a living wage pegged to inflation: $12.63/hr with benefits, or $15 without (as of 2018).


University of Virginia

In February 2012, a Living Wage Campaign at the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisat ...

University of Virginia
released a series of demands to University administrators calling for a living wage policy at the University. These demands included a requirement that the University "explicitly address" the issue by 17 February. Although University President Teresa Sullivan did respond to the demands in a mass email sent to the University community shortly before the end of the day on 17 February, the Campaign criticized her response as "intentionally misleading" and vowed to take action. On 18 February, the campaign announced that 12 students would begin a hunger strike to publicize the plight of low-paid workers.


Criticism

Criticisms against the implementation living wage laws have taken similar forms to those against
minimum wage A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration Remuneration is the pay or other financial compensationFinancial compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, ...
. Economically, both can be analyzed as a
price floor A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product, good, commodity, or service. A price floor must be higher than the equilibrium price in order to be effective. The equilibrium ...

price floor
for labor. A
price floor A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product, good, commodity, or service. A price floor must be higher than the equilibrium price in order to be effective. The equilibrium ...

price floor
, if above the
equilibrium price In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
and thus effective, necessarily leads to a "surplus". In the context of a
labor market Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finlan ...
, this means that unemployment goes up as the number of employers willing to hire people at a "living wage" is below the number they would be willing to hire at the equilibrium wage price. As such, setting the minimum wage at a living wage has been criticized for possibly destroying jobs. For more information, see
price floor A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product, good, commodity, or service. A price floor must be higher than the equilibrium price in order to be effective. The equilibrium ...

price floor
. A contention that often impedes the progression of a living wage ordinance has to do with the scope; it is controversial whether it should apply to an individual or an entire family as wages can be nuanced when there are multiple types of households among a state. Potential solutions to the complexity of a living wage ordinance include a “specific employer provision,” which seeks to evaluate the pros and cons to a living wage on a company to company basis. An argument In favor of this approach asserts that it can help bolster employee morale and increase social capital. Critics have warned of not just an increase in unemployment but also price increases and a lack of entry level jobs due to ‘labor substitutions effects’. The voluntary undertaking of a living wage is criticized as impossible due to the competitive advantage other businesses in the same market would have over the one adopting a living wage. The economic argument would be that,
ceteris paribus ' or ' () is a Latin phrase meaning "other things equal"; English translations of the phrase include "all other things being equal" or "other things held constant" or "all else unchanged". A prediction or a statement about a ontic, causal, epist ...
(all other things being equal), a company that paid its workers more than required by the market would be unable to compete with those that pay according to market rates. See competitive advantage for more information. Another issue that has emerged is that living wages may be a less effective anti-poverty tool than other measures. Authors point to living wages as being only a limited way of addressing the problems of rising economic inequality, the increase of long-term low-wage jobs, and a decline of Trade union, unions and legal protection for workers. Since living wage ordinances attempt to address the issue of a living wage, defined by some of its proponents as a ''family'' wage, rather than as an ''individual'' wage, many of the beneficiaries may already be in families that make substantially more than that necessary to provide an adequate standard of living. According to a survey of labor economists by the Employment Policies Institute in 2000, only 31% viewed living wages as a very or somewhat effective anti-poverty tool, while 98% viewed policies like the US earned income tax credit and general welfare grants in a similar vein. On the other hand, according to Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi, an economist with the State of California's Division of Labor Statistics and Research, the living wage may be seen by the public as preferable to other methods because it reinforces the "work ethic" and ensures that there is something of value produced, unlike welfare, that is often believed to be a pure cash "gift" from the public coffers." The concept of a living wage based on its definition as a family wage has been criticized by some for emphasizing the role of men as breadwinners.


See also

* Cost of living * Distributism * Family wage * Guaranteed minimum income * Labor market * Maximum wage * Minimum wage * Positive rights * Precarious work * Supply and demand *
Trade Boards Act 1909The Trade Boards Act 1909 was a piece of social legislation passed in the United Kingdom in 1909. It provided for the creation of boards which could set minimum wage criteria that were legally enforceable. It was expanded and updated in the Trade B ...
* Working poor


Notes


References

* S Webb and B Webb, ''Industrial Democracy'' (Longmans 1902) * John A. Ryan, Ryan, John A. ''Living Wage'' Macmillan, New York 1906 * Gertner, Jon
"What is a Living Wage?"
The New York Times, 15 January 2006 * Madjd-Sadjadi, Zagros, ''Living Wages: The Issues and the Impact'' Division of Labor Statistics and Research, California Department of Industrial Relations, San Francisco, 2001 * Sklar, Holly; Mykyta, Laryssa; Wefald, Susan, "Raise The Floor: Wages and Policies That Work For All Of Us", 2002, South End Press
South End Press , Raise the Floor
* Nadeem, Shehzad
"The Living Wage Movement and the Economics of Morality,"
Research in Social Movements, Conflicts, and Change 28: 137–67 (2008) *


External links


Living Wage Calculator
– New York City:
minimum wage A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration Remuneration is the pay or other financial compensationFinancial compensation refers to the act of providing a person with money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, ...
/living wage/working poor, poverty wage (Pennsylvania State University, PSU).
Living Wage Calculator
(Pennsylvania State University, PSU).
Living Wage Calculator
(MIT). * .
Universal Living Wage Campaign

ACORN Living Wage campaign

Economic Policy Institute – Living Wage

Economic Policy Institute – Family Budget Calculator

London Living Wage Unit page

New York Living Wage Campaign

LaborFair Resources
– Fair Labor Practices.
Living Wage Campaign at The University of Virginia

Use IE techniques to determine Living Wage
(Doug Miller, Northumbria University, UK).
Measuring the Full Impact of Minimum and Living Wage Laws
(Dollars & Sense, Dollars & Sense Magazine).
Living Wages, Rarity for U.S. Fast-Food Workers, Served Up in Denmark
''The New York Times.'' (October 2014). {{DEFAULTSORT:Living Wage Wages and salaries Catholic social teaching