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This article discusses political parties in Russia. The
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
has a
multi-party system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
. six parties have members in the federal parliament, the
State Duma The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to ...
, with one dominant party (
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is a political party in Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or th ...
).


History

200px, Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia After the
Perestroika Perestroika (; russian: links=no, перестройка, p=pʲɪrʲɪˈstrojkə, a=ru-perestroika.ogg) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) ...
reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered
parties A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places *Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks Cou ...
, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia. He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this of ...

Vladimir Putin
's first presidency (2000–2008), the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked. The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized
Right Cause The All-Russian Political Party «Right Cause» (PD; russian: Всероссийская политическая партия «Правое дело»; ПД; ''Vserossiyskaya politicheskaya partiya «Pravoye delo»'', ''PD'') was the officially ...
(now the Party of Growth) which was registered on 18 February 2009. Before the 2011 parliamentary election, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011
European Court
European Court
decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia (now the People's Freedom Party), the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 .


Party of power

A "party of power" refers to a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
that has a close relationship with the
executive branch of government The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
such that the party appears to function as an extension of the executive rather than as an autonomous political organization. The concept resembles that of a cartel party. These parties were specially established for support of the incumbent president or prime minister in the Russian parliament: *Inter-regional Deputies Group/Democratic Russia (1990–1993, Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union/Congress of People's Deputies of Russia/Supreme Soviet of Russia) *Democratic Choice of Russia (1993-1994) *Our Home – Russia (1995–1999) *Unity (Russian political party), Unity (1999–2001/2003) *A Just Russia (the second "party of power", supporting
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia. He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this of ...

Vladimir Putin
and opposing
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is a political party in Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or th ...
) *
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is a political party in Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or th ...
(2001–present)


Social composition of voters

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market economy, market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of Civil service, government employees, pensioners and soldier, military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood. Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers, this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.Yevgeny Utkin
Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome
Russia Beyond the Headlines. (2011-11-23)


Current parties

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice (Russia), Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. In December 2012, there were 48 registered parties in Russia; 6 of them are currently represented in the
State Duma The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to ...
as of 2021.


Parties represented in the

State Duma The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to ...
and the Federation Council (Russia), Federation Council


Parties represented in the Regional parliaments of Russia, regional parliaments


List of registered parties


Historical parties (1992–present)


Far-left


Left-wing


Centre-left


Centrist


Centre-right


Right-wing


Far-right


Syncretic


Regionalist parties


Soviet parties, 1917–1992


CPSU and factions


Clandestine and illegal parties


Parties of the multi-party period


Parties of the Russian Empire, 1721–1917


1905 Russian Revolution, Pre-revolutionary organizations


1905 Russian Revolution, After-revolutionary parties


Left-wing


Centrist and moderate right


Right-wing


See also

* List of ruling political parties by country * Politics of Russia


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links


Justice Ministry webpage about Russian political parties

Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation webpage about Russian political parties
{{Russia topics Political parties in Russia, Lists of political parties by country, Russia Politics of Russia Russia politics-related lists, Political parties Lists of organizations based in Russia, Political parties Lists of political parties in Asia, Russia Lists of political parties in Europe, Russia