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Under the
present The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perception, perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain). It is a peri ...
Constitution of the Philippines The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng ...
, the
president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), ...
( fil, pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presi ...
, and serves as the
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Image:CIC-USS-CarlVinson-2001.jpg, A watchstander at her station in the combat information center of USS Carl Vinson, USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the ...
of the country's armed forces. The president is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a
natural-born citizen Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President of the United States, president or Vice President of the United Stat ...
of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the
election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative dem ...
, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than six years is barred from running for the position again. Upon an
incumbent The incumbent is the current holder of an office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human activity), work in order to support and realize objects an ...
president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationsh ...
assumes the post.


Line of succession

Prior to the presidential governance, the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
was governed by a succession of Spanish military generals during colonization by
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. The military governors were appointed by the Spanish royals to lead the civil government of the archipelago. In the waning years of Spanish dominion in the Philippines, a
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
occurred. This led to the establishment of a brief revolutionary government. This occurred while Spain and the United States were both engaged in a war for control of the Philippine islands. The Americans defeated the Spanish forces seized control of the islands and undermined the revolutionary government. Earlier under the American colonization, the president of the United States appointed four military generals. It later transferred the civil governance to an appointed governor-general, both under the Insular and Commonwealth periods. The Philippines then was considered as an overseas territory of the United States.


Presidency

While the line of succession of presidency is formally recognized starting with the ascension to power of Emilio Aguinaldo as a revolutionary president, it does not mean however, that the Philippines did not have a civil government prior to the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
.
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
had a civilian colonial government established in the Philippine islands for over four centuries spearheaded by a governor appointed by the viceroy of
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
. The governor run the colonial government on behalf of the Spanish crown.
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
became the inaugural president of the Philippines under the Malolos Republic, considered the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collec ...
. He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902). The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic, which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power. In 1935, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty, established the
Commonwealth of the Philippines The Commonwealth of the Philippines ( es, Commonwealth de Filipinas or ''Mancomunidad de Filipinas''; tl, Kómonwélt ng Pilipinas or ''Malasariling Pámahalaán ng Pilipinas'') was the administrative body that governed the Philippines ...
following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held, and
Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, (, ; 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino people, Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 193 ...
(1935–44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election, as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president. In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years. A change in government occurred three years later when the
Second Philippine Republic The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines ( tl, Republika ng Pilipinas; ja, フィリピン, Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: ''República de Filipinas'') and also known as the Japanese-sponsored Philippine ...
was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World WarII. José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government; his ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' presidency, not legally recognized until the 1960s, overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with
Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Sr. (, ; 9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of t ...
(1944–46) as president.
Manuel Roxas Manuel Acuña Roxas (; born Manuel Roxas y Acuña; January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pil ...

Manuel Roxas
(1946–1948) followed Osmeña when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometime ...
(1965–86), who performed a
self-coup A self-coup, also called autocoup (from the Spanish ''autogolpe''), is a form of coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a governm ...
by imposing
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied te ...
in 1972. The dictatorship of Marcos saw the birth of the
New Society ''New Society'' was a weekly magazine of social inquiry and social and cultural comment, published in the United Kingdom from 1962 to 1988. It drew on the disciplines of sociology, anthropology, psychology, human geography, social history and soci ...
( fil, Bagong Lipunan) and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the
People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic. Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon and Manuel Roxas) and one in a
plane crash An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specia ...
(
Ramon Magsaysay Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay Sr. (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was a Filipino statesman who served as the seventh president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as '' ...

Ramon Magsaysay
, 1953–57). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent in office. Two women have held the office:
Corazon Aquino Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (, 25 January 1933 – 1 August 2009) was a Filipinos, Filipina politician who served as the List of presidents of the Philippines, 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. She was t ...
(1986–92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful
People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
of 1986, and
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo (, born April 5, 1947), often referred to by her initials GMA, is a Filipina Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino; Baybayin: ᜋᜅ ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ) are the people who are native to or citizens of th ...

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(2001–10), who, as vice president, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.


List


Notes


Timeline


Notes

''Subnotes''


References


Works cited

* * * * *


External links


Presidential WebsiteOffice of the President of the PhilippinesPresidential Museum and Library
at worldstatesmen.org {{DEFAULTSORT:Philippines, List of presidents of the Lists of national presidents
Presidents President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...