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This list of Anuran families shows all extant
families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...
of
Anura
Anura
. Anura is an order of animals in the class
Amphibia Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an ...

Amphibia
that includes
frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization all ...

frog
s and
toad Toad is a common name for certain frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since preh ...

toad
s. More than 5,000 species are described in the order. The living anurans are typically divided into three suborders:
Archaeobatrachia Archaeobatrachia (New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the revival of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was origi ...
,
Mesobatrachia The Mesobatrachia (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following period ...
, and
Neobatrachia The Neobatrachia (New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or modern Latin) is the revival of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...
. This classification is based on such morphological features as the number of vertebrae, the structure of the pectoral girdle, and the morphology of tadpoles.


Taxonomy

The archaeobatrachians are the most primitive of frogs. These frogs have morphological characteristics which are found mostly in extinct frogs, and are absent in most of the modern frog species. Most of these characteristics are not common between all the families of Archaeobatrachia, or are not absent from all the modern species of frogs. However, all archaeobatrachians have free vertebrae, whereas all other species of frogs have their ribs fused to their vertebrae. The Neobatrachia comprise the most modern species of frogs. Most of these frogs have morphological features which are more complex than those of the mesobatrachians and archaeobatrachians. The neobatrachians all have a
palatine bone In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of concerned with the study of the structure of s and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It i ...

palatine bone
, which braces the upper jaw to the
neurocranium In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble ...
. This is absent in all Archaeobatrachia and some Mesobatrachia. The third distal
carpus
carpus
is fused with the remaining carpal bones. The
adductor longus In the human body, the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh. One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to Adduction, adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve. It forms the medial wall o ...

adductor longus
muscle is present in the neobatrachians, but absent in the archaeobatrachians and some mesobatrachians. It is believed to have differentiated from
pectineus muscle The pectineus muscle (, from the Latin word ''pecten'', meaning comb) is a flat, quadrangular muscle, situated at the anterior (front) part of the upper and medial (inner) aspect of the thigh. The pectineus muscle is the most anterior adductor ...
, and this differentiation has not occurred in the primitive frogs. The Mesobatrachia are considered the evolutionary link between the Archaeobatrachia and the Neobatrachia. The families within the mesobatrachian suborder generally contain morphological features typical of both the other suborders. For example, the palatine bone is absent in all archaeobatrachians, and present in all neobatrachians. However, within the mesobatrachians families, it can be dependent on the species as to whether the palatine bone is present. Due to the many morphological features which separate the frogs, many different systems are used for the classification of the anuran suborders. These different classification systems usually split the Mesobatrachia suborder.


Families


References

* * * *{{cite web , last = Cannatella , first = David , author2=Ford, Linda , author3=Bockstanz, Lori , year =1995 , url = http://tolweb.org/Neobatrachia/16987 , title = Neobatrachia , publisher = Tree of Life Web Project , access-date = 2006-05-19
Anuran A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order (biology), order Anura (literally ''without tail'' in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" ''Triadoba ...
Anuran A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order (biology), order Anura (literally ''without tail'' in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" ''Triadoba ...