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Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts: # the particular form of
biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
(taxonomy) set up by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble social class, class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nob ...

Carl Linnaeus
, as set forth in his ''
Systema Naturae ' (originally in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
'' (1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus there are three kingdoms, divided into ''classes'', and they, in turn, into lower ranks in a hierarchical order. # a term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general. That is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based
scientific classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

scientific classification
. This term is especially used as opposed to
cladistic Cladistics (; ) is an approach to Taxonomy (biology), biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on hypotheses of most recent common ancestry. The evidence for hypothesized relationships is typically ...

cladistic
systematics, which groups organisms into
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
s. It is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification (it goes back to
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
and
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
) nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not really exist: it is a collective (abstracting) term for what actually are several separate fields, which use similar approaches. Linnaean name also has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus (personally), such as
''Giraffa camelopardalis'' Linnaeus, 1758
''Giraffa camelopardalis'' Linnaeus, 1758
, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature (as opposed to a modernistic
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
name).


The taxonomy of Linnaeus

In his ''Imperium Naturae'',
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...
established three kingdoms, namely ''Regnum Animale'', ''Regnum Vegetabile'' and ''Regnum Lapideum''. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms, survives today in the popular mind, notably in the form of the parlour game question: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The work of Linnaeus had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for
biological nomenclature Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, prope ...
, now regulated by the
nomenclature codes Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classifica ...
. Two of his works, the first edition of the ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...
'' (1753) for plants and the tenth edition of the ''Systema Naturae'' (1758), are accepted as part of the starting points of nomenclature; his binomials (names for species) and generic names take priority over those of others. However, the impact he had on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. Linnaeus' kingdoms were in turn divided into ''
classes Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
'', and they, in turn, into ''
orders Orders is a surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical f ...
'', ''
genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
'' (singular: ''genus''), and ''
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
'' (singular: ''species''), with an additional rank lower than species, though these do not precisely correspond to the use of these terms in modern taxonomy.


Classification of plants

His classes and orders of plants, according to his ''Systema Sexuale'', were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ''ordines naturales'' in his '' Philosophia Botanica'') but only for use in identification. They were used for that purpose well into the nineteenth century. Within each class were several orders. The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were (page numbers refer to ''Species plantarum''): * Classis 1. Monandria: flowers with 1 stamen * Classis 2. Diandria: flowers with 2 stamens * Classis 3. Triandria: flowers with 3 stamens * Classis 4. Tetrandria: flowers with 4 stamens * Classis 5. Pentandria: flowers with 5 stamens * Classis 6. Hexandria: flowers with 6 stamens ** Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352 ** Hexandria polygynia pp. 342–343 * Classis 7. Heptandria: flowers with 7 stamens * Classis 8. Octandria: flowers with 8 stamens * Classis 9. Enneandria: flowers with 9 stamens * Classis 10. Decandria: flowers with 10 stamens * Classis 11. Dodecandria: flowers with 11 to 19 stamens * Classis 12. Icosandria: flowers with 20 (or more) stamens, perigynous * Classis 13. Polyandria: flowers with many stamens, inserted on the
receptacle Receptacle may refer to: Biology * Receptacle (botany), a plant anatomical part * Seminal receptacle, a sperm storage site in some insects Electrical engineering * Auxiliary car power outlet, formerly known as ''Cigarette lighter receptacle'', a ...
* Classis 14. Didynamia: flowers with 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short ** Gymnospermia ** Angiospermia * Classis 15. Tetradynamia: flowers with 6 stamens, 4 long and 2 short * Classis 16. Monadelphia; flowers with the anthers separate, but the filaments united, at least at the base ** Pentandria ** Decandria ** Polyandria * Classis 17. Diadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in two separate groups ** Hexandria ** Octandria ** Decandria * Classis 18. Polyadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in several separate groups ** Pentandria ** Icosandria ** Polyandria * Classis 19. Syngenesia; flowers with stamens united by their anthers ** Polygamia aequalis ** Polygamia superba ** Polygamia frustranea ** Polygamia necessaria ** Monogamia * Classis 20. Gynandria; flowers with the stamens united to the pistils * Classis 21. Monoecia:
monoecious Monoecy (; adjective form: monoecious ) is a sexual system in seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are predominantly photosynthet ...
plants * Classis 22. Dioecia:
dioecious Dioecy (; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as o ...
plants * Classis 23. Polygamia: polygamodioecious plants * Classis 24. Cryptogamia: the "flowerless" plants, including
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s,
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
,
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
, and
bryophyte Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics) Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the ways that numbers are combined to make new n ...

bryophyte
s The classes based on the number of stamens were then subdivided by the number of pistils, e.g. ''Hexandria monogynia'' with six stamens and one pistil. Index to genera p. 1201 By contrast his ''ordines naturales'' numbered 69, from Piperitae to Vagae.


Classification for animals

Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes, in the tenth edition, of 1758, these were: * Classis 1.
Mammalia Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mammalian female, females produce milk ...
(mammals) * Classis 2.
Aves Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...
(birds) * Classis 3.
Amphibia Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an o ...
(amphibians) * Classis 4.
Pisces Pisces may refer to: * ''Pisces'', an obsolete taxonomic term for fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, ...
* Classis 5.
Insecta Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
* Classis 6.
Vermes Vermes ("worm Worms are many different distantly related bilateral animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body, no limb Limb can refer to: *Limb (anatomy), an appendage of a human or animal *Limb Music, a record label *Li ...


Classification for minerals

His taxonomy of
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...

mineral
s has long since dropped from use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the ''Systema Naturae'', the Linnaean classes were: * Classis 1. Petræ * Classis 2. Mineræ * Classis 3. Fossilia * Classis 4. Vitamentra


Rank-based scientific classification

This rank-based method of classifying living organisms was originally popularized by (and much later named for) Linnaeus, although it has changed considerably since his time. The greatest innovation of Linnaeus, and still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
, the combination of a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
name and a second term, which together uniquely identify each
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
of organism within a kingdom. For example, the
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human
species is uniquely identified within the animal kingdom by the name ''Homo sapiens''. No other species of animal can have this same
binomen In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, bot ...
(the technical term for a binomial in the case of animals). Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement. Linnaeus's use of binomial nomenclature was anticipated by the theory of definition used in
Scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people ...
. Scholastic logicians and philosophers of nature defined the species man, for example, as ''Animal rationalis'', where ''animal'' was considered a genus and ''rationalis'' (Latin for "rational") the characteristic distinguishing man from all other animals. Treating ''animal'' as the immediate genus of the species man, horse, etc. is of little practical use to the biological taxonomist, however. Accordingly, Linnaeus's classification treats ''animal'' as a class including many genera (subordinated to the animal "kingdom" via intermediary classes such as "orders"), and treats ''homo'' as the genus of a species ''Homo sapiens'', with ''sapiens'' (Latin for "knowing" or "understanding") playing a differentiating role analogous to that played, in the Scholastic system, by ''rationalis'' (the word ''homo'', Latin for "human being", was used by the Scholastics to denote a species, not a genus). A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique (and, one hopes, stable) name, as compared with common names that are often neither unique nor consistent from place to place and language to language. This uniqueness and stability are, of course, a result of the acceptance by working systematists (biologists specializing in taxonomy), not merely of the binomial names themselves, but of the rules governing the use of these names, which are laid down in formal
nomenclature code Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classifica ...
s. Species can be placed in a
ranked A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In order theory, mathematics, this is known as a Strict weak ordering# ...
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

hierarchy
, starting with either '' domains'' or ''kingdoms''. Domains are divided into kingdoms. Kingdoms are divided into '' phyla'' (singular: ''phylum'') — for
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animal
s; the term ''division'', used for
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s and
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
, is equivalent to the rank of phylum (and the current
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "tradi ...
allows the use of either term). Phyla (or divisions) are divided into ''
classes Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
'', and they, in turn, into ''
orders Orders is a surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical f ...
'', ''
families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...
'', ''
genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
'' (singular: ''genus''), and ''
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
'' (singular: ''species''). There are ranks below species: in zoology, ''subspecies'' (but see ''
form Form is the shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface texture, texture, or material type. A plane shape, ...
'' or ''
morph Morph may refer to: Astronomy * Morphs collaboration, a collaboration that studied the evolution of spiral galaxies using the Magellan and the Hubble Space Telescope Biology * Morph (zoology), a visual or behavioral difference between organi ...
''); in botany, ''variety'' (varietas) and ''form'' (forma), etc. Groups of organisms at any of these ranks are called ''taxa'' (singular: ''
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
'') or ''taxonomic groups''. The Linnaean system has proven robust and it remains the only extant working classification system at present that enjoys universal scientific acceptance. However, although the number of ranks is unlimited, in practice any classification becomes more cumbersome the more ranks are added. Among the later subdivisions that have arisen are such entities as phyla, families, and tribes, as well as any number of ranks with prefixes (superfamilies, subfamilies, etc.). The use of newer taxonomic tools such as
cladistics Cladistics (; ) is an approach to biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...

cladistics
and
phylogenetic nomenclature In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
has led to a different way of looking at evolution (expressed in many nested
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
s) and this sometimes leads to a desire for more ranks. An example of such complexity is the scheme for mammals proposed by McKenna and Bell.


Alternatives

Over time, understanding of the relationships between living things has changed. Linnaeus could only base his scheme on the structural similarities of the different organisms. The greatest change was the widespread acceptance of
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
as the mechanism of biological diversity and species formation, following the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's ''
On the Origin of Species ''On the Origin of Species'' (or, more completely, ''On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life''),The book's full original title was ''On the Origin of Species by Me ...
''. It then became generally understood that classifications ought to reflect the
phylogeny A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram or a tree (graph theory), tree showing the evolutionary relationships among va ...

phylogeny
of organisms, their descent by evolution. This led to
evolutionary taxonomy Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of Phylogenetics, phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-de ...
, where the various
extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the endling, last individual o ...
and
extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...

extinct
are linked together to construct a phylogeny. This is largely what is meant by the term 'Linnaean taxonomy' when used in a modern context. In
cladistics Cladistics (; ) is an approach to biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...

cladistics
, originating in the work of
Willi Hennig Emil Hans Willi Hennig (20 April 1913 – 5 November 1976) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of German ...

Willi Hennig
, 1950 onwards, each taxon is grouped so as to include the common ancestor of the group's members (and thus to avoid
phylogeny A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram or a tree (graph theory), tree showing the evolutionary relationships among va ...

phylogeny
). Such taxa may be either
monophyletic In cladistics for a group of organisms, monophyly is the condition of being a clade—that is, a group of taxa composed only of a common ancestor (or more precisely an ancestral population) and all of its lineal descendants. Monophyletic grou ...
(including all descendants) such as genus ''
Homo ''Homo'' () is the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), cir ...

Homo
'', or
paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyleti ...
(excluding some descendants), such as genus ''
Australopithecus ''Australopithecus'' (, ; ; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. The genera ''Homo'' (which includes modern humans), ''Paranthropus'', and ''Kenyanthropus'' ev ...

Australopithecus
''. Originally, Linnaeus established three kingdoms in his scheme, namely for
Plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

Plant
s,
Animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

Animal
s and an additional group for
minerals In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers ...

minerals
, which has long since been abandoned. Since then, various life forms have been moved into three new kingdoms:
Monera Monera (/məˈnɪərə/) (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a biological kingdom that is made up of prokaryote A prokaryote () is a Unicellular organism, single-celled organism that lacks a cell nucleus, nucleus, a ...
, for
prokaryote A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contig ...
s (i.e., bacteria);
Protist A protist () is any eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are c ...
a, for protozoans and most algae; and
Fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

Fungi
. This five kingdom scheme is still far from the
phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

phylogenetic
ideal and has largely been supplanted in modern taxonomic work by a division into three domains:
Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ ...
and
Archaea Archaea ( ; singular archaeon ) constitute a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a pa ...

Archaea
, which contain the prokaryotes, and
Eukaryota Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

Eukaryota
, comprising the remaining forms. These arrangements should not be seen as definitive. They are based on the
genome In the fields of molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, M ...

genome
s of the organisms; as knowledge on this increases, classifications will change. Representing presumptive evolutionary relationships, especially given the wide acceptance of
cladistic Cladistics (; ) is an approach to Taxonomy (biology), biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on hypotheses of most recent common ancestry. The evidence for hypothesized relationships is typically ...
methodology and numerous molecular phylogenies that have challenged long-accepted classifications, within the framework of Linnaean taxonomy, is sometimes seen as problematic. Therefore, some systematists have proposed a
PhyloCode The ''International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature'', known as the ''PhyloCode'' for short, is a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. Its current version is specifically designed to regulate the naming of clades, leaving the g ...
to replace it.


See also

*
History of plant systematics upright=1.5, The ''Vienna Dioscurides'' manuscript of ''De Materia Medica'', from the early sixth century, is one of the oldest herbals in existence. Dioscorides wrote the book between 50 and 60 AD. The history of plant systematics—the biolo ...
*
Phylogenetic tree A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram or a tree (graph theory), tree showing the evolutionary relationships among va ...

Phylogenetic tree
 – a way to express insights into evolutionary relationships * Zoology mnemonic for a list of mnemonic sentences used to help people remember the list of Linnaean ranks.


References


Bibliography

;Books * * * * *
Dawkins, Richard
Dawkins, Richard
. 2004. ''
The Ancestor's Tale ''The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life'' is a science book by Richard Dawkins Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, atheist thinker, and author An author is the crea ...
: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * Ereshefsky, Marc. 2000. ''The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. '' Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History''. W. W. Norton & Co. * Pavord, Anna. ''The Naming of Names: The Search for Order in the World of Plants''. Bloomsbury. ;Articles * ;Websites *


External links


International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(Saint Louis Code), Electronic version
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(Melbourne Code, 2011), Electronic version
ICZN website
for zoological nomenclature
Text of the ICZN
Electronic version
ZooBank: The World Register of Animal Names

International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes
for bacteria
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. By the International Union of Biological Sciences

ICTVdB website
for virus nomenclature by the International Union of Microbiological Societies
Tree of Life

European Species Names in Linnaean, Czech, English, German and French
{{Carl Linnaeus
Taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
Taxonomy (biology) Biological nomenclature Botanical nomenclature Zoological nomenclature Swedish inventions