Library 2.0 is a proposed concept for
library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes. A library provides physical (hard copies) or digital access (soft copies) materials, and may be a physical location or a vi ...
services that facilitate user contributions and other features of
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content, ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability (i.e., compatibility with other products, systems, a ...
, which includes online services such as OPAC systems. The concept is based on Radical Trust, and proponents suggest it will eventually replace traditional libraries. The term "Library 2.0" was coined by Michael Casey in 2006 on his blog Library Crunch.


Casey suggested that libraries, especially
public libraries A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is usually funded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by librarians and library paraprofessionals, who are also civil servants. There are five fundamenta ...
, are at a crossroads where many of the elements of Web 2.0 have applicable value within the library community, both in technology-driven services and in non-technology based services. In particular, he described the need for libraries to adopt a strategy for constant change while promoting a participatory role for library users. Library 2.0 made its conference debut at Internet Librarian 2005 in October, 2005, when Michael Stephens of Saint Joseph County Public Library addressed the idea in relation to the typical library website. A September 2006 article in ''Library Journal'' titled "Library 2.0: Service for the Next-Generation Library" begins by expressing the benefit of Library 2.0 to library administrators and taxpayers as providing "more efficient ways of delivering services to achieve greater returns on financial investments." The article continues by asserting that the much discussed Library 2.0 is important for librarians as it may radically change our customer service and interaction. Major development transpired during the library 2.0 era which other scholars relate it to the web 2.0. and it was between 2005 and 2010 (Noh, 2015). This is where the library begun to utilise the internet to provide digital library services. For instance, the use of Online Public Access (OPAC), social networking such as wikis, podcasts which provided the avenue for the opportunity to interact with patrons using social media platforms making library services more interactive and collaborative. This phenomenon helped to close the gap between patrons and librarians and provide the opportunity for tagging and reviews. With Library 2.0, library services are frequently evaluated and updated to meet the changing needs of library users. Library 2.0 also calls for libraries to encourage user participation and feedback in the development and maintenance of library services. The active and empowered library user is a significant component of Library 2.0. With information and ideas flowing in both directions – from the library to the user and from the user to the library – library services have the ability to evolve and improve on a constant and rapid basis. The user is participant, co-creator, builder and consultant – whether the product is virtual or physical. An advantage in pursuing digital services is that the library can target more people - including those who may not have previously used the library service. A concern that Library 2.0 is trying to address is that potential users turn to
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Wikipedia Wikipedia is a Multilingualism, multilingual free online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of online volunteering, volunteers, known as Wikipedians, through open collaboration and using a wiki-based editing system. Wikipedia ...
because they are "good enough", and perceive libraries to be slow and irrelevant.

Key principles

* Browser + Web 2.0 Applications + Connectivity = Full-featured OPAC * Harness the library user in both design and implementation of services * Library users should be able to craft and modify library provided services * Harvest and integrate ideas and products from peripheral fields into library service models * Continue to examine and improve services and be willing to replace them at any time with newer and better services. In 2009, Holmberg et al. identified seven key principles for Library 2.0: "interactivity, users, participation, libraries and library services, web and web 2.0, social aspects, and technology and tools", and offer the following definition for Library 2.0: "Library 2.0 is a change in interaction between users and libraries in a new culture of participation catalysed by social web technologies." Alex Byrne argues that the use of Web 2.0 strategies in the library context changes the role of librarian into someone who can assist in supporting clients
information literacy The Association of College & Research Libraries defines information literacy as a "set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued and the use of inform ...
across the "largely unknown informational universe" rather than helping them navigate the library's own collection.

Concerns and considerations

Some concerns about Library 2.0 relate to access to technology, privacy and security. For example, Casey and Savastinuk suggest allowing patrons to tag or blog anonymously. In 2006, Steve Lawson, humanities liaison librarian, wrote a blog post entitled, "A Library 2.0 skeptic's reading list" that collected links to blogs which discuss these concerns. Lawson says "I'm not anti–Library 2.0 ... I like to think of Library 2.0 as a continuing conversation about the future of libraries, and it makes sense to me to try to round up some voices that challenge Library 2.0 conventional wisdom." Another concern is that the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies can allow users to spread
hate speech Hate speech is defined by the '' Cambridge Dictionary'' as "public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation". Hate speech is "usually thou ...
cyberbullying Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means. Cyberbullying and cyberharassment are also known as online bullying. It has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers, as the digital ...
in the library system. It is suggested that librarians define hate speech in their user content policies and identify it when it occurs. When using social networking through
Facebook Facebook is an online social media and social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Mosk ...
in a Swedish public library, librarians were described as 'always at the beck and call of Facebook', and capable of losing the relationships they'd built with their clients over the site due to glitches in Facebook.

Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)

The Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) provides the library collection to its users, this is usually done by searching and browsing the library catalogue online. It may be an extension of the Integrated Library Management System (ILS) or independent software. Library 2.0 is a new way of providing library services through new Internet technologies, with emphasis on “user-centered” change and interaction. Like Web 2.0, a full-featured Library 2.0 OPAC gets better the more that users are involved in the process of interacting with the catalog and sharing content. Librarians have been working to retool library catalogs in order to make them more useful for patrons to find, organize, and interact with information in a way that has infinite potential for user customization. These new types of catalogs are a shift from "isolated information silos" to "interlinked computing platforms." In the past the information flow was mostly one way, from library to user. With new web tools information can be released to flow in every direction (library to user, user to library, library to library, and user to user). Jessamyn West, on her librarian.net website, authored "What We Want: An OPAC Manifesto," which broke down the needs of library staff, geeks, and users in their OPAC. These valuable suggestions inform librarians of the flexibility, customizability and plain language approach that is desired by users in their OPAC. Librarians should be aware of these issues so that planning for improvement can begin. Nishat Kazi recommends that the clients interest area should be recorded when they join the library, and when they login to their account on the OPAC, new items which match their interests should be displayed to them. Kazi also recommends allowing clients to rank and review items in the OPAC, as well as giving other clients the opportunity to respond to these reviews.
Key words Key or The Key may refer to: Common meanings * Key (cryptography), a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm * Key (lock), device used to control access to places or facilities restricted by a lock * Key (ma ...
can also be added by clients in addition to key words added by the librarian to facilitate searching.

Artificial intelligence and participatory library

In China a participatory library named Xiaotu was developed by Tsinghua University. Xiaotu is an artificial intelligence library that allows users to interact with it by talking or chatting through a mobile app or social network. It provides real-time virtual reference service combining Tsinghua University Library capabilities with social network and third-party resources. The system is composed by a self-learning function that receives updates from users as they find some missing or wrong information. Connected to the largest social network in China, it provides easy access and owns a book reading group accessed by Tsinghua University Students in China. Its knowledge base includes Wikipedia and its Chinese counterpart, content revised by professors of the university, frequently asked questions (FAQ) accumulated from the university library, and other third-party resources presented in the Chinese internet.


Library 2.0 has been a source of debate in the
blogosphere The blogosphere is made up of all blogs and their interconnections. The term implies that blogs exist together as a connected community (or as a collection of connected communities) or as a social networking service in which everyday authors can pu ...
. Some librarian bloggers have argued that these key principles are not new and have been part of the service philosophies of many library reformers since the 19th century. Others are calling for more concrete examples of how libraries can get to Library 2.0.
Walt Crawford Walt Crawford is an American writer specializing in libraries. He is primarily concerned with technology-related issues in the library sector. He has also written extensively on open access, publishing detailed surveys of gold open access journals ...
, for example, argues that Library 2.0 comprises a combination of tools and attitudes which are excellent ideas and not new to librarianship, a few business- and tool-focused attitudes which will not serve all users and user communities, and incorrectly places libraries as the appropriate source for all users to gather all information. Proponents of Library 2.0, such as Stephen Abram, Michael Stephens, Paul Miller and others, have spoken to these criticisms, arguing that while individual pieces of Library 2.0 may not be entirely new, the convergence of these service goals and ideas with many new Web 2.0 technologies has led to a new generation of library service. This includes the use of online social networks by libraries. Library 4.0 has been proposed as including
makerspace A hackerspace (also referred to as a hacklab, hackspace, or makerspace) is a community-operated, often "not for profit" (501(c)(3) in the United States), workspace where people with common interests, such as computers, machining, technology, s ...
s, context-aware technology,
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized sof ...
big data Though used sometimes loosely partly because of a lack of formal definition, the interpretation that seems to best describe Big data is the one associated with large body of information that we could not comprehend when used only in smaller am ...
cloud service Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. Large clouds often have functions distributed over mult ...
augmented reality Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience that combines the real world and computer-generated content. The content can span multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and olfactory. AR can be ...
, and state-of-the-art displays.

See also

Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing involves a large group of dispersed participants contributing or producing goods or services—including ideas, votes, micro-tasks, and finances—for payment or as volunteers. Contemporary crowdsourcing often involves digit ...
Folksonomy Folksonomy is a classification system in which end users apply public tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based on those tag ...
* Learning 2.0 * Libraries in Second Life *
User-generated content User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content, such as images, videos, text, testimonials, and audio, that has been posted by users on online platforms such as social media, discussion ...
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content, ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability (i.e., compatibility with other products, systems, a ...



Further reading

* * * Blyberg, John (2005)
ILS Customer Bill of Rights
Blyberg.net * Blyberg, John (2006)
11 reasons why Library 2.0 exists and matters
Blyberg.net * Boog, J. (2005)
Library 2.0 Movement Sees Benefits in Collaboration with Patrons, Publish
November 2005. * Boxen, J. (2008)
Library 2.0: A Review of the Literature
Reference Librarian, 49(1), 21–34. * Casey, Michael (2005)

LibraryCrunch, 21 October 2005. * Casey, M. & Stephens, M. (2005)

ALA TechSource Blog, December 2005. * Casey, Michael & Savastinuk, Laura (2007)
Library 2.0: A Guide to Participatory Library Service
Information Today Press, 2007. * Courtney, Nancy. (2007
Library 2.0 and Beyond: Innovative Technologies and Tomorrow's User
Libraries Unlimited, 2007. * * Farkas, Meredith G. (2007)
Social Software in Libraries: Building Collaboration, Communication, and Community Online
Information Today, 2007. * Harris, Christopher (2006)
Library 2.0 Week
(Updated), Infomancy, January 2006. * Harris, Christopher (2006

''School Library Journal'', May 1, 2006. * Kwanya, T., Stilwell, C., & Underwood, P. G. (2009). "Library 2.0: revolution or evolution?" ''South African Journal of Libraries & Information Science'', 75(1), 70–75. * * Levine, Jenny (2005)

ALA TechSource Blog, 10 October 2005. * * Maness, J. (2006

Webology, 3(2), 2006. * Miller, P. (2006)
Library 2.0: The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation
Talis February 2006. * * Stephens, Michael (2006)

''Library Technology Reports'', 42:4. * Talis Talk (31 January 2006)

* Zimmer, M. (2013). ttp://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/ital/article/view/3420 "Assessing the Treatment of Patron Privacy in Library 2.0 Literature" ''Information Technology and Libraries'', 32(2), 29–41 * Zimmer, M. (2013)
"Patron Privacy in the '2.0' Era: Avoiding the Faustian Bargain of Library 2.0"
''Journal of Information Ethics''. * https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11884331.pdf

External links

tag at Delicious - follow the pointers
Library 2.0
tag at
Technorati Technorati was a search engine and a publisher advertising platform that served as an advertising solution for the thousands of websites in its network. Technorati launched its ad network in 2008, and at one time was one of the largest ad network ...

Ambient Librarian
- a Library 2.0 wiki
Yarra Plenty Library Melbourne, Australia

Public Library Charlotte Mecklenburg County, NC, USA

23 Learning 2.0 Things
at Learning 2.0's The 23 Things
BEYOND LIBRARY 2.0: Building Communities, Connections, & Strategies
- Theme of the conference Computers in Libraries 2007
Library 2.0
social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for an ...
on Ning
Online Librarian Community - Library 2.0

Building a Library 2.0 OPAC
Wiki A wiki ( ) is an online hypertext publication collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience, using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project, and could be either open to the pub ...
Is your OPAC fun? (a manifesto of sorts)
from the LibraryThing Thingology Blog {{Semantic Web 2005 neologisms Information Age