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Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. It is in north-central Ukraine along the
Dnieper River } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major rivers of Europe 400px, Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (green regions) This page lists the principal rivers of Europe Europe is a continent A co ...

Dnieper River
. As of 1 January 2021 its population was 2,962,180 making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe. Kyiv is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe. It is home to many
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...
industries, higher education institutions, and historical landmarks. The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the
Kyiv Metro The Kyiv Metro ( uk, Ки́ївський метрополіте́н, Kyivskyi metropoliten, ) is a rapid transit system that is the mainstay of Kyiv's public transport. It was the first rapid transit system in Ukraine and the third system in th ...

Kyiv Metro
. The city's name is said to derive from the name of
Kyi Kyi () was the founder of Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the eas ...
, one of its four legendary founders. During its history, Kyiv, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of prominence and obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th century. A
Slavic
Slavic
settlement on the great trade route between
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
and
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, Kyiv was a tributary of the
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fi ...

Khazars
, until its capture by the
Varangians The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymol ...
(
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
, the first
East Slavic East Slavic may refer to: * East Slavic languages, one of three branches of the Slavic languages * East Slavs, a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the East Slavic languages See also

* Old East Slavic, a language used during the 10th–15th ...
state. Completely destroyed during the
Mongol invasions The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire - The Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest conti ...
in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...

Lithuania
, then
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
and ultimately
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
. The city prospered again during the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
's
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
in the late 19th century. In 1918, after the
Ukrainian People's Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), or Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), was a country in Eastern Europe that existed between 1917 and 1920. It was Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, declared following the February Revolution in Russia. ...

Ukrainian People's Republic
declared independence from
Soviet Russia The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
, Kyiv became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kyiv was a city of
Soviet Ukraine The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
, which was proclaimed by the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
, and, from 1934, Kyiv was its capital. The city was almost completely ruined during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
but quickly recovered in the postwar years, remaining the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
's third-largest city. Following
the collapse of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal balkanization, ...
and
Ukrainian independence Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of European countries by area, second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borde ...
in 1991, Kyiv remained Ukraine's capital and experienced a steady influx of ethnic Ukrainian migrants from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
and
electoral democracy Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy or representative government, is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected persons representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy Image:Landsgemeinde Gla ...
, Kyiv has continued to be Ukraine's largest and wealthiest city. Its armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology, but new sectors of the economy such as services and
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...

finance
facilitated Kyiv's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of
housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Eng ...

housing
and urban infrastructure. Kyiv emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine;
parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an ...
advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during
elections An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...
.Виборчі комісії фіксують перемогу опозиційних кандидатів у Києві
/ref>Interactive parliamentary election 2012 result maps
by
Ukrayinska Pravda ''Ukrayinska Pravda'' ( uk, Українська правда, lit=Ukrainian Truth) is a Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * ...

Ukrayinska Pravda

Election results in Ukraine since 1998
Central Election Commission of Ukraine The Central Election Commission of Ukraine ( ua, Центральна виборча комісія України, commonly abbreviated in Ukrainian as ЦВК (''Tse-Ve-Ka''); sometimes referred to as the Central Electoral Commission of Ukrain ...
Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview
ABC-CLIO, 2008, (page 1629)Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West
by Andrej Lushnycky and
Mykola Riabchuk Mykola Riabchuk ( uk, Рябчук Микола Юрійович; born September 27, 1953 in Lutsk Lutsk ( uk, Луцьк, Luts'k, ; pl, Łuck ; yi, לוצק, Lutzk) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine. It is the administrat ...
, Peter Lang, 2009, (page 122)After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions
Centre for Eastern Studies Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW, pl, Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich) is a Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland ...
(7 November 2012)Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe
by
Uwe Backes Uwe Backes (born 2 February 1960 in Greimerath) is a German political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisio ...
and Patrick Moreau,
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (V&R) is a scholarly publishing house based in Göttingen, Germany. It was founded in 1735 by (1700-1750) in connection with the establishment of the University of Göttingen, Georg-August-Universität in the same city. ...
, 2008, (page 396)Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 – CEC
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(12 November 2012)UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine's integration with EU
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(8 January 2013)
Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice – 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna
, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda"
by
Andreas Umland Andreas Umland ''(born 1967 in Jena, East Germany, German Democratic Republic'') is a political scientist studying contemporary Russian and Ukrainian history as well as regime transitions. He has published on the post-Soviet extreme right, municip ...
, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)


Etymology

The Ukrainian name is uk, Ки́їв, label=none}, written in the Ukrainian
Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is ...
, and usually rendered in Latin letters (or
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
) as . Before standardization of the alphabet in the early twentieth century, the name was also spelled , , or with the now-obsolete letter
yat Yat or Jat (Ѣ ѣ; italics: ''Ѣ ѣ'') is the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet. There is also another version of Yat, the iotified Yat (majuscule: , minuscule: ), which is a Cyrillic character combining a decimal ...

yat
. The Old Ukrainian spelling from the 14th and 15th centuries was nominally *Києвъ, but various attested spellings include кїєва ( gen.), Кїєвь and Киев ( acc.), кїєво or кїєвом ( ins.), києвє, Кіеве, Кїєвѣ, Києвѣ, or Киѣве ( loc.). The name descends from
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
(). Old East Slavic chronicles, such as
Laurentian Codex 250px Laurentian Codex or Laurentian Letopis (genre), Letopis (russian: Лаврентьевский список, Лаврентьевская летопись) is a collection of chronicles that includes the oldest extant version of the ''Primary ...
and
Novgorod Chronicle The Novgorod First Chronicle (russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorodian Rus'. It reflects a tradition different f ...
, used the spellings Києвъ, Къıєвъ, or Кїєвъ. This is most likely derived from the
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
name ''*Kyjevŭ gordŭ'' (literally, "Kyi's castle"), and is associated with
Kyi Kyi () was the founder of Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the eas ...
( uk, Кий, russian: Кий), the legendary eponymous founder of the city. ''Kyiv'' is the
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
official Ukrainian name for the city, The entry is the same as the print edition of It includes the note "''Ukrainian name'': Kyiv". For American English, the website also includes the definition from In the 2018 5th edition, WNWCD changed the main headword to ''Kyiv'', with ''Kiev'' as a see-also entry with the label "Russ. name for Kyiv". and it is used for legislative and official acts. ''Kiev'' is the traditional English name for the city, but because of its historical derivation from the Russian name, ''Kiev'' became disfavored in many Western media outlets after the outbreak of the
Russo-Ukrainian War The Russo-Ukrainian War ( uk, російсько-українська війна, rosiisko-ukrainska viina; russian: российско-украинская война, rossiysko-ukrainskaya voyna) is a protracted conflict between Russia ...
. The city was known by various names in history. In the Norse sagas it was or , meaning city of the Kyivans (from ), which survives in modern Icelandic . Perhaps the earliest original manuscript to name the city is the Kyivan letter, written ca. 930 AD by representatives of the city's Jewish community, with the name written as . In the Byzantine Greek of Constantine Porphyrogenitus's tenth-century ''
De Administrando Imperio ''De Administrando Imperio'' ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is ("To own son Romanos"). It is a dom ...
'' it was , , and "also called Sambatas", . In Arabic, it was in Al-Istakhri's work of 951 AD, and according to
ibn Rustah Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani ( fa, احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی ''Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī''), more commonly known as Ibn Rustah (, also spelled ''Ibn Rusta'' and ''Ibn Ruste''), was a tenth-century Persian Persian may refer to: * P ...
and other tenth-century authors. In the medieval Latin of Thietmar of Merseburg's ''Chronicon'' it was mentioned for the year 1015 as . After it was rebuilt in the fifteenth century, Kyiv was called by the Turkic ( Crimean Tatar) name or . As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution. Early English sources spelled this word as ''Kiou'', ''Kiow'', ''Kiew'', ''Kiovia''. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, published by
Ortelius Abraham Ortelius (; also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 152728 June 1598) was a Brabantian Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic or Brabantine ( nl, Brabants, Standard Dutch pronunciation: , ), is a dialect The term dialect (from ...

Ortelius
(London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled ''Kiou''. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is ''Kiiow'', and the region was named ''Kÿowia''. In the book ''Travels'', by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is called ''Kiovia''. Originally published: London, J. Almon, 1773, . In English, ''Kiev'' appeared in print as early as 1804 in
John Cary 300px, ''A New Map of the British Isles, from the Latest Authorities 1807'', from John Cary's ''New Universal Atlas'' John Cary (c. 1754 – 1835) was an England, English cartographer. Life Cary served his apprenticeship as an engraver in Lond ...
's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities", and in Mary Holderness's 1823 travelogue ''New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev''. The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' included ''Kiev'' in a quotation published by 1883, and ''Kyiv'' in 2018. After Ukraine's 1991 independence, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names into the Latin alphabet for legislative and official acts in October 1995, according to which the Ukrainian name is
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
as ''Kyiv''. These rules are applied for place names and addresses, as well as personal names in passports, street signs, and so on. In 2018, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry launched #CorrectUA, an online campaign to promote the use of official Ukrainian spellings by countries and organizations, in place of "outdated, Soviet-era" place-names. The place name ''Kyiv'' is standardized in the authoritative database of Ukraine's toponyms maintained by Ukraine's mapping agency Derzhheokadastr. It has also been adopted by the United Nations GEGN Geographical Names Database, the
United States Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government ch ...
, the
International Air Transport Association The International Air Transport Association (IATA ) is a trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by busi ...
, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, English-speaking foreign
diplomatic mission A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (new ...
s and governments, several international organizations, and the ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Some English-language news sources have adopted in their style guides, including the , CP, and
Reuters Reuters (, ) is an international news organisation owned by Thomson Reuters. It employs around 2,500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters is one of the largest news agencies in the world. The agency w ...
news services, media organizations in Ukraine, and some media organizations in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Alternative romanizations used in English-language sources include ''Kyïv,'' (according to the ALA–LC romanization used in bibliographic cataloguing), ''Kyjiv'' (
scholarly The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
transliteration used in linguistics), and ''Kyyiv'' (the 1965 BGN/PCGN transliteration standard).


History

The first known humans in the region of Kyiv lived there in the late
paleolithic period The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers  99% of the period of human technological prehistory. It ...
(
Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology ...

Stone Age
).Kyiv
at
Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia The ''Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia'' ( uk, Українська радянська енциклопедія) was a multi-purpose encyclopedia of Ukraine, issued in the USSR. First attempt Following the publication of the first volume of the ...
The population around Kyiv during the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
formed part of the so-called Trypillian culture, as evidenced by artifacts from that culture found in the area. During the early
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
certain tribes settled around Kyiv that practiced land cultivation, husbandry and trading with the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and ancient states of the northern Black Sea coast. Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries suggest trade relations with the eastern provinces of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. The people of the
Zarubintsy culture The Zarubintsy or Zarubinets culture was a culture that from the 3rd century BC until the 1st century AD flourished in the area north of the Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest ...
are considered the direct ancestors of the ancient Slavs who later established Kyiv. Notable archaeologists of the area around Kyiv include
Vikentiy Khvoyka Vikentiy Viacheslavovych Khvoyka ( ua, Вікентій В'ячеславович Хвойка; russian: Викентий Вячеславович Хвойка; cz, Vincenc Častoslav Chvojka; born Čeněk Chvojka; 1850–1914) was a Czech-born Ukr ...
. Scholars continue to debate when the city was founded: the traditional founding date is 482 AD, so the city celebrated its 1500 anniversary in 1982. Archaeological data indicates a founding in the sixth or seventh centuries,Kyiv
, ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
with some researchers dating the founding as late as the late 9th century, There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the city. One tells of members of a Slavic tribe ( Eastern Polans), brothers
Kyi Kyi () was the founder of Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the eas ...
(the eldest, after whom the city was named) Shchek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid, who founded the city (See the ''
Primary Chronicle The ''Tale of Bygone Years'' ( orv, Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, ''Pověstĭ vremęnĭnyxŭ lětŭ''), known in English-language historiography as the ''Primary Chronicle'' or ''Old Russian Primary letopis'' or, after the auth ...
''). Another legend states that
Saint Andrew Andrew the Apostle ( gr, Ἀνδρέας ''Andreas''; Aramaic: ܐܢܕܪܐܘܣ), also called Saint Andrew, was an Apostles, apostle of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is the brother of Saint Peter. He is referred to in the Eastern Orthod ...

Saint Andrew
passed through the area in the 1st century. Where the city is now he erected a cross, where a church later was built. Since the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
an image of
Saint Michael Michael (; he, מִיכָאֵל, lit= Who is like El?, translit=Mīḳā'ēl; el, Μιχαήλ, translit=Mikhaḗl; la, Michahel; cop, ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; ar, ميخائيل ، مِيكَالَ ، ميكائيل, translit=Mīkā'īl, Mīkāl ...
has represented the city as well as the
duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affair ...
. There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded. Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city. On the
Ptolemy world map 350px, Detail of East and Southeast Asia in Ptolemy's world map. Gulf of the Ganges">Ptolemy.html" ;"title="Southeast Asia in Ptolemy">Southeast Asia in Ptolemy's world map. Gulf of the Ganges (Bay of Bengal) left, Southeast Asian peninsula in th ...
there are several settlements indicated along the mid-stream of
Borysthenes Borysthenes ( grc, Βορυσθένης) is a geographical name from classical antiquity. The term usually refers to the Dnieper River } The Dnieper is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia ...
, among which is Azagarium, which some historians believe to be the predecessor to Kyiv. However, according to the 1773 "Dictionary of Ancient Geography" of Alexander Macbean, that settlement corresponds to the modern city of
Chernobyl Chernobyl (, , russian: Чернобыль), also known as Chornobyl ( uk, Чорнобиль, Chornobyl'; ; ), is a partially abandoned city in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine ...

Chernobyl
. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement, Amadoca, which is supposed as the capital of Amadoci people living in area between marshes of Amadoca in the west and Amadoca mountains in the east. Another name for Kyiv mentioned in history, the origin of which is not completely clear, is Sambat, which apparently has something to do with the
Khazar Empire The Khazars (, ; he, כוזרים, ''Kuzarim''; tr, Hazarlar; az, Xəzərlər; ba, Хазарҙар; tt, Хәзәрләр, ''Xäzärlär''; ''Xazar''; fa, خزر; uk, Хоза́ри, ''Khozáry''; rus, Хаза́ры, ''Khazáry''; ...

Khazar Empire
. The ''Primary Chronicle'' says the residents of Kyiv told
AskoldAskold (''Haskuldr'' or ''Hǫskuldr'' in Old Norse#Old East Norse, Old East Norse and ''Hǫskuldr'' in Old Norse#Old West Norse, Old West Norse) was a prince of Kiev (Kyiv) and founder of the first Vikings' state in the Dnieper . According to the Nik ...
"there were three brothers Kyi, Shchek, and Khoriv. They founded this town and died, and now we are staying and paying taxes to their relatives the Khazars". In his book
De Administrando Imperio ''De Administrando Imperio'' ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is ("To own son Romanos"). It is a dom ...
,
Constantine Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Flavius Porphyrogenitus (; 17/18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another ...
mentions a caravan of small-cargo boats which assembled annually, and writes, "They come down the river Dnieper and assemble at the strong-point of Kyiv (Kioava), also called Sambatas". At least three Arabic-speaking 10th century geographers who traveled the area mention the city of Zānbat as the chief city of the Russes. Among them are
Ahmad ibn Rustah Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani ( fa, احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی ''Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī''), more commonly known as Ibn Rustah (, also spelled ''Ibn Rusta'' and ''Ibn Ruste''), was a tenth-century Persian Persian may refer to: * Pe ...
,
Abu Sa'id Gardezi Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy ibn Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd Gardīzī ( fa, ابوسعید عبدالحی بن ضحاک بن محمود گردیزی), better known as Gardizi (), was an 11th-century Persian people, Persian historian and official, who ...
, and an author of the
Hudud al-'Alam The ''Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam'' ( ar, حدود العالم "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian by an unknown author from Guzgan.Clifford Edmund Bosworth, C. E. Bosworth in: Encyclop ...
. The texts of those authors were discovered by Russian orientalist
Alexander Tumansky Image:Tumansky 6-153.jpg, 170px, Coat of arms of the Russian nobility Tumansky Tumanskiy, Aleksandr Grigorevich (Russian: Туманский, Александр Григорьевич) (1861–1920) was an oriental studies, orientalist, Interpreter ...
. The etymology of Sambat has been argued by many historians, including Grigoriy Ilyinsky,
Nikolay Karamzin Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (russian: Николай Михайлович Карамзин, p=nʲɪkɐˈlaj mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ kərɐmˈzʲin; ) was a Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русски ...

Nikolay Karamzin
,
Jan Potocki Count Jan Potocki (; 8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815) was a Polish nobleman, Polish Army Captain of Engineers, ethnologist, Egyptologist, linguist, traveler, adventurer, and popular author of the Enlightenment period, whose life and explo ...

Jan Potocki
, Nikolay Lambin, Joachim Lelewel, Guðbrandur Vigfússon. The historian Julius Brutzkus in his work "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev" hypothesizes that both Sambat and Kyiv are of Khazar origin meaning "hill fortress" and "lower settlement" respectively. Brutzkus claims that Sambat is not Kyiv, but rather Vyshhorod (High City) which is located nearby. The Primary Chronicles state that at some point during the late 9th or early 10th century Askold and Dir, who may have been of Viking or Varangian descent, ruled in Kyiv. They were murdered by Oleg of Novgorod in 882, but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute that, arguing that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s (among notable historical documents are the Kyivan letter and Schechter Letter). Other historians suggest that Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before migrating with some Khazars, Khazar tribes to the Carpathian Basin. The Primary Chronicles also mention movement of Hungarians pass Kyiv. To this day in Kyiv exists a place known as ":ru:Угорское урочище, Uhorske urochyshche" (Hungarian place), which is better known as Askold's Grave. According to the aforementioned scholars the building of the fortress of Kyiv was finished in 840 under the leadership of Keő (Keve), Csák, and Geréb, three brothers, possibly members of the Tarján tribe. The three names appear in the Kyiv Chronicle as Kyi, Shchek, and Khoryv and may be not of Slavic origin, as Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. According to Hungarian historian Viktor Padányi, their names were inserted into the Kyiv Chronicle in the 12th century, and they were identified as old-Russian mythological heroes. The city of Kyiv stood on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, trade route between the Varangians and the Greeks. In 968 the nomadic Pechenegs attacked and then Siege of Kiev (968), besieged the city. By 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000. In March 1169, Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal sacked Kyiv, leaving the old town and the prince's hall in ruins. He took many pieces of religious artwork - including the ''Theotokos of Vladimir'' icon - from nearby Vyshhorod. In 1203, Prince Rurik Rostislavich and his Kipchaks, Kipchak allies captured and burned Kyiv. In the 1230s, the city was besieged and ravaged several times by different Rus princes. The city had not recovered from these attacks when, in 1240, the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus', Mongol invasion of Rus', led by Batu Khan, completed the Siege of Kyiv (1240), destruction of Kyiv. These events had a profound effect on the future of the city and on the Culture of ancient Rus, East Slavic civilization. Before Bogolyubsky's pillaging, Kyiv had had a reputation as one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in the beginning of the 12th century. In the early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke Gediminas defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kyiv at the Battle on the Irpen' River and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kyiv, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kyiv was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, incorporated Kyiv and surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1482, Crimean Tatars sacked and burned much of Kyiv. With the 1569 (Union of Lublin), when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the Lithuanian-controlled lands of the Kyiv region (Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlachia) were transferred from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and Kyiv became the capital of Kyiv Voivodeship. The 1658 Treaty of Hadiach envisaged Kyiv becoming the capital of the Grand Duchy of Rus' (1658), Grand Duchy of Rus' within the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth, but this provision of the treaty never went into operation. Occupied by the Russian troops since the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav, Kyiv became a part of the Tsardom of Russia from 1667 on the Truce of Andrusovo and enjoyed a degree of autonomy. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kyiv have ever been ratified. In the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, Kyiv was a primary Christian centre, attracting pilgrims, and the cradle of many of the empire's most important religious figures, but until the 19th century, the city's commercial importance remained marginal. In 1834, the Russian government established Saint Vladimir University, now called the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv after the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861). (Shevchenko worked as a field researcher and editor for the geography department). The medical faculty of Saint Vladimir University, separated into an independent institution in 1919–1921 during the Soviet period, became the Bogomolets National Medical University in 1995. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Russian military and ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life; the Russian Orthodox Church had involvement in a significant part of Kyiv's infrastructure and commercial activity. In the late 1840s the historian, Nikolay Kostomarov, Mykola Kostomarov ''(russian: link=no, Nikolay Kostomarov)'', founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril and Saints Cyril and Methodius, Methodius, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society. Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kyiv experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian language, Russian-speaking part of the population dominated the city centre, while the Social class, lower classes living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a significant extent. However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kyiv, by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre, folk studies etc. During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kyiv became an important trade and transportation centre of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. By 1900, the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities, and notable architectural monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). In 1892, the Trams in Kyiv, first electric tram line of the Russian Empire started running in Kyiv (the 3rd in the world). Kyiv prospered during the late 19th century
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, when it became the third most important city of the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest. In the Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, turbulent period following the Russian Revolution (1917), 1917 Russian Revolution, Kyiv became the capital of several Ukrainian People's Republic, successive Ukrainian states and was caught in the middle of several conflicts: World War I, during which German soldiers occupied it from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, and the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. During the last three months of 1919, Kyiv was intermittently controlled by the White Army. Kyiv changed hands sixteen times from the end of 1918 to August 1920. From 1921 to 1991, the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding republic of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
in 1922. The major events that took place in Soviet Ukraine during the interwar period all affected Kyiv: the 1920s Ukrainization as well as the migration of the rural Ukrainian language, Ukrainophone population made the Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of Ukrainian culture, Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), Soviet Industrialization that started in the late 1920s turned the city, a former centre of commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological and scientific centre; the Holodomor, 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of the migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's intelligentsiaOrlando Figes ''The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia'', 2007, , pages 227–315.Robert Gellately, ''Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe'' (Knopf, 2007: ), 720 pages. In 1934, Kyiv became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today. In
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the city again suffered significant damage, and Nazi Germany occupied it from 19 September 1941 to Battle of Kiev (1943), 6 November 1943. Axis forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement Battle of Kyiv (1941), Battle of Kyiv in 1941. Most of those captured never returned alive. Shortly after the Wehrmacht occupied the city, a team of NKVD officers who had remained hidden dynamited most of the buildings on the Khreshchatyk, the main street of the city, where German military and civil authorities had occupied most of the buildings; the buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left homeless. Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local The Holocaust in Ukraine, Jews they could find, nearly 34,000, and massacred them at Babi Yar in Kyiv on 29 and 30 September 1941. In the months that followed, thousands more were taken to Babi Yar where they were shot. It is estimated that the Germans murdered List of victims of the Babi Yar massacre, more than 100,000 people of various ethnic groups, mostly civilians, at Babi Yar during World War II. Kyiv recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The Chernobyl disaster, catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 occurred only north of the city. However, the prevailing south wind blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kyiv. In the course of the History of the Soviet Union (1982–1991), collapse of the Soviet Union the Verkhovna Rada, Ukrainian parliament proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine in the city on 24 August 1991. In 2004–2005, the city played host to the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in support of the Orange Revolution. From November 2013 until February 2014, central Kyiv became the primary location of Euromaidan.


Environment


Geography

Geographically, Kyiv is located on the border of the Polesia woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kyiv is completely surrounded by Kyiv Oblast. Originally on the west bank, today Kyiv is located on both sides of the Dnieper, which flows southwards through the city towards the Black Sea. The older and higher western part of the city sits on numerous wooded hills (Kyiv Mountains, Kyiv Hills), with ravines and small rivers. Kyiv's geographical relief contributed to its toponyms, such as Podil (means lower), Pechersk (caves), and uzviz (a steep street, "descent"). Kyiv is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow, and which contributes to the city's elevation change. The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland. Kyiv expanded into the Dnieper Lowland on the left bank (''to the east'') as late as the 20th century. The whole portion of Kyiv on the left bank of the Dnieper is generally referred to as ''Left bank'' ( uk, Лівий берег, Livyi bereh). Significant areas of the left bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams. Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributary, tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is close to the mouth of the Desna River and the Kyiv Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south. Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigation, navigable at Kyiv, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over. In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kyiv, which include the Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares. Additionally, the city has 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1,000 hectares). Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming. According to the UN 2011 evaluation, there were no risks of natural disasters in Kyiv and Kyiv metropolitan area, its metropolitan area.


Climate

Kyiv has a warm-summer continental climate, humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Dfb''). The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of . The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of . The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was on 30 July 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was on 11 January 1951. Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in some years.


Legal status, local government and politics


Legal status and local government

The municipality of the city of Kyiv has a Cities with special status, special legal status within Ukraine compared to the other Administrative divisions of Ukraine, administrative subdivisions of the country. The most significant difference is that the city is considered as a region of Ukraine (see Regions of Ukraine). It is the only city that has double jurisdiction. The Head of Chief of Local State Administration (Ukraine), City State Administration — the city's governor, is appointed by the President of Ukraine, while the Head of the City Council – the Mayor of Kyiv, is elected by local popular vote. The Mayor of Kyiv is Vitali Klitschko who was sworn in on 5 June 2014;Vitali Klitschko sworn in as mayor of Kyiv
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(5 June 2014)
after he had won the 2014 Kyiv local election, 25 May 2014 Kyiv mayoral elections with almost 57% of the votes.Klitschko officially announced as winner of Kyiv mayor election
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(4 June 2014)
Since 25 June 2014, Klitschko is also Kyiv City State Administration, Head of Kyiv City Administration.Poroshenko appoints Klitschko head of Kyiv city administration – decree
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(25 June 2014)
Poroshenko orders Klitschko to bring title of best European capital back to Kyiv
Interfax-Ukraine The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency ( uk, Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 J ...
(25 June 2014)
Klitschko was last reelected in the 2020 Kyiv local election with 50.52% of the votes, in the first round of the election.Vitali Klitschko wins in first round of Kyiv mayor election
Ukrinform (6 November 2020)
Most key buildings of the national government are located along Hrushevskoho Street (vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho) and Institute Street (vulytsia Instytutska). Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine. That portion of the city is also unofficially known as the government quarter ( uk, урядовий квартал). The city state administration and council is located in the Kyiv City council building on Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kyiv Oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the Kyiv-Svyatoshyn Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna (Yantarnaya Street).


Politics

The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its international relations, as well as extensive Internet in Ukraine, internet and social network penetration, have made Kyiv the most pro-Western and pro-democracy region of Ukraine; (so called) National democratic, National Democratic
parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an ...
advocating tighter integration with the European Union receive most votes during
elections An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...
in Kyiv. In a poll conducted by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in the first half of February 2014, 5.3% of those polled in Kyiv believed "Ukraine and Russia must unite into a single state", nationwide this percentage was 12.5.


Subdivisions


Traditional subdivision

The Dnieper River naturally divides Kyiv into the Right Bank and the Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century. Most of Kyiv's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern "Left Bank" is predominantly residential. There are large industrial and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank. Kyiv is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.


Formal subdivision

The first known formal subdivision of Kyiv dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk, Kyiv, Pechersk, Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil. In 1833–1834 according to Russian tsar, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas I's decree, Kyiv was subdivided into 6 police raions (districts); later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8 Raion Councils (''Duma''), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6 Party-Territory Raions. During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kyiv's districts change accordingly. The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions has been decreased from 14 to 10. Under Oleksandr Omelchenko (Mayor of Kyiv, mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetskyi, Leonid Chernovetsky) in 2006, these plans were shelved. Each raion has its own local government, locally elected government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs.


Demographics

According to the official Resident registration, registration statistics, there were 2,847,200 residents within the city limits of Kyiv in July 2013.


Historical population

According to the Ukrainian Census (2001), All-Ukrainian Census, the population of Kyiv in 2001 was 2,611,300.The most recent Ukrainian Census (2001), Ukrainian census, conducted on 5 December 2001, gave the population of Kyiv as 2 611 300
Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv city
Web address accessed on 4 August 2007). Estimates based on the amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) suggest a minimum of 3.5 million.
There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev
, ''Korrespondent'', 15 June 2005
The historic changes in population are shown in the side table. According to the census, some 1,393,000 (53.3%) were female and 1,219,000 (46.7%) were male. Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is partly offset in Kyiv by the inflow of working age migrants. Some 1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of 21.7% since 1989. The June 2007 unofficial population estimate based on amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) gave a number of at least 3.5 million people.


Ethnic composition

According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kyiv. Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in Kyiv, and they account for 2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population. Russians comprise 337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%), Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles 6,900 (0.3%), Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijani people, Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%), Tatars 2,500 (0.1%), Georgians 2,400 (0.1%), Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%). A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 94% of Kyiv was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. Most of the city's non-Slav population comprises Tatars, Peoples of the Caucasus, Caucasians and other people from the former Soviet Union.


Language statistics

Both Ukrainian language, Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kyiv's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian".According to the official Ukrainian Census (2001), 2001 census data: According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kyivans, 52% use Russian, and 24% switch between both."Kiev: the city, its residents, problems of today, wishes for tomorrow", ''Zerkalo Nedeli'', 29 April – 12 May 2006
in Russian

in Ukrainian
In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question "What language do you use in everyday life?" was asked, 52% said "mostly Russian", 32% "both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure", 14% "mostly Ukrainian", and 4.3% "exclusively Ukrainian". According to the census of 1897, of Kyiv's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language. A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that the languages spoken at home in Kyiv were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).


Jews

The Jews of Kyiv are first mentioned in a Kievian Letter, 10th century letter, but the Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century. A series of pogroms was carried out in 1882, and another in 1905. On the eve of World War I, the city's Jewish population was over 81,000, and by 1939 there were approximately 224,000 Jews in Kyiv, some of whom fled the city ahead of the Operation Barbarossa, German invasion of the Soviet Union that began in June 1941. On 29 and 30 September 1941, nearly 34,000 Kyivan Jews were massacred at Babi Yar by the Nazi Germany, German Wehrmacht, SS, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, and local collaborators. Jews began returning to Kyiv at the end of the war, but experienced another pogrom in September 1945. In the 21st century, Kyiv's Jewish community numbers about 20,000. There are two major synagogues in the city: the Great Choral Synagogue (Kyiv), Great Choral Synagogue and the Brodsky Choral Synagogue.


Cityscape

Modern Kyiv is a mix of the old (Kyiv preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914)Forgotten Soviet Plans For Kyiv
, Kyiv Post (28 July 2011)
and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves. When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kyiv many new buildings were commissioned to give the city "the gloss and polish of a capital". In the discussions that centered on how to create a showcase city center, the current city center of Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) were not the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Kyiv, Pechersk, Lypky, European Square, Kyiv, European Square and Mykhailivska Square. The plans of building massive monuments (of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) were also abandoned; due to lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kyiv's hilly landscape. Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn of the millennium. As a result, Kyiv's central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi neighborhood, Kyiv, Kharkivskyi Raion or Obolon Raion, Obolon along the Dnieper. Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs, classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005, Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kyiv, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. The centre of Kyiv has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kyiv, such as Andriyivskyy Descent, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Art of Ukraine, Ukrainian art, religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess) as well as jewellery for sale. At the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, Kyiv was the only Commonwealth of Independent States city to have been inscribed into the TOP30 European Green City Index (placed 30th). Kyiv's most famous historical architecture complexes are the Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kyiv, St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Noteworthy historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariinskyi Palace (designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in 1870), several Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox churches such as St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, St. Michael's Cathedral, St Andrew's Church, Kyiv, St. Andrew's, St Volodymyr's Cathedral, St. Vladimir's, the reconstructed Golden Gate, Kyiv, Golden Gate and others. One of Kyiv's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible giant Mother Motherland, Kyiv, Mother Motherland statue made of titanium standing at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War on the Right bank of the Dnieper River. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel, located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Kyiv), Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with Chimaeras. Among Kyiv's best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin's statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev, St. Sophia Cathedral, the venerated Vladimir I of Kiev, Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the Christianization of Kievan Rus', baptizer of Rus', overlooking the river above Podil from Saint Vladimir Hill, the monument to Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city located at the Dnieper embankment. On Maidan Nezalezhnosti, Independence Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the historic protector of Kyiv Michael (archangel), Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of one of the old city's gates and a modern invention, the goddess-protector Berehynia atop a tall column. File:Golden Gate Kiev 2018 G1.jpg, Golden Gate, Kyiv, Golden Gate File:Київ, Собор Успенський, Лаврська вул. 9.jpg, Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, Holy Dormition Cathedral File:St. Sophia's.jpg, Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kyiv, St. Sophia Cathedral File:St. Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kiev.jpg, St Volodymyr's Cathedral, St. Volodymyr's Cathedral File:80-391-9007 Kyiv St.Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery RB 18.jpg, St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery File:Pokrova Nunnery Kyiv.JPG, Intercession Convent, Kyiv, Intercession Convent File:St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral, Kyiv 8.jpg, St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral, Kyiv, St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral File:Kyiv, St Andrew church (2).jpg, St Andrew's Church, Kyiv, Saint Andrew's Church File:Маріїнський палац в Києві.jpg, Mariinskyi Palace File:National Bank of Ukraine new.jpg, National Bank of Ukraine File:Будинок із химерами 4.jpg, "House with Chimaeras" File:Brodsky_Synagogue.jpg, Brodsky Synagogue (Kyiv), Brodsky Choral Synagogue - Moorish Revival architecture


Culture

Kyiv was the historic cultural centre of the
East Slavic East Slavic may refer to: * East Slavic languages, one of three branches of the Slavic languages * East Slavs, a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the East Slavic languages See also

* Old East Slavic, a language used during the 10th–15th ...
civilization and a major cradle for the Christianization of Kyivan Rus. Kyiv retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its sacred sites, which include the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kyiv, Saint Sophia Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction. The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine collection. Kyiv's theatres include, the National Opera House of Ukraine, Kyiv Opera House, Ivan Franko National Academic Drama Theater, Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama, the Kyiv Puppet, Puppet Theater, October Palace, Kyiv, October Palace and National Philharmonic Society of Ukraine, National Philharmonic of Ukraine and others. In 1946 Kyiv had four theatres, one opera house and one concert hall,The Ukraine
Life (magazine), Life, 28 October 1946
but most tickets then were allocated to "privileged groups". Other significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios, and the Kyiv Circus. The most important of the :Museums in Kyiv, city's many museums are the Kyiv State Historical Museum, National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, the National Art Museum of Ukraine, National Art Museum, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, the PinchukArtCentre, Pinchuk Art Centre and the National Museum of Russian culture, Russian art. In 2005, Kyiv hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2005, 50th annual Eurovision Song Contest and in 2017 the Eurovision Song Contest 2017, 62nd annual Eurovision Song Contest Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs became part of Russian, Ukrainian and Jewish folklore. The most popular songs are "How not to love you, Kyiv of mine?" and "Kyiv Waltz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kyiv".


Attractions

It is said that one can walk from one end of Kyiv to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most characteristic are the Aesculus hippocastanum, horse-chestnuts ( uk, каштани, ). Kyiv is known as a green city with M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden, two botanical gardens and numerous large and small parks. The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills overlooking the Dnieper river. Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark in Kyiv, Hydropark) is the most developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The Victory Park (''Park Peremohy'') located near Darnytsia subway station is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kyiv. The area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching . The centre of Kyiv (Maidan Nezalezhnosti, Independence Square and Khreshchatyk, Khreschatyk Street) becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months, with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants, clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto traffic on weekends and holidays. Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kyiv. The hill is the site of the Andriyivskyy Descent#Castle of Richard the Lionheart, Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the baroque-style St Andrew's Church, Kyiv, St Andrew's Church; the home of Kyiv born Russian literature, writer, Andriyivskyy Descent#Mikhail Bulgakov's house, Mikhail Bulgakov; the ''monument to Yaroslav I the Wise, Yaroslav the Wise'', the Grand Prince of Kyiv and of Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod; and numerous other monuments. A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kyiv's farmer markets with the Besarabsky Market located in the very centre of the city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or ''rynok''. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made ''smetana'' (sour cream), caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things. At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic Pyrohiv village, there is an Open-air museum, outdoor museum, officially called the Pyrohiv, Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine It has an area of . This territory houses several "mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of Ukraine. Kyiv also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting ranges. The 100-year-old Kyiv Zoo is located on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".


Museums and galleries

Kyiv is home to some 40 different museums. In 2009 they recorded a total of 4.3 million visits. The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is a memorial complex commemorating the Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Front of World War II located in the hills on the Subdivisions of Kyiv#Historical neighborhoods, right-bank of the Dnieper River in Pechersk Raion, Pechersk. Kyiv fortress is the 19th-century fortification buildings situated in Ukraine, Ukrainian capital Kyiv, that once belonged to western Russian fortresses. These structures (once a united complex) were built in the Pechersk Raion, Pechersk and neighbourhoods by the Russian Empire, Russian army. Now some of the buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the ''Kyiv Fortress'', while others are in use in various military and commercial installations. The National Art Museum of Ukraine is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art. The Golden Gate, Kyiv, Golden Gate is a historic gateway in the ancient city's walls. The name ''Zoloti Vorota'' is also used for a nearby theatre and a station of the
Kyiv Metro The Kyiv Metro ( uk, Ки́ївський метрополіте́н, Kyivskyi metropoliten, ) is a rapid transit system that is the mainstay of Kyiv's public transport. It was the first rapid transit system in Ukraine and the third system in th ...

Kyiv Metro
. The small Ukrainian National Chernobyl Museum acts as both a memorial and historical center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.


Sports

Kyiv has many professional and amateur football clubs, including FC Dynamo Kyiv, Dynamo Kyiv, FC Arsenal Kyiv, Arsenal Kyiv and FC Obolon Kyiv but only Dynamo Kyiv play in the Ukrainian Premier League. Of these three, Dynamo Kyiv has had the most success over the course of its history. For example, up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 Soviet Top League, USSR Championships, 9 USSR Cups, and 3 USSR Super Cups, thus making Dynamo the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top League.Trophies of Dynamo
– Official website of Dynamo Kyiv
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the Sokil Kyiv ice hockey club and BC Budivelnyk basketball club. Both of these teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective sports. Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these teams play their home games at the Palace of Sports (Kyiv), Kyiv Palace of Sports. During the 1980 Summer Olympics held in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, Kyiv held the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament at its Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex, Olympic Stadium, which was reconstructed specially for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place by UEFA for hosting the UEFA Euro 2012, Euro 2012 football tournament; the opening ceremony took place in the presence of president Viktor Yanukovich on 8 October 2011, with the first major event being a Shakira concert which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kyiv include the Valeriy Lobanovskyi Dynamo Stadium, the Palace of Sports, Kyiv, Palace of Sports, among many others. Most Ukrainian national teams play their home international matches in Kyiv. The Ukraine national football team, for example, will play matches at the re-constructed Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex, Olympic Stadium from 2011.


Tourism

Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and Switzerland in 2005, Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country. Before the 2008–2009 Ukrainian financial crisis, 2008–09 recession the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in Kyiv was 23% over a three-year period. In 2009, a total of 1.6 million tourists stayed in Kyiv hotels, of whom almost 259,000 (ca. 16%) were foreigners. After UEFA Euro 2012, the city became the most popular destination for European tourists. A record number of 1.8 million foreign tourists was registered then along with about 2.5 million domestic tourists. More than 850,000 foreign tourists visited Kyiv in the first half of 2018, as compared to 660,000 tourists over the same period in 2013. As of 2018, the hotel occupancy rate from May to September averages 45–50%. Hostels and three-star hotels are approximately 90% full, four-star hotels 65-70%. Six five-star hotels average 50-55% occupancy. Ordinary tourists generally come from May to October, and business tourists from September to May.


Kyiv city anthem

In 2014, the Kyiv city's council established the city's anthem.The Kyiv council approved the Kyiv city anthem (Київрада затвердила гімн Києва)
Ukrayinska Pravda ''Ukrayinska Pravda'' ( uk, Українська правда, lit=Ukrainian Truth) is a Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * ...

Ukrayinska Pravda
. 13 November 2014
It became a 1962 song, "Yak tebe ne liubyty, Kyieve mii!" ( uk, Як тебе не любити, Києве мій!, roughly "How can I not love you, Kyiv of mine!").


City symbols

The horse chestnut tree is one of the symbols of Kyiv."Thujoy Khreshchatyk". Why Kyivans miss chestnuts and how they became a symbol of the capital
Ukrayinska Pravda ''Ukrayinska Pravda'' ( uk, Українська правда, lit=Ukrainian Truth) is a Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * ...

Ukrayinska Pravda
(29 May 2019)
It was heavily present on the Coat of arms of Kyiv, city's coat of arms used from 1969 to 1995.


Economy

As with most Capital city, capital cities, Kyiv is a major administrative, cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city in Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010, there were around 238,000 list of company registers#Ukraine, business entities registered in Kyiv. Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kyiv's economy outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of 11.5%. Following the Financial crisis of 2007–2010, global financial crisis that began in 2007, Kyiv's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross regional product contracting by 13.5% in real terms. Although a record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller than that for the country as a whole. The economy in Kyiv, as in the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011. Kyiv is a middle-income city, with prices comparable to many mid-size American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe). Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008. Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%. As of July 2019, the average monthly net salary in Kyiv reached 16,249 Ukrainian hryvnia, UAH (€560 / US$ 630) Kyiv is the undisputed center of business and commerce of Ukraine and home to the country's largest companies, such as Naftogaz Ukrainy, Energorynok and Kyivstar. In 2010, the city accounted for 18% of national retail sales and 24% of all construction activity. Indeed, real estate is one of the major forces in Kyiv's economy. Average prices of apartments are the highest in the country and among the highest in eastern Europe. Kyiv also ranks high in terms of commercial real estate for it is here where the country's tallest office buildings (such as Gulliver (building), Gulliver and Parus Business Centre, Parus) and some of Ukraine's biggest shopping malls (such as Dream Town and Ocean Plaza) are located. In May 2011, Kyiv authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign direct investment, foreign investment by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists. * – data not available; ** – calculated at annual average official exchange rate; *** – International Labour Organization, ILO methodology (% of workforce).


Industry

Primary Industry (economics), industries in Kyiv include public utility, utilities – i.e., electricity, gas and water supply (26% of total Output (economics), industrial output), manufacture of food, beverages and tobacco products (22%), chemical industry, chemical (17%), mechanical engineering (13%) and manufacture of paper and paper products, including publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media (11%). The Institute of Oil Transportation is headquartered here.


Manufacture

* Kuznya na Rybalskomu, naval production * Antonov Serial Production Plant (former Aviant), airplanes manufacturing * Aeros, small aircraft production * Kyiv Roshen Factory, confectionery * Kyiv Arsenal (former arms manufacturer), specializes in production of optic-precision instruments * Obolon (company), Obolon, brewery * Kyiv Aircraft Repair Plant 410, repair factory located at Zhulyany Airport


Education and science


Scientific research

Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Kyiv is home to Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Ukraine's ministry of education and science, and is also noted for its contributions to medical and computer science research. In 2016, UNIT Factory (Ukrainian National IT Factory) opened. It offers a completely new format of IT education. The education is completely free for all trainees subject to compliance with the terms of the program. Within this project are the Technology Companies' Development Center (TCDC), BIONIC University open inter-corporate IT-university, as well as two hi-tech laboratories—VR Lab (Crytek) and Smart City lab.


University education

Kyiv hosts many universities, the major ones being Kyiv University, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, National Technical University "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics. Of these, the Mohyla Academy is the oldest, founded as a theological school in 1632, but Shevchenko University, founded in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation. The total number of institutions of higher education in Kyiv approaches 200, allowing young people to pursue almost any line of study. While education traditionally remains largely in the hands of the state there are several accredited private institutions in the city.


Secondary education

There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. 680 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kyiv. Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, specialist technical schools and the Evangel Theological Seminary.


Public libraries

There are many libraries in the city with the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, Vernadsky National Library, which is Ukraine's main academic library and scientific information centre, as well as one of the world's largest national library, national libraries, being the largest and most important one. The National Library is affiliated with the Academy of Sciences in so far as it is a deposit library and thus serves as the academy's archives' store. The national library is the world's foremost repository of Jewish music, Jewish folk music recorded on Phonograph cylinder, Edison wax cylinders. Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005.


Transportation


Local public transport

Local public transportation in Kyiv includes the Kyiv Metro, Metro (underground), buses and marshrutka, minibuses, trolleybuses, trams, Taxicab, taxi and Kyiv Funicular, funicular. There is also an Kyiv Urban Electric Train, intra-city ring railway service. The publicly owned and operated Kyiv Metro is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, having three lines with a total length of and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers dailyKyiv General Department of Statistics, 2011
/ref> accounting for 38% of the Kyiv's public transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million. The historic Trams in Kyiv, Kyiv tram system was the first electric tramway in the former Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Trams in Berlin, Berlin Straßembahn and the Budapest tramway. The tram system consists of of track, including two Kyiv Light Rail, Rapid Tram lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses. The Kyiv Funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the historic Old Kyiv, Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Saint Vladimir Hill overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of only two stations. All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by the city. The Kyiv public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket system is already established in Kyiv Metro, with plans for other transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe. The Taxicab, taxi market in Kyiv is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies. File:Золоті Ворота.jpg, Zoloti Vorota (Kyiv Metro), Zoloti Vorota Metro Station Cental Hall File:Pozniaky metro station Kiev 2011 02.jpg, Pozniaky metro station File:MAZ-215 Marshala Rokossovskoho avenue Kyiv 20190705.jpg, MAZ-215 Bus in Kyiv File:17-07-02-Maidan Nezalezhnosti RR74409.jpg, Taxi and trolleybus File:Kiev Funicular.jpeg, Kyiv funicular File:Фунікулер.jpg, Station of Kyiv funicular File:KyivTram2018.jpg, A modern Pesa Tram in Kyiv File:Podil's'kyi district, Kiev, Ukraine - panoramio (5).jpg, A ship near the Kyiv River Port passenger terminal File:Міст Патона з нічною архітектурною підсвіткою та панорама Лівого берега.jpg, Paton Bridge, the world's first all-Welding, welded bridge File:Дарницький міст2.jpg, The New Darnytskyi Bridge, Novo-Darnytskyi Bridge over the Dnieper river File:Південний міст (Київ).jpg, Pivdennyi Bridge (Kyiv), Pivdennyi (Southern) Bridge


Roads and bridges

Kyiv represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system, thus linked by road to all cities of the country. international E-road network, European routes , and intersect in Kyiv. There are 8 over-Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade separation, grade-separated intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully grade-separated ring road around Kyiv. In 2009, Kyiv's roads were in poor technical condition and maintained inadequately. Traffic congestion, Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all road transport services in Kyiv.


Air transport

Kyiv is served by two international passenger airports: the Boryspil International Airport, Boryspil Airport located away, and the smaller, municipally owned Kyiv International Airport (Zhuliany), Zhulyany Airport on the southern outskirts of the city. There are also the Gostomel Airport, Gostomel cargo airport and additional three operating airfields facilitating the Antonov, Antonov aircraft manufacturing company and general aviation.


Railways

Railways are Kyiv's main mode of intracity and suburban transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots, and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Particularly, the Kyiv-Pasazhyrskyi Railway Station is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal (''vokzal''). Construction is underway for turning the large Darnytsia railway station on the left-bank part of Kyiv into a long-distance passenger hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges in Kyiv, Bridges over the Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge is under construction, as a part of Darnytsia project. In 2011, the Kyiv city administration established a new 'Urban Train' for Kyiv. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city centre, which allows it to serve many of Kyiv's inner suburbs. Interchanges between the Kyiv Metro and Trams in Kyiv, Fast Tram exist at many of the urban train's station stops. Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned Ukrainian Railways. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in terms of crime, and the ''elektrichka'' cars are poorly maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours. There are 5 ''elektrichka'' directions from Kyiv: *Nizhyn (north-eastern) *Hrebinka (south-eastern) *Myronivka (southern) *Fastiv (south-western) *Korosten (western) More than a dozen of ''elektrichka'' stops are located within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains.


Twin towns – sister cities

Kyiv is Sister city, twinned with: * Ankara, Turkey (1993) * Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (2001) * Athens, Greece (1996) * Baku, Azerbaijan (1997) * Beijing, China (1993) * Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (1997) * Brasília, Brazil (2000) * Bratislava, Slovakia (1969) * Brussels, Belgium (1997) * Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000) * Chicago, United States (1991) * Chișinău, Moldova (1993) * Edinburgh, Scotland (1989) * Florence, Italy (1967) * Havana, Cuba (1994) * Jakarta, Indonesia (2005) * Kraków, Poland (1993) * Kyoto, Japan (1971) * Leipzig, Germany (1956) * Lima, Peru (2005) * Mexico City, Mexico (1997) * Munich, Germany (1989) * Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (1998) * Odense Municipality, Odense, Denmark (1989) * Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan (2002) * Pretoria, South Africa (1993) * Riga, Latvia (1998) * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2000) * Santiago, Chile (1998) * Sofia, Bulgaria (1997) * Suzhou, China (2005) * Tallinn, Estonia (1994) * Tampere, Finland (1954) * Tashkent, Uzbekistan (1998) * Tbilisi, Georgia (1999) * Toulouse, France (1975) * Vilnius, Lithuania (1991) * Warsaw, Poland (1994) * Wuhan, China (1990)


Other cooperation agreements

* Belgrade, Serbia (2002) * Helsinki, Finland * Jerusalem, Israel (2000) * Lisbon, Portugal * Paris, France * Rome, Italy * Stockholm, Sweden * Toronto, Canada (1991) * Tripoli, Libya (2001) * Vienna, Austria * Yerevan, Armenia (1995)


Notable people from Kyiv

* Nikolai Amosov, Soviet and Ukrainian heart surgeon and inventor * Oleg Blokhin, Ukrainian football player * Leonid Bronevoy, Soviet and Russian actor * Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian Orthodox religious and political philosopher * Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian writer * Konstantin Buteyko, creator of the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and other breathing disorders * Zino Davidoff (born Sussele-Meier Davidoff), Swiss premium tobacco manufacturer; known as "King of Cigars" * Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet writer, journalist, translator, and cultural figure * André Grabar, historian of Romanesque art and the art of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Bulgarian Empire * Eugeniusz Horbaczewski, Polish fighter pilot * Milton Horn, Russian American sculptor * Vladimir Horowitz, classical pianist * Milla Jovovich, American actress * Jan Koum, American computer programmer, CEO and co-founder of WhatsApp * Viktor Kaspruk, political scientist * Ana Layevska, Ukrainian-Mexican actress * Serge Lifar, French ballet dancer * Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Soviet and Ukrainian football coach * Kazimir Malevich, pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematism, Suprematist movement * Natalya Marchenkova, animator and animation director, born in Kyiv. * Jonathan Markovitch, Chief Rabbi of Kyiv * Natalia Matsak, ballet dancer * Golda Meir, Israeli politician, the fourth Prime Minister of Israel * Moses of Kiev, 12th century Talmudist * Alexander Ostrowski, mathematician * Nicholas Pritzker, scion of the Pritzker Family * Lev Shestov, Russian Existentialism, existentialist philosopher * Andriy Shevchenko, Ukrainian footballer * Igor Sikorsky, Russian-American aviation pioneer * Alexander Vertinsky, Russian and Soviet singer, composer, poet, cabaret artist, and actor * Ludmila Anatolievna Yaroshevskaya, composer


Honour

* Kyiv Peninsula in Graham Land, Antarctica is named after the city of Kyiv.Kyiv Peninsula.
SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica.


See also

*Russian Insurgent Army (2014)


Notes


References


Further reading

* Julius Brutzkus, Brutzkus, J. "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev". Slavonic and East European Review. American Series, vol. 3, no. 1, 1944, pp. 108–124
JSTOR
Accessed 16 June 2020.


External links


Київська міська державна адміністрація
– official web portal of the Kyiv City State Administration
Kyiv—Official Tourist Guide
{{Authority control Kyiv, Capitals in Europe Cities with special status in Ukraine Holy cities Kievsky Uyezd Cossack Hetmanate Kiev Voivodeship Populated places established in the 5th century Rus' settlements Magdeburg rights 5th-century establishments Holocaust locations in Ukraine Populated places on the Dnieper in Ukraine Oblast centers in Ukraine Kyiv metropolitan area