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The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), was a medieval and early modern
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
military order. It was headquartered in the
Kingdom of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem ( la, Regnum Hierosolymitanum; fro, Roiaume de Jherusalem; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle ...
until 1291, on the island of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...
from 1310 until 1522, in
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of ...
from 1530 until 1798 and at
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
from 1799 until 1801. Today several organizations continue the Hospitaller tradition, specifically the mutually recognized orders of St. John, which are the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta ( it, Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; ...
, the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John, the  Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John, the  Order of Saint John in the Netherlands, and the 
Order of Saint John in Sweden The Order of Saint John in Sweden ( sv, (S:t) Johanniterorden i Sverige) is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism ...
. The Hospitallers arose in the early 12th century, during the time of the Cluniac movement (a Benedictine Reform movement). Early in the 11th century, merchants from
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...
founded a
hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized Medical Science, health science and Allied Healthcare, auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospit ...

hospital
in the
Muristan The Muristan ( he, מוריסטן, ar, مورستان)is a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter Map of the Christian Quarter The Christian Quarter ( ar, حارة النصارى, ''Ḥārat al-Naṣārā''; he, הרובע הנו ...

Muristan
district of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusałē ...

Jerusalem
, dedicated to
John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history'' ...

John the Baptist
, to provide care for sick, poor, or injured pilgrims to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
.
Blessed Gerard The Blessed Gerard (c. 1040 – 3 September 1120) was a lay brother in the Benedictine order The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monast ...
became its head in 1080. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
, a group of Crusaders formed a religious order to support the hospital. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard's order and its hospital. The organization became a military religious order under its own papal charter, charged with the care and defense of the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...
, and later from Malta, where they administered a
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
under the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
viceroy of
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
. The Hospitallers were one of the smallest groups to briefly colonize parts of the Americas: they acquired four
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
in the 1660s. The knights became divided during the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity File:Petersdom von Engelsburg gesehen.jpg, 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the larges ...
, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and largely separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although
ecumenical Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion b ...
relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable. The order was suppressed in England, Denmark, and some other parts of northern Europe, and it was further damaged by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe.


History


Foundation and early history

In 603,
Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally ent ...

Pope Gregory I
commissioned the
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
te Abbot Probus, who was previously Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court, to build
a hospital
a hospital
in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...
to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
enlarged Probus' hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
caliph
al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal name al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh ( ar, الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "The Ruler by the Order of God"), was the sixth Fatimid The Fatimid C ...

al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem. In 1023,
merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distributi ...

merchant
s from
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
and
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
in Italy were given permission by Caliph
Ali az-Zahir Abū'l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥākim ( ar, أبو الحسن علي ابن الحاكم; 20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036), better known with his regnal name al-Zāhir li-iʿzāz Dīn Allāh ( ar, الظاهر لإعزاز دين الله, , H ...
to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital was served by the
Order of Saint Benedict The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
, built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, and took in Christian pilgrims traveling to visit the Christian holy sites. The monastic hospitaller order was created following the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
by Gerard de Martigues, whose role as founder was confirmed by the
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
''
Pie postulatio voluntatis
Pie postulatio voluntatis
'' issued by
Pope Paschal II Pope Paschal II ( la, Paschalis II; 1050  1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denomination ...

Pope Paschal II
in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the
Kingdom of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem ( la, Regnum Hierosolymitanum; fro, Roiaume de Jherusalem; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle ...
and beyond. Under his successor,
Raymond du Puy Raymond du Puy (1083–1160) was a knight from Dauphiné in France and the second List of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, from around 1121 until ...
, the original hospice was expanded to an
infirmary
infirmary
near the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, hy, Սուրբ Հարության տաճար, la, Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, am, የቅዱስ መቃብር ቤተክርስቲያን, he, כנסיית הקבר, ar, كنيسة القيامة is a church in ...

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
in Jerusalem. Initially, the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to provide pilgrims with an armed escort before eventually becoming a significant military force. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became militaristic without losing its charitable character.
Raymond du Puy Raymond du Puy (1083–1160) was a knight from Dauphiné in France and the second List of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, from around 1121 until ...
, who succeeded
Gerard Gerard is a masculine forename of Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic origin, variations of which exist in many Germanic and Romance languages. Like many other Germanic name, early Germanic names, it is dithematic, consisting of two meaningfu ...
as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organized a
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
from the order's members, dividing the order into three ranks: knights, men at arms, and
chaplain A chaplain is, traditionally, a cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wo ...

chaplain
s. Raymond offered the service of his armed troops to
Baldwin II of Jerusalem Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (french: Baudouin; c. 1075 – 21August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin I of Jerusa ...

Baldwin II of Jerusalem
, and the order from this time participated in the crusades as a military order, in particular distinguishing itself in the
Siege of Ascalon The siege of Ascalon took place in 1153, resulting in the capture of that Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one ...
of 1153. In 1130,
Pope Innocent II Pope Innocent II ( la, Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by numb ...

Pope Innocent II
gave the order its
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
, a silver cross in a field of red (''gueulles''). The Hospitallers and the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land.
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (german: Friedrich I., it, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt on ...

Frederick Barbarossa
, the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185. The statutes of
Roger de Moulins thumbnail, ''Roger Desmoulins'', by Jean-François Cars, J.-F. Cars, c. 1725 Roger de Moulins was List of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller from 1177 to his death in 1187, succeeding Jobert of Syria. ...
(1187) deal only with the service of the sick; the first mention of military service is in the statutes of the ninth grand master, Fernando Afonso of Portugal (about 1200). In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, and the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, and who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious. The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, and the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248
Pope Innocent IV Pope Innocent IV ( la, Innocentius IV; – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Fieschi was born in Genoa and studied at the universities ...

Pope Innocent IV
(1243–1254) approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour (which restricted their movements), they wore a red surcoat with a white cross emblazoned on it. no. 78, no. 2479. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the
Kingdom of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem ( la, Regnum Hierosolymitanum; fro, Roiaume de Jherusalem; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle ...
, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the
Principality of Antioch The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wa ...
, were the
Krak des Chevaliers Krak des Chevaliers or Crac des Chevaliers (; ar, قلعة الحصن, Qalʿat al-Ḥiṣn), also called Ḥiṣn al-Akrād (, literally "Fortress of the Kurds") and formerly Crac de l'Ospital, is a List of Crusader castles, Crusader castle i ...

Krak des Chevaliers
and
Margat Margat, also known as Marqab ( ar, قلعة المرقب, ''Qalaat al-Marqab'', lit=Castle of the Watchtower), is a castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sco ...

Margat
in Syria. The property of the Order was divided into
priories 300px, The Priory de Graville, France A priory is a monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "sing ...

priories
, subdivided into
bailiwick A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area a ...
s, which in turn were divided into commanderies. As early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
and
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
. As a result, buildings such as
St John's Jerusalem St John's Jerusalem or Sutton-at-Hone Preceptory is a National Trust property at Sutton-at-Hone, Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surr ...
and the Knights Gate, Quenington in England were built on land donated to the order by local nobility. An Irish house was established at
Kilmainham Kilmainham (, meaning " St Maighneann's church") is a suburb of Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the ...

Kilmainham
, near Dublin, and the Irish Prior was usually a key figure in Irish public life. The Knights also received the "Land of Severin" (''Terra de Zeurino''), along with the nearby mountains, from
Béla IV of Hungary Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary The King of Hungary ( hu, magyar király) was the ruling head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), dependi ...
, as shown by a charter of grant issued on 2 June 1247. The
Banate of Severin The Banate of Severin or Banate of Szörény ( hu, szörényi bánság; ro, Banatul Severinului; la, Banatus Zewrinensis; bg, Северинско банство, ; sr, Северинска бановина, ) was a Hungarian political, milit ...

Banate of Severin
was a
march March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 3 ...
, or border province, of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
between the
Lower Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as c ...
and the
Olt River The Olt ( Romanian and Hungarian; german: Alt; la, Aluta or ', tr, Oltu, grc, Ἄλυτος ''Alytos'') is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In som ...
, today part of Romania, and back then bordered across the Danube by a powerful
Bulgarian Empire In the medieval history of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarde ...

Bulgarian Empire
. However, the Hospitaller hold on the Banate was only brief.


Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes

After the fall of the
Kingdom of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem ( la, Regnum Hierosolymitanum; fro, Roiaume de Jherusalem; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle ...
in 1291 (the city of Jerusalem had fallen in 1187), the Knights were confined to the
County of Tripoli The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series ...
and, when
Acre The acre is a of land area used in the and systems. It is traditionally defined as the area of one by one (66 by 660 feet), which is exactly equal to 10 square chains, of a square mile, or 43,560 square feet, and approximately 4,047 m ...
was captured in 1291, the order sought refuge in the
Kingdom of Cyprus The Kingdom of Cyprus (french: Royaume de Chypre, la, Regnum Cypri) existed between 1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French House of Lusignan The House of Lusignan ( ; ) was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled sev ...

Kingdom of Cyprus
. Finding themselves becoming enmeshed in Cypriot politics, their Master,
Guillaume de Villaret Guillaume de Villaret on a copper engraving by Laurent Cars, c. 1725 Guillaume de Villaret (Occitan: Guilhem del Vilaret, Catalan: Guillem del Vilaret) (died 1305), a native of Languedoc-Roussillon was the 24th Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalle ...
, created a plan of acquiring their own temporal domain, selecting
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...

Rhodes
to be their new home, part of the Byzantine empire. His successor,
Foulques de Villaret 250px, Imaginary portrait of Foulques de Villaret by Eugène Goyet, c. 1843. ''Salle des Croisades'', Versailles.">Salle_des_Croisades.html" ;"title="Eugène Goyet, c. 1843. ''Salle des Croisades">Eugène Goyet, c. 1843. ''Salle des Croisades'', Ve ...
, executed the plan, and on 15 August 1310, after more than four years of campaigning, the
city of Rhodes Rhodes ( el, Ρόδος, ''Ródos'' ) is the principal city and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as g ...
surrendered to the knights. They also gained control of a number of neighboring islands and the
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
n port of
Halicarnassus Halicarnassus (; grc, Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός ''Halikarnāssós'' or ''Alikarnāssós''; tr, Halikarnas; : 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 ''alos k̂arnos'') was an city in , in . It was located in southwest , on an advantageous ...
and the island of
Kastellorizo Kastellorizo or Castellorizo (; el, Καστελλόριζο, Kastellórizo), officially Megisti ( ''Megísti''), is a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...

Kastellorizo
.
Pope Clement V Pope Clement V ( la, Clemens Quintus; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled ''de Guoth'' and ''de Goth''), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope Clement V
dissolved the Hospitallers' rival order, the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
, in 1312 with a series of
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
s, including the '''' bull that turned over much of their property to the Hospitallers. The holdings were organised into eight "Tongues" or '' Langues'', one each in
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
,
Auvergne Auvergne (; ; oc, label=Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, a ...

Auvergne
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Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
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Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
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France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
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Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
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Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
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Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
. Each was administered by a
Prior Prior (or prioress) is an ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor 1099 establishments in Asia 1099 establishments in Europe Religious organizations established in the 1090s