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Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (, uk, Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, ''Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov''), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (russian: link=no, Клим Вороши́лов, ''Klim Vorošilov''; 4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
military officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an Military, armed force or Uniformed services, uniformed service. Broadly speaking, "officer" means a commissioned officer, a non-commissioned officer, or a warrant offic ...
and politician during the
Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin * ka, link=no, იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი. ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Unio ...
era. He was one of the original five
Marshals of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union (russian: Маршал Советского Союза; ) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991. Forty-one people held this ...

Marshals of the Soviet Union
, the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, and served as Chairman of the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (russian: Президиум Верховного Совета, Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a body of in the (USSR).Soviet head of state, from 1953 to 1960. Born to a Russian worker's family in modern Ukraine, Voroshilov took part in the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
of 1917 as an early member of the Bolsheviks. He served with distinction at the
Battle of Tsaritsyn The Battle of Tsaritsyn was a military confrontation between Bolshevik forces and the White Army during the Russian Civil War. It was for control of the significant city and port on the Volga River in southwestern Russia. The battle resulte ...
, during which he became a close friend of Stalin. Voroshilov was elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party in 1921, and in 1925 Stalin appointed him People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs (later People's Commissars for Defence). In 1926, he became a full member of the
Politburo A politburo () or political bureau is the executive committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends mat ...
. In 1935, Voroshilov was named a Marshal of the Soviet Union. He played a central role during the
Great Purge The Great Purge or the Great Terror (russian: Большой террор), also known as the Year of '37 (russian: 37-ой год, translit=Tridtsat sedmoi god, label=none) and the Yezhovshchina ('period of Nikolay Yezhov, Yezhov'), was Gene ...
, denounced many of his own colleagues and subordinates, and personally signed over a hundred execution lists. At the outbreak of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Voroshilov was held responsible for Soviet failures in Finland during the
Winter War The Winter War,, sv, vinterkriget, rus, Зи́мняя война́, r=Zimnyaya voyna. The names Soviet–Finnish War 1939–1940 (russian: link=no, Сове́тско-финская война́ 1939–1940) and Soviet–Finland War 1939 ...
and was replaced as Defense Commissar by
Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (russian: link=no, Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, ''Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko''; uk, Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, ''Semen Kostiantyno ...

Semyon Timoshenko
. Following the in June 1941, he was recalled and appointed to the
State Defense Committee The State Defense Committee (russian: Государственный комитет обороны - ГКО, translit=Gosudarstvennyĭ komitet oborony - GKO) was an extraordinary organ of state power in the USSR The Soviet Union,. officia ...
. Voroshilov failed to stop the German encirclement of Leningrad and was again relieved from his command in September 1941. After the war, Voroshilov oversaw the establishment of a socialist regime in
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
. Following Stalin's death in 1953, Voroshilov was appointed Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. His fortunes declined during the rise of
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
and the Supreme Soviet removed him from power in 1960. Voroshilov died in 1969 at the age of 88.


Early life

Voroshilov was born in the settlement of Verkhnyeye,
Bakhmut Bakhmut ( uk, Ба́хмут, russian: Бахму́т) in 1924-2016: Artemivsk/Artyomovsk/Artemovsk/Arteomovsk ( uk, Артемівськ, links=no, russian: Артёмовск, links=no), is a city of regional significance in Donetsk Oblast ...
uyezd An uezd (also spelled uyezd; rus, уе́зд, p=ʊˈjest), or povit in a Ukrainian context ( uk, повіт), was a type of administrative subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' o ...
,
Yekaterinoslav Governorate The Yekaterinoslav Governorate (russian: link=no, Екатеринославская губернія; Romanization of Russian, translit.: ''Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya''; uk, Катеринославська губернія, translit=Katery ...

Yekaterinoslav Governorate
,
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
(now part of
Lysychansk Lysychansk ( uk, Лисича́нськ ; russian: Лисича́нск ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The ...
city in
Luhansk Oblast Luhansk Oblast ( uk, Луга́нська о́бласть, translit=Luhanska oblast; also referred to as Luhanshchyna, uk, Луга́нщина) is the easternmost oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including ...
,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
), into a railway worker's family of
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...

Russian
ethnicity. According to the Soviet
Major General Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lie ...

Major General
Petro Grigorenko Petro Grigorenko or Petro Hryhorovych Hryhorenko ( uk, Петро́ Григо́рович Григоре́нко, russian: Пётр Григо́рьевич Григоре́нко, – 21 February 1987) was a high-ranking Soviet Army commander ...
, Voroshilov himself alluded to the heritage of his birth-country and to the previous family name of ''Voroshilo''. During his school years, Voroshilov became a close friend and almost a member of the family of Semyon Ryzhkov, who later became the second secretary of the
First Duma The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg. It convened four times between 27 April 1906 and the collapse of th ...
.


Russian Revolution

Voroshilov joined the
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росс ...

Bolshevik
faction of the
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP; , ''Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)''), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a socialist ...
in 1905. Following the
Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of Political revolution, political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire and began during the First World War. Commencing in 1917 with the fall of the House of Romanov and conc ...
, Voroshilov became a member of the Ukrainian
Council of People's Commissars The Council of People's Commissars (SNK; russian: Совет народных комиссаров (СНК), ''Sovet narodnykh kommissarov''), commonly known as the ''Sovnarkom'' (Совнарком), were the highest executive authorities of the ...
and Commissar for Internal Affairs along with
Vasiliy Averin Vasiliy Kuzmich Averin (russian: Васи́лий Кузьмич Аве́рин; 1884 – 28 December 1945) was a Russian Bolsheviks, Bolshevik revolutionary, a leading member of the Cheka and a member of the Soviet Union, Soviet government in Ukrai ...
. He was well known for aiding
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
in the
Revolutionary Military Council The Revolutionary Military Council (russian: Революционный Военный Совет, Revolyutsionny Voyenny Sovyet, Revolutionary Military Council), sometimes called the Revolutionary War CouncilBrian Pearce Brian Leonard Pearce ...
, having become closely associated with Stalin during the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
's 1918 defense of Tsaritsyn, and one of the Cavalry Army clique. Voroshilov was active as a commander of the Southern Front during the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
and the
Polish–Soviet War The Polish–Soviet War (Polish–Bolshevik War, Polish–Soviet War, Polish–Russian War 1919–1921) * russian: Советско-польская война (''Sovetsko-polskaya voyna'', Soviet-Polish War), Польский фронт (' ...
while with the
1st Cavalry Army __NOTOC__ The 1st Cavalry Army (russian: Первая конная армия) was a prominent Red Army military formation. It was also known as "Budyonny's Cavalry Army" or simply as ''Konarmia'' ("Horsearmy"). History When the Russian Civil W ...
. As Political Commissar serving co-equally with Stalin, Voroshilov was responsible for the morale of the 1st Cavalry Army, which was composed chiefly of peasants from southern Russia. Voroshilov headed the Petrograd Police during 1917 and 1918.


Interwar period

Voroshilov served as a member of the
Central Committee Central committee is the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, of both ruling and nonruling parties of former and existing Socialist State, socialist states. In such party org ...
from his election in 1921 until 1961. In 1925, after the death of
Mikhail Frunze Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (russian: Михаи́л Васи́льевич Фру́нзе, ro, Mihail Frunze; 2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. Born in modern-d ...
, Voroshilov was appointed and Chairman of the
Revolutionary Military Council The Revolutionary Military Council (russian: Революционный Военный Совет, Revolyutsionny Voyenny Sovyet, Revolutionary Military Council), sometimes called the Revolutionary War CouncilBrian Pearce Brian Leonard Pearce ...
of the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...
, a post he held until 1934. His main accomplishment in this period was to move key Soviet war industries east of the Urals, so that the Soviet Union could strategically retreat, while keeping its manufacturing capability intact. Frunze's political position adhered to that of the Troika (
Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev. Transliterated ''Grigorii Evseevich Zinov'ev'' according to the Library of Congress system. (born Hirsch Apfelbaum, – 25 August 1936), known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Russian r ...
,
Lev Kamenev Lev Borisovich Kamenev. (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet Union, Soviet politician. Born in Moscow to parents who were both involved in revolutionary politics, Kamenev attended Imperial ...

Lev Kamenev
, Stalin), but Stalin preferred to have a close, personal ally in charge (as opposed to Frunze, a "Zinovievite"). Frunze was urged by a group of Stalin's hand-picked doctors to have surgery to treat an old
stomach ulcer The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parench ...

stomach ulcer
, despite previous doctors' recommendations to avoid surgery and Frunze's own unwillingness. He died on the operating table of a massive overdose of
chloroform Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CH Cl3. It is a colorless, strong-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropoly ...

chloroform
, an anaesthetic. Voroshilov became a full member of the newly formed
Politburo A politburo () or political bureau is the executive committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends mat ...
in 1926, remaining a member until 1960. Voroshilov was appointed
People's Commissar A People's Commissariat (russian: народный комиссариат; Narkomat) was a structure in the Soviet state (in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, in other union and autonomous republics, in the Soviet Union) from 1917– ...
(Minister) for Defence in 1934 and a
Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union (russian: Маршал Советского Союза, ) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991. Forty-one people held thi ...

Marshal of the Soviet Union
in 1935. He played a central role in Stalin's
Great Purge The Great Purge or the Great Terror (russian: Большой террор), also known as the Year of '37 (russian: 37-ой год, translit=Tridtsat sedmoi god, label=none) and the Yezhovshchina ('period of Nikolay Yezhov, Yezhov'), was Gene ...
of the 1930s, denouncing many of his own military colleagues and subordinates when asked to do so by Stalin. He wrote personal letters to exiled former Soviet officers and diplomats such as commissar Mikhail Ostrovsky, asking them to return voluntarily to the Soviet Union and falsely reassuring them that they would not face retribution from authorities.Barmine, Alexander, ''One Who Survived'', New York: G.P. Putnam (1945), footnote, p. 21. Voroshilov personally signed 185 documented execution lists, fourth among the Soviet leadership after
Molotov Molotov may refer to: * Vyacheslav Molotov (1890–1986), Soviet politician and diplomat, and foreign minister under Joseph Stalin * Molotov cocktail, hand-held incendiary weapon Arts and entertainment *Molotov (band), a Mexican rock/rap band ...
, Stalin and Kaganovich. Voroshilov did not personally share the paranoia towards upper-class elements of the officer corps. He openly declared that the saboteurs in the Red Army were few in number and tried to save the lives of officers like Lukin, who would serve with distinction during the Second World War, and Sokolov-Strakhov, and he was sometimes successful. He had no problem denouncing officers he disliked such as Tukhachevsky. Despite taking part in the purging of many "mechanisers" (supporters of wide usage of tanks rather than cavalry) from the Red Army, Voroshilov became convinced that reliance on cavalry should be decreased while more modern arms should receive higher priority. Marshal Budyonny tried to recruit him to his cause of protecting the status of cavalry in the Red Army but Voroshilov openly declared his intention to do the opposite. He praised the army's combined arms warfare capabilities as well as the high quality and ability to take initiative of the officers during the 1936 summer manoeuvers. However he also pointed out issues in the Red Army as a whole in his full report. Among the issues he pointed out were insufficient communication, ineffective staffs, insufficient cooperation between arms, and the rudimentary nature of the command structure in tank units and other modern arms. When the Great Purge ended, some reforms were undertaken by the high command to reconcile Red Army doctrine (for example deep operations doctrine) with the real state of the Red Army. The politically appointed commanders of the post-purge Red Army saw that the army, especially after the purge, was not suitable to carry out deep operations style warfare. Commanders such as Voroshilov and were among the instigators of these reforms which positively impacted the Red Army. These commanders themselves turned out not to be able to carry out such operations in practice. Voroshilov and Kulik turned out to be unable to put these reforms into practice. One of these reforms was a reorganization of Red Army field units which accidentally moved Red Army organization to a far less advanced state than it had been in 1936. This reorganization was conceived by Kulik but put into practice by Voroshilov. When territorial units were abolished Voroshilov noted that among the reasons for disbanding them was inability to train conscripts in the use of modern technology. He had openly proclaimed that the system was inadequate in an era in which imperialist powers (such as
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
) were expanding the capabilities of their armies. The territorial units had been very unpopular, not only with Voroshilov, but with the Red Army leadership a whole. They were hopelessly ineffective: territorial conscript Alexey Grigorovich Maslov noted that he never fired a shot during his training, while it was noted that these units only underwent real training in the one month a year when experienced veterans returned.


World War II

Voroshilov commanded Soviet troops during the
Winter War The Winter War,, sv, vinterkriget, rus, Зи́мняя война́, r=Zimnyaya voyna. The names Soviet–Finnish War 1939–1940 (russian: link=no, Сове́тско-финская война́ 1939–1940) and Soviet–Finland War 1939 ...
from November 1939 to January 1940 but, due to poor Soviet planning and Voroshilov's incompetence as a general, the Red Army suffered about 320,000 casualties compared to 70,000 Finnish casualties. When the leadership gathered at Stalin's dacha at Kuntsevo, Stalin shouted at Voroshilov for the losses; Voroshilov replied in kind, blaming the failure on Stalin for eliminating the Red Army's best generals in his purges. Voroshilov followed this retort by smashing a platter of roast suckling pig on the table.
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
said it was the only time he ever witnessed such an outburst. Voroshilov was nonetheless made the scapegoat for the initial failures in Finland. He was later replaced as Defense Commissar by
Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (russian: link=no, Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, ''Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko''; uk, Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, ''Semen Kostiantyno ...

Semyon Timoshenko
. Voroshilov was then made Deputy Premier responsible for cultural matters. Voroshilov initially argued that thousands of Polish army officers captured in September 1939 should be released, but he later signed the order for their execution in the
Katyn massacre The Katyn massacre, "Katyń crime"; russian: link=yes, Катынская резня ''Katynskaya reznya'', "Katyn massacre", or russian: link=no, Катынский расстрел, ''Katynsky rasstrel'', "Katyn execution" was a series of m ...

Katyn massacre
of 1940. Between 1941 and 1944, Voroshilov was a member of the
State Defense Committee The State Defense Committee (russian: Государственный комитет обороны - ГКО, translit=Gosudarstvennyĭ komitet oborony - GKO) was an extraordinary organ of state power in the USSR The Soviet Union,. officia ...
. After the
German invasion of the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa (german: link=no, Unternehmen Barbarossa), also known as the German invasion of the Soviet Union, was the code name A code name, call sign or cryptonym is a Code word (figure of speech), code word or name used, sometime ...

German invasion of the Soviet Union
in June 1941, Voroshilov became commander of the short-lived Northwestern Direction (July to August 1941), controlling several fronts. In September 1941 he commanded the
Leningrad Front The Leningrad Front (Soviet Army), Front (russian: Ленинградский фронт) was formed during the 1941 Wehrmacht, German approach on Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) by dividing the Northern Front (Soviet Union), Northern Front int ...
. Working alongside military commander
Andrei Zhdanov Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov ( rus, Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Жда́нов, p=ɐnˈdrej ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ ˈʐdanəf; – 31 August 1948) was a Soviet Communist Party leader, former academic of theology, and cultural ...

Andrei Zhdanov
as German advances threatened to cut off
Leningrad Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Leningrad
, he displayed considerable personal bravery in defiance of heavy shelling at Ivanovskoye; at one point he rallied retreating troops and personally led a counter-attack against German tanks armed only with a pistol. However, the style of counterattack he launched had long since been abandoned by strategists and drew mostly contempt from his military colleagues; he failed to prevent the Germans from surrounding Leningrad and he was dismissed from his post and replaced by
Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (russian: Георгий Константинович Жуков; ; 1 December 1896 – 18 June 1974) was a Soviet general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some natio ...
on 8 September 1941. Stalin had a political need for popular wartime leaders, however, and Voroshilov remained as an important figurehead.


Post war


Hungary

Between 1945 and 1947, Voroshilov supervised the establishment of the
socialist republic Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and Economic ideology, economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic system, economic and social systems characterised by social ownershipArnold, N. Scott (1998 ...
in postwar
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
. He attributed the poor showing of the
Hungarian Communist Party The Hungarian Communist Party ( hu, Magyar Kommunista Párt, abbr. MKP), known earlier as the Party of Communists in Hungary ( hu, Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja, abbr. KMP), was a communist party in Hungary that existed during the interwar ...
in the October 1945 Budapest municipal elections to the number of minorities in leadership positions, arguing that it was "detrimental to the party that its leaders are not of Hungarian origin".


1952–1953 Soviet leadership

In 1952, Voroshilov was appointed a member of the
Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union A presidium or praesidium is a council of executive officers in some political deliberative assembly, assemblies that collectively administers its business, either alongside an individual President (government title), president or in place of one. ...
.
Stalin's death Joseph Stalin, second List of leaders of the Soviet Union, leader of the Soviet Union, died on 5 March 1953 at the Kuntsevo Dacha, aged 74, after suffering a stroke. He was given a state funeral, with National day of mourning#1950s, four days of ...
on 5 March 1953 prompted major changes in the
Soviet leadership :''For information about the government, see Government of the Soviet Union The Government of the Soviet Union ( rus, Прави́тельство СССР, p=prɐˈvʲitʲɪlʲstvə ɛs ɛs ɛs ˈɛr, r=Pravítelstvo SSSR, lang=no), formally the Al ...
. On 15 March 1953, Voroshilov was approved as Chairman of the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (russian: Президиум Верховного Совета, Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a body of in the (USSR).First Secretary of the
Communist Party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
and
Georgy Malenkov Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet Union, Soviet politician who briefly succeeded Joseph Stalin as the List of leaders of the Soviet Union, leader of the Soviet Union. However, at the insistence of the rest of th ...
as
Premier of the Soviet Union The Premier of the Soviet Union (russian: links=no, Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: ...
. Voroshilov, Malenkov, and Khrushchev brought about the 26 June 1953 arrest of
Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (; rus, Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия, p=ˈbʲerʲiə; ka, ლავრენტი ბერია, tr, ;  – 23 December 1953) was a Georgian Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian ...

Lavrenty Beria
after Stalin's death.


Fall from grace

After Khrushchev removed most of the old Bolshevists like Molotov and Malenkov from the party, Voroshilov's career began to fade. On 7 May 1960, the
Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union The Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( rus, Верховный Совет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, r=Verkhovnyy Sovet Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respubl ...
granted Voroshilov's request for retirement and elected
Leonid Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (; rus, links= no, Леонид Ильич Брежнев, p= lʲɪɐˈnʲit ɨˈlʲjidʑ ˈbrʲeʐnʲɪf, a= Ru-Leonid Ilich Brezhnev.ogg; uk, links= no, Леонід Ілліч Брежнєв, 19 December 1906  ...
chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council (the head of state). The Central Committee also relieved him of duties as a member of the Party Presidium (as the Politburo had been called since 1952) on 16 July 1960. In October 1961, his political defeat was complete at the 22nd party congress when he was excluded from election to the Central Committee.Following Khrushchev's fall from power, Soviet leader Brezhnev brought Voroshilov out of retirement into a
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") descri ...

figurehead
political post. Voroshilov was again re-elected to the Central Committee in 1966. Voroshilov was awarded a second medal of
Hero of the Soviet Union The title Hero of the Soviet Union (russian: Герой Советского Союза, translit=Geroy Sovietskogo Soyuza) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded together with the Order of Lenin personally or collectively for h ...

Hero of the Soviet Union
1968.


Death

During a winter night in 1969, the 88 year old Voroshilov started to feel unwell. His family proposed to call an ambulance immediately, but he adamantly refused. In the morning he put on his
military uniform A military uniform is a standardised dress A dress (also known as a frock Frock has been used since Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, N ...
, and after calling a car, he went to the hospital himself, fully decorated. Voroshilov died on 2 December and was buried in the
Kremlin Wall Necropolis The Kremlin Wall Necropolis is the Soviet Union's National Cemetery for those who died in valour for the union from 1917 to its last burial in 1985. Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik v ...

Kremlin Wall Necropolis
, in one of the twelve individual tombs located between the
Lenin Mausoleum Lenin's Mausoleum (from 1953 to 1961 Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum) ( rus, links=no, Мавзолей Ленина, r=Mavzoley Lenina, p=məvzɐˈlʲej ˈlʲenʲɪnə), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square Red Square ( rus, Кра ...
and the
Kremlin wall The Moscow Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognisable by the characteristic notches and its List of Moscow Kremlin towers, Kremlin towers. The original walls were likely a simple wooden fence with guard tower ...

Kremlin wall
.


Personal life

Voroshilov was married to
Ekaterina Voroshilova Ekaterina Davidovna Voroshilova (russian: Ворошилова Екатерина Давидовна, 1887 – 1959), born Gitlya Gorbman, later Golda Gorbman (Го́лда Горбман), was a spouse of Kliment Voroshilov, a Russian revolutionar ...
, born Golda Gorbman, a Ukrainian Jew from Mardarovka. She changed her name when she converted to Orthodox Christianity in order to be allowed to marry Voroshilov. They met while both exiled in
Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (, ; rus, Арха́нгельск, p=ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: P ...
, where Ekaterina was sent in 1906. While both serving on the Tsaritsyn Front in 1918, where Ekaterina was helping orphans, they adopted a four-year-old orphan boy who they named Petya. They also adopted the children of
Mikhail Frunze Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (russian: Михаи́л Васи́льевич Фру́нзе, ro, Mihail Frunze; 2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917. Born in modern-d ...
following his death in 1925. During Stalin's rule, they lived in the
Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow founded by Russian ruling dynasty of Rurikids. It is the bes ...

Kremlin
at the Horse Guards. His personality as it was described by
Molotov Molotov may refer to: * Vyacheslav Molotov (1890–1986), Soviet politician and diplomat, and foreign minister under Joseph Stalin * Molotov cocktail, hand-held incendiary weapon Arts and entertainment *Molotov (band), a Mexican rock/rap band ...
in 1974: "Voroshilov was nice, but only in certain times. He always stood for the political line of the party, because he was from a working class, a common man, very good orator. He was clean, yes. And he was personally devoted to Stalin. But his devotion was not very strong. However in this period he advocated Stalin very actively, supported him in everything, though not entirely sure in everything. It also affected their relationship. This is a very complex issue. This must be taken into account to understand why Stalin treated him critically and not invited him at all our conversations. At least at private ones. But he came by himself. Stalin frowned. Under Khrushchev, Voroshilov behaved badly."


Honours and awards


Soviet Union

The Kliment Voroshilov (KV) series of tanks, used in World War II, was named after him. Two towns were also named after him:
Voroshilovgrad Luhansk,(, ; uk, Луганськ, Luhans'k, , , ; russian: Луганск, Lugansk, ), also known as Lugansk and formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990), is a city in eastern Ukraine, near the border with Russia in th ...
in Ukraine (now changed back to the historical
Luhansk Luhansk,(, ; uk, Луганськ, Luhans'k, , , ; russian: Луганск, Lugansk, ), also known as Lugansk and formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990), is a city in eastern Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україн ...
) and Voroshilov in the Soviet Far East (now renamed Ussuriysk after the Ussuri river), as well as the General Staff Academy (Soviet), General Staff Academy in Moscow. Stavropol was called Voroshilovsk from 1935 to 1943. *
Hero of the Soviet Union The title Hero of the Soviet Union (russian: Герой Советского Союза, translit=Geroy Sovietskogo Soyuza) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded together with the Order of Lenin personally or collectively for h ...

Hero of the Soviet Union
, two times (No. 10840 - 3 February 1956 (in conjunction with his 75th birthday), No. 47 - 22 February 1968 (in conjunction with the 50th anniversary of the Armed Forces of the USSR)) * Hero of Socialist Labour (No. 10268 - 7 May 1960) *Orders of Lenin, Order of Lenin, eight times (No. 880 – 23 February 1935, No. 3582 – 22 February 1938, No. 14851 – 3 February 1941, No. 26411 – 21 February 1945, No. 128065 – 3 February 1951, No. 313410 – 3 February 1956, No. 331807 – 3 February 1961, No. 340967 – 22 February 1968) * Order of the Red Banner, six times (No. 47 – 26 June 1919, No. 629 - 2 April 1921, No. 27 - 3–2 December 1925, No. 5 - 4–22 February 1930, No. 1 - 5–3 November 1944, No. 1–24 June 1948) * Order of Suvorov, 1st class (No. 125 – 22 February 1944) * Order of the Red Banner of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (17 February 1930) * Order of the Red Banner of the Tajik SSR (No. 148 – 14 January 1933) * Order of the Red Banner ZSFSR (25 February 1933) * Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" (22 February 1938) * Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (1945) * Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad" * Medal "For the Defence of Moscow" * Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" * Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow" (21 September 1947) * Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" (22 February 1948) * Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (17 February 1958) * Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" * Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (1965) *Honorary Revolutionary Weapon (1920, 1968)


Foreign awards


Mongolian P.R.

* Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic (29 May 1957) * Order of Sukhbaatar, twice * Order of the Red Banner (Mongolia), Order of the Red Banner *Order of the Polar Star (Mongolia), Order of the Polar Star


Finland

* Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland


Turkey

* Honorary citizen of Izmir, November 1933; in Izmir a street was also named after him. In 1951, it was renamed "Plevne Bulvarı".


See also

* Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War * Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union * Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union * Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization * Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s * Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 * Voroshilov Sharpshooter * "Stalin and Voroshilov in the Kremlin," a famous Soviet painting


References


External links


Collection of Soviet songs about Klim Voroshilov
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Voroshilov, Kliment 1881 births 1969 deaths People from Lysychansk People from Yekaterinoslav Governorate Russians in Ukraine Russian Social Democratic Labour Party members Old Bolsheviks Russian Constituent Assembly members Anti-revisionists Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) members Heads of state of the Soviet Union Soviet Ministers of Defence First convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Second convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Third convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Fourth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Fifth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Sixth convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Seventh convocation members of the Soviet of the Union Marshals of the Soviet Union People of the Russian Civil War Russian people of World War II Soviet people of World War II Great Purge perpetrators Commissioners of the Leningrad Police Heroes of the Soviet Union Heroes of Socialist Labour Recipients of the Order of Lenin Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner Recipients of the Order of Suvorov, 1st class Burials at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis First convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 20th-century Ukrainian politicians Second convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Third convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Fourth convocation members of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Soviet interior ministers of Ukraine Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members