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Kapampangan language is an Austronesian language, and one of the eight major languages of the Philippines. It is the primary and predominant language of the entire province of Pampanga and southern Tarlac, on the southern part of Luzon's central plains geographic region, most of whom belong to the Kapampangan ethnic group. Kapampangan is also spoken in northeastern Bataan, as well as in the municipalities of Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, and Zambales that border Pampanga. A few Aeta groups in Central Luzon's southern part also understand and even speak Kapampangan as well. The language is known honorifically as ''Amánung Sísuan'' ("breastfed, or nurtured, language").

Classification

Kapampangan is one of the Central Luzon languages of the Austronesian language family. Its closest relatives are the Sambalic languages of Zambales province and the Bolinao language spoken in the towns of Bolinao and Anda in Pangasinan. These languages share the same reflex of the proto-Austronesian consonant *R.

History

''Kapampangan'' is derived from the root word ''pampáng'' ("riverbank"). The language was historically spoken in the Kingdom of Tondo, ruled by the Lakans. A number of Kapampangan dictionaries and grammar books were written during the Spanish colonial period. Diego Bergaño wrote two 18th-century books about the language: ''Arte de la lengua Pampanga''Bergaño (first published in 1729) and ''Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga'' (first published in 1732). Kapampangan produced two 19th-century literary giants; Anselmo Fajardo was noted for ''Gonzalo de Córdova'' and ''Comedia Heróica de la Conquista de Granada'', and playwright Juan Crisóstomo Soto wrote ''Alang Dios'' in 1901. "Crissotan" was written by Amado Yuzon, Soto's 1950s contemporary and Nobel Prize nominee for peace and literature, to immortalize his contribution to Kapampangan literature.

Geographic distribution

Kapampangan is predominantly spoken in the province of Pampanga and southern Tarlac (Bamban, Capas, Concepcion, San Jose, Gerona, La Paz, Victoria and Tarlac City). It is also spoken in border communities of the provinces of Bataan (Dinalupihan, Hermosa and Orani), Bulacan (Baliuag, San Miguel, San Ildefonso, Hagonoy, Plaridel, Pulilan and Calumpit), Nueva Ecija (Cabiao, San Isidro, Gapan City and Cabanatuan City) and Zambales (Olongapo City and Subic). In Mindanao, a significant Kapampangan-speaking minority also exists in South Cotabato, specifically in General Santos and the municipalities of Polomolok and Tupi. According to the 2000 Philippine census, 2,312,870 people (out of the total population of 76,332,470) spoke Kapampangan as their native language.

Phonology

Standard Kapampangan has 21 phonemes: 15 consonants and five vowels; some western dialects have six vowels. Syllabic structure is relatively simple; each syllable contains at least one consonant and a vowel.

Vowels

Kapampangan has five vowel phonemes: *, a close back unrounded vowel when unstressed; allophonic with , an open front unrounded vowel similar to English "f''a''ther" when stressed *, an open-mid front unrounded vowel similar to English "b''e''d" *, a close front unrounded vowel similar to English "mach''i''ne" *, a close-mid back rounded vowel similar to English "f''o''rty" *, a close back rounded vowel similar to English "fl''u''te" There are four main diphthongs: , , , and . In most dialects (including standard Kapampangan), and are reduced to and respectively. Monophthongs have allophones in unstressed and syllable-final positions: * becomes in all unstressed positions. *Unstressed is usually pronounced , as in English "b''i''t" and "b''oo''k" respectively (except final syllables). *In final syllables can be pronounced , and can be pronounced . ** ''deni/reni'' ("these") can be pronounced dɛnɛɾɛnɛor dɛniɾɛni ''seli'' ("bought") can be pronounced sɛlɛor sɛli ''kekami'' ("to us" xcept you can be pronounced ɛkəˈmɛor ɛkəˈmi ''suerti'' can be pronounced swɛɾtɛor swɛɾti ''sisilim'' ("dusk") can be pronounced ɪˈsilɛmor ɪˈsilim ** ''kanu'' ("he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly") can be pronounced aˈnoor aˈnu ''libru'' ("book") can be pronounced ibˈɾoor ibˈɾu ''ninu'' ("who") can be pronounced ninoor ninu ''kaku'' ("to me") can be pronounced kakoor kaku and ''kámaru'' ("cricket") can be pronounced kaːməɾuor kaːməɾo *Unstressed are usually pronounced , respectively (except final syllables).

Consonants

In the chart of Kapampangan consonants, all stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions, including the beginning of a word. Unlike other languages of the Philippines but similar to Ilocano, Kapampangan uses /h/ only in words of foreign origin. * tends to lenite to between vowels. * and are allophones in Kapampangan, and sometimes interchangeable; ''Nukarin la ring libru?'' can be ''Nukarin la ding libru?'' ("Where are the books?"). *A glottal stop at the end of a word is often omitted in the middle of a sentence and, unlike in most languages of the Philippines, is conspicuously absent word-internally; hence, Batiáuan's dropping of semivowels from its very name.

Stress

Stress is phonemic in Kapampangan. Primary stress occurs on the last or the next-to-last syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress, except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress shift can occur, shifting to the right or left to differentiate between nominal or verbal use (as in the following examples):Forman, Michael, 1971, pp.28-29 *''dápat'' ("should, ought to") → ''dapát'' ("deed, concern, business") *''dapúg'' ("gather, burn trash") → ''dápug'' ("trash pile") Stress shift can also occur when one word is derived from another through affixation; again, stress can shift to the right or the left: *''ábe'' → ''abáyan'' ("company") *''láso'' → ''lasáwan'' ("melt, digest")

Sound changes

In Kapampangan, the proto-Philippine schwa vowel merged to /a/ in most dialects of Kapampangan; it is preserved in some western dialects. Proto-Philippine is ''tanam'' (to plant) in Kapampangan, compared with Tagalog ''tanim'', Cebuano ''tanom'' and Ilocano tanem (grave). Proto-Philippine merged with . The Kapampangan word for "new" is ''bayu''; it is ''bago'' in Tagalog, ''baro'' in Ilocano, and ''baru'' in Indonesian.

Grammar



Nouns

Kapampangan nouns are not inflected, but are usually preceded by case markers. There are three types of case markers: absolutive (nominative), ergative (genitive), and oblique. Unlike English and Spanish (which are nominative–accusative languages) and Inuit and Basque (which are ergative–absolutive languages), Kapampangan has Austronesian alignment (in common with most Philippine languages). Austronesian alignment may work with nominative (and absolutive) or ergative (and absolutive) markers and pronouns. Absolutive or nominative markers mark the actor of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. Ergative or genitive markers mark the object (usually indefinite) of an intransitive verb and the actor of a transitive one. It also marks possession. Oblique markers, similar to prepositions in English, mark (for example) location and direction. Noun markers are divided into two classes: names of people (personal) and everything else (common). Examples: *''Dintang ya ing lalaki'' (The man arrived). *''Ikit neng Juan i(y) Maria'' (Juan saw Maria). *''Munta ya i(y) Elena ampo i(y) Robertu king bale nang Miguel'' (Elena and Roberto will go to Miguel's house). *''Nukarin la ring libro?'' (Where are the books?) *''Ibiye ke ing susi kang Carmen'' (I will give the key to Carmen).

Pronouns

Kapampangan pronouns are categorized by case: absolutive, ergative, and oblique.

Examples

*''Sinulat ku'' (I wrote). *''Silatanan ke'' (I wrote to him). *''Silatanan na ku'' (He r shewrote me). *''Dintang ya'' (He r shehas arrived). Note: ''Dintang ya'' = He arrived (or arrives); ''Dintang ne'' = He has arrived. *''Sabian me kaku'' (Tell it to me). *''Ninu ing minaus keka?'' (Who called you?) *''Mamasa la'' (They are reading). *''Mamangan la ring babi?'' (Are the pigs eating?) Genitive pronouns follow the word they modify. Oblique pronouns can replace the genitive pronoun, but precede the word they modify. *''Ing bale ku;'' ''Ing kakung bale;'' ''Ing kanakung bale'' (my house) The dual pronoun ''ikata'' and the inclusive pronoun ''ikatamu'' refer to the first and second person. The exclusive pronoun ''ikamí'' refers to the first and third persons. *''Ala katang nasi.'' (We ualdo not have rice). *''Ala tamung nasi.'' (We nclusivedo not have rice). *''Ala keng nasi'', ''Ala kaming nasi'' (We xclusivedo not have rice). Kapampangan differs from many Philippine languages in requiring the pronoun even if the noun it represents, or the grammatical antecedent, is present. *''Dintang ya i(y) Erning'' (not ''dintang i(y) Erning''; Ernie arrived). *''Mamasa la ri Maria at Juan'' (not ''mamasa ri Maria at Juan''; Maria and Juan are reading). *''Silatanan na kang José'' (not ''silatanan kang José''; José wrote you).

Special forms

The pronouns ''ya'' and ''la'' have special forms when they are used in conjunction with the words ''ati'' (there is/are) and ''ala'' (there is/are not). *''Ati yu king Pampanga'' (He is in Pampanga). *''Ala lu ring doktor keni'', ''Ala lu ding doktor keni'' (the doctors are no longer here). Both ''ati yu'' and ''ati ya'' are correct. The plural form ("they are") is ''atilu'' and ''atila''. Both ''ala la'' and ''ala lu'' are correct in the plural form. The singular forms are ''ala ya'' and ''ala yu''.

Pronoun combinations

Kapampangan pronouns follow a certain order after verbs (or particles, such as negation words). The enclitic pronoun is always followed by another pronoun (or discourse marker: *''Ikit da ka'' (I saw you). *''Silatanan na ku'' (He wrote to me). Pronouns also combine to form a portmanteau pronoun: *''Ikit ke'' (I saw her). *''Dinan kong kwalta (I will give them money).'' Portmanteau pronouns are not usually used in questions and with the word ''naman'': *''Akakit me?'' (Do you see him?) *''Buri nya naman yan'', ''buri ne murin yan'' (He likes that, too). In the following chart, blank entries denote combinations which are deemed impossible. Column headings denote pronouns in the absolutive case, and the row headings denote the ergative case.

Demonstrative pronouns

Kapampangan's demonstrative pronouns differ from other Philippine languages by having separate forms for singular and plural. The demonstrative pronouns ''ini'' and ''iti'' (and their respective forms) both mean "this", but each has distinct uses. ''Iti'' usually refers to something abstract, but may also refer to concrete nouns: ''iting musika'' (this music), ''iti ing gagawan mi'' (this is what we do). ''Ini'' is always concrete: ''ining libru'' (this book), ''ini ing asu nang Juan'' (this is Juan's dog). In their locative forms, ''keni'' is used when the person spoken to is not near the subject spoken of; ''keti'' is used when the person spoken to is near the subject spoken of. Two people in the same country will refer to their country as ''keti'', but will refer to their respective towns as ''keni''; both mean "here". The plural forms of a demonstrative pronoun and its existential form (for the nearest addressee) are exceptions. The plural of ''iyan'' is ''den/ren''; the plural of ''niyan'' is ''daren''; the plural of ''kanyan'' is ''karen'', and the plural of ''oyan'' is ''oren''. The existential form of ''iyan'' is ''ken''. *''Nanu ini?'' (What's this?) *''Mangabanglu la rening sampaga'', ''Mangabanglu la dening sampaga'' (These flowers smell nice). *''Ninu ing lalaking ita?'' (Who is that man?) *''Me keni'', ''munta ka keni'' (Come here). *''Ati ku keti'', ''atsu ku keni'', ''atyu ku keni'' (I am here). *''Mangan la keta'' (They will eat there). *''Ninu ing anak a yan?'' (Who is that child?) *''Uyta/Oyta ya pala ing salamin mu!'' (So that's where your glasses are!) *''E ku pa menakit makanyan/makanini'' (I haven't seen one of these before). *''Manyaman la ren/Manyaman la den'' (Those are delicious). *''Ayni/Areni/Oreni la reng adwang regalo para keka'' (Here are the two gifts for you). *''Buri daka!'' (I like you!) *''Kaluguran daka!'' (I love you!) *''Mangan Tana!'' (Let's eat!) *''Edaka buring mawala!'' (I don't want to lose you!)

Verbs

Kapampangan verbs are morphologically complex, and take a variety of affixes reflecting focus, aspect and mode. The language has Austronesian alignment, and the verbs change according to triggers in the sentence (better known as voices). Kapampangan has five voices: agent, patient, goal, locative, and cirumstantial. The circumstantial voice prefix is used for instrument and benefactee subjects. The direct case morphemes in Kapampangan are ''ing'' (which marks singular subjects) and ''reng'', for plural subjects. Non-subject agents are marked with the ergative-case ''ning''; non-subject patients are marked with the accusative-case ''-ng'', which is cliticized onto the preceding word.In the examples, the word to which the accusative case marker attaches is a pronoun or portmanteau pronoun that is obligatorily present in the same clause as the noun with which it is co-referential. In sentences with an agent trigger, the pronoun co-refers with the agent subject. In sentences with a non-agent trigger, the portmanteau pronoun co-refers with both the ergative agent and the non-agent subject, which is marked with direct case.


Ambiguities and irregularities


Speakers of other Philippine languages find Kapampangan verbs difficult because some verbs belong to unpredictable verb classes and some verb forms are ambiguous. The root word ''sulat'' (write) exists in Tagalog and Kapampangan: *''Susulat'' means "is writing" in Kapampangan and "will write" in Tagalog. *''Sumulat'' means "will write" in Kapampangan and "wrote" in Tagalog. It is the infinitive in both languages. *''Sinulat'' means "wrote" in both languages. In Kapampangan it is in the actor focus (with long i: ) or object focus (with short i: ), and object focus only in Tagalog. The object-focus suffix ''-an'' represents two focuses; the only difference is that one conjugation preserves ''-an'' in the completed aspect, and it is dropped in the other conjugation: *''Bayaran'' (to pay someone): ''bayaran'' (will pay someone), ''babayaran'' (is paying someone), ''beyaran'' (paid someone) *''Bayaran'' (to pay for something): ''bayaran'' (will pay for something), ''babayaran'' (is paying for something), ''binayad'' (paid for something) Other Philippine languages have separate forms; Tagalog has ''-in'' and ''-an'' in, Bikol and most of the Visayan languages have ''-on'' and ''-an'', and Ilokano has ''-en'' and ''-an'' due to historical sound changes in the proto-Philippine /*e/. A number of actor-focus verbs do not use the infix ''-um-'', but are usually conjugated like other verbs which do (for example, ''gawa'' (to do), ''bulus'' (to immerse), ''terak'' (to dance), ''lukas'' (to take off), ''sindi'' (to smoke), ''saklu'' (to fetch), ''takbang'' (to step) and ''tuki'' (to accompany). Many of these verbs undergo a change of vowel instead of taking the infix ''-in-'' (completed aspect). In the actor focus (''-um-'' verbs), this happens only to verbs with the vowel /u/ in the first syllable; ''lukas'' (to take off) is conjugated ''lukas'' (will take off), ''lulukas'' (is taking off), and ''likas'' (took off). This change of vowel also applies to certain object-focus verbs in the completed aspect. In addition to /u/ becoming /i/, /a/ becomes /e/ in certain cases (for example, ''dela'' rought something ''semal'' orked on somethingand ''seli'' ought. There is no written distinction between the two ''mag-'' affixes; ''magsalita'' may mean "is speaking" or "will speak", but there is an audible difference. means "will speak" while means "is speaking".

Enclitics

*''warî'': used optionally in yes-and-no questions and other types of questions *''agyaman, man'': even, even if, even though *''nung'': conditional particle expressing an unexpected event; if *''kanu'': reporting (hearsay) particle indicating that the information is second-hand; he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly *''din'', ''rin'': inclusive particle which adds something to what was said before; also, too *''iká'': expresses hope or an unrealized condition (with verb in completed aspect); also used in conditional aspect *''itá'': expresses uncertainty or an unrealized idea; perhaps, probably, seems *''mu'': limiting particle; only, just *''na'', ''pa'' **''na'': now, already, yet, anymore **''pa'': still, else *''namán'': used in making contrasts and to soften requests and emphasis *''nanu ita'': expresses cause; because, because of *''pin'': used in affirmations or emphasis and to soften imperatives; indeed *''palá'': realization particle, indicating that the speaker has realized (or suddenly remembered) something *''pu'', ''opu'': politeness particle Examples: *''Swerti kanu iti kanaku'': I was told that it is lucky. *''Edukado ya rin ing nobyu mu'', ''Edukado ya din ing nobyu mu'': Your boyfriend is also educated.

Existence and possession

To express existence (there is, there are) and possession (to have), the word ''atí'' is used: *''Atí la namang konsyensya'': They also have a conscience.

Negation

Kapampangan has two negation words: ''alí'' and ''alá''. ''Alí'' negates verbs and equations, and means "no" or "not": *''Alí ya sinali.'' (He did not buy.) ''Alá'' is the opposite of ''atí'': *''Alá na mo kanung lugud.'' (They say that there is no more love.) ''E'' is sometimes used instead of ''alí'': *''E ke seli.'' (I did not buy it.)

Interrogative words

''Komustá'' is used to ask how something is. Frequently used as a greeting ("How are you?"), it is derived from the Spanish ''¿cómo está?'' *''Komustá na ka?'' (How are you?) *''Komustá ya ing pasyenti?'' (How is the patient?) ''Nanu'' means "what": ''Nanu ya ing gagawan mu?'' (What are you doing?) ''Ninu'' means "who": *''Ninu la reng lalaki?'' or ''Ninu la deng lalaki?'' (Who are those men?) *''Ninu i(y) Jennifer?'' (Who is Jennifer?) ''Nukarin'', meaning "where", is used to ask about the location of an object and not used with verbs: *''Nukarin ya ing drayber/mag-manewu?'' (Where is the driver? ''Drayber'' is the Kapampangan phonetic spelling of "driver"). *''Nukarin ya i(y) Henry?'' (Where is Henry?) ''Obakit'' means "why": *''Obakit ati ka keni?'' (Why are you here?) *''Obakit ala ka king bale yu?'' (Why are you not in your house?) ''Kaninu'' means "whose" or "whom": *''Kaninu me ibiye iyan?'' (To whom will you give that?) *''Kaninung kalikubak ini?'' (Whose dandruff is this?) ''Pilan'' means "how many": *''Pilan a kapaya?'' (How many papayas?) *''Pilan kayung magkaputul?'' (How many children did your mother birth?) ''Kapilan'' means "when": *''Kapilan ya ing pista?'' (When is the fiesta?) *''Kapilan kebaitan mu?'' (When is your birthday?) ''Makananu'' means "how": *''Makananu iti gawan?'' (How do you do this?) *''Makananu maging inidoru?'' (How do you become a toilet?) ''Magkanu'' means "how much": *''Magkanu ya ing metung a tinape?'' (How much is one bread?) *''Magkanu la ring milktea, burger at fries?'' (How much are the milktea, burger and fries?) ''Nuanti'' means "to what degree": *''Nuanti ka kalagu?'' (How beautiful are you? ''Literally'' To what degree are you beautiful?) *''Nuanti karakal ya ing seli yu?'' (How many did you buy? ''Literally'' To what amount did you buy?) ''Isanu/Isnanu'' means "which": *''Isanu deti ya ing bisa ka?'' (Which of these do you want?) *''Isanu karela ya ing pilian mu?'' (Who do you choose among them?)

Lexicon

Kapampangan borrowed many words from Chinese (particularly Cantonese and Hokkien), such as: *''Ápû'' 阿婆 "(maternal) grandmother" *''Bápa'' 爸伯 "uncle" *''Ditsí'' 二姊 "2nd eldest sister" *''Díko'' 二哥 "2nd eldest brother" *''Dízon'' 二孫 "2nd eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Gózun'' 五孫 "5th eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Lácson'' 六孫 "6th eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Pekson'' 八孫 "8th eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Impû'' 外婆 "(paternal) grandmother" *''Ingkung'' 外公 "(paternal) grandfather" *''Atsi'' 阿姐 "eldest sister" *''Kóya'' 哥仔 "eldest brother" *''Sanko'' 三哥 "3rd eldest brother" *''Satsi'' 三姊 "4th eldest sister" *''Sámson'' 三孫 "3rd eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Sese'' 謝謝 "pet, to look after, thank you" (name) *''Síson'' 四孫 "4th eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Sitson'' 七孫 "7th eldest grandson" (a surname) *''Susi'' 鎖匙 "key" *''Sitsí'' 四姊 "4th eldest sister" *''Síko'' 四哥 "4th eldest brother" *''Tuázon'' 太孫 "eldest grandson (a surname) *''Pansit'' 便食 "noodles" (literally "instant meal") *''Buisit'' 無衣食 "bad luck" (literally "without clothes and food") *''Tiâ'' 茶 "Tea" *''Laggiû'' 你叫 "Name" *''Buan'' 滿 "full, satisfied" (a surname) *''Pétsai'' 白菜 "Chinese lettuce" *''Gintu'' 金條 "Gold" (a surname) *''Lumpiâ'' 潤餅 "Spring roll" *''Bátsuî'' 肉水 "kapampangan soup" *''Tawû'' 豆花 "tofu" (a snack) *''Tóyû'' 豆油 "soy sauce" *''Tansû'' 銅索 "copper wire" *''Bakiâ'' 木屐 "wooden clogs" Due to the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, Kapampangan also acquired words from Sanskrit. A few examples are: *''Aláya'', "home", from the Sanskrit आलय ''alaya'' *''Kalma'', "fate", from the Sanskrit कर्म ''karma'' *''Damla'', "divine law", from the Sanskrit धर्म ''dharma'' *''Mantála'', "magic formulas", from the Sanskrit मन्त्र ''mantra'' *''Upáya'', "power", from the Sanskrit उपाय ''upaya'' *''Siuálâ'', "voice", from the Sanskrit स्वर ''svara'' *''Lúpa'', "face", from the Sanskrit रुपा ''rupa'' *''Sabla'', "every", from the Sanskrit सर्व ''sarva'' *''Láwû'', "eclipse/dragon", from the Sanskrit राहु ''rahu'' *''Galúrâ'', "giant eagle" (a surname, phoenix), from the Sanskrit गरुड ''garuda'' *''Láksina'', "south" (a surname), from the Sanskrit दक्षिण ''dakshin'' *''Laksamana'', "admiral" (a surname), from the Sanskrit लक्ष्मण ''lakshmana'' *''Pápâ'' "demerit, Bad karma" from the Sanskrit पाप ''pāpá'' *''Palâ'' "fruit, blessings" from the Sanskrit फल ''phala'' The language also has many Spanish loanwords, including ''kómusta'' (from ''cómo estás'', "Hello/How are you?"), ''suérti'' (from ''suerte'', "luck"), ''kurus'' (from ''cruz'', "cross"), ''karni'' (from ''carne'', "meat"), ''kórsunada'' (from ''corazonada'', "crush") and ''kasapégo'' (from ''casa fuego'', "matchbox") and others such as times, for countings and numbers.

Orthography

alt=Kulitan writing|''Amánung Sísuan'' (honorific name for "mother language" (literally "nurtured or suckled language") in Kulitan, Kapampangan's indigenous writing system Kapampangan, like most Philippine languages, uses the Latin alphabet. Before the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, it was written with the Kulitan alphabet. Kapampangan is usually written in one of three different writing systems: ''sulat Baculud'', ''sulat Wawa'' and a hybrid of the two, ''Amung Samson''.Pangilinan, M. R. M. (2006, January). Kapampángan or Capampáñgan: settling the dispute on the Kapampángan Romanized orthography. In Paper at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan (pp. 17-20). The first system (''sulat Baculud'', also known as ''tutung Capampangan'' or ''tutung Kapampangan'' in the ''sulat Wawa'' system) is based on Spanish orthography, a feature of which involved the use of the letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ to represent the phoneme /k/ (depending on the vowel sound following the phoneme). ⟨C⟩ was used before /a/, /o/ and /u/ (''ca'', ''co'' and ''cu''), and ⟨q⟩ was used with ⟨u⟩ before the vowels /e/ and /i/ (''que'', ''qui''). The Spanish-based orthography is primarily associated with literature by authors from Bacolor and the text used on the Kapampangan ''Pasion''. The second system, the ''Sulat Wawa'', is an "indigenized" form which preferred ⟨k⟩ over ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ in representing the phoneme /k/. This orthography, based on the Abakada alphabet was used by writers from Guagua and rivaled writers from the nearby town of Bacolor. The third system, ''Amung Samson'' hybrid orthography, intends to resolve the conflict in spelling between proponents of the ''sulat Baculud'' and ''sulat Wawa''. This system was created by former Catholic priest Venancio Samson during the 1970s to translate the Bible into Kapampangan. It resolved conflicts between the use of ⟨q⟩ and ⟨c⟩ (in ''sulat Baculud'') and ⟨k⟩ (in ''sulat Wawa'') by using ⟨k⟩ before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ (instead of u and using ⟨c⟩ before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, and ⟨u⟩ (instead of ⟨k⟩). The system also removed ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨ñ⟩ (from Spanish), replacing them with ⟨ly⟩ and ⟨ny⟩. Orthography has been debated by Kapampangan writers, and orthographic styles may vary by writer. The ''sulat Wawa'' system has become the popular method of writing due to the influence of the Tagalog-based Filipino language (the national language) and its orthography. The ''sulat Wawa'' system is used by the Akademyang Kapampangan and the poet Jose Gallardo.

Prayers, words and sentences

*Sign of the cross: ''Uli ning tanda ning Santa Cruz, karing masamá kekami, ikabus Mu kami, Ginu ming Dios. King lagyu ning +Ibpa, ampon ning Anak, ampon ning Espiritu Santo. Amen. *The Creed: *The Lord's Prayer: *Hail Mary: ''Bapu, Maria! Mitmu ka king grasya. Ing Ginung Dios atyu keka. Nuan ka karing sablang babayi, at nuan ya pa naman ing bunga ning atian mu, i(y) Jesús. Santa Maria, Indu ning Dios. Ipanalangin mu keng makasalanan, ngeni, ampon king oras ning kamatayan mi. Amen.'' *Gloria Patri: ''Ligaya king Ibpa, at ang Anak, at ang Espiritu Santo. Antimo ing sadya nang ligaya ibat king kamumulan, ngeni't kapilan man, mangga man king alang angga. Amen.'' *''Salve Regina'': Numbers: *One - ''isa'' (used when reciting numbers; ''métung'' used for counting) *Two - ''aduá'' *Three - ''atlú'' *Four - ''ápat'' *Five - ''limá'' *Six - ''ánam'' *Seven - ''pitú'' *Eight - ''ualú'' *Nine - ''s'yám'' *Ten - ''apúlu'' Sentences: *My name is John. - ''Juan ya ing lagyu ku.'' *I am here! - ''Atyu ku keni!'' (''Ati ku keni!'') *Where are you? - ''Nukarin ka (kanyan)?'' *I love you. - ''Kaluguran daka.'' *What do you want? - ''Nanu ya ing buri mu?'' *I will go home. - ''Muli ku.'' *They don't want to eat. - ''Ali la bisang mangan.'' *He bought rice. - ''Sinali yang nasi.'' *She likes that. - ''Buri ne ita.'' *May I go out? - ''Malyari ku waring lumwal?'' *I can't sleep. - ''Ali ku mipapatudtud.'' *We are afraid. - ''Tatakut kami.'' *My pet died yesterday. - ''Mete ya ing sese ku napun.'' *How old are you? - ''Pilan na kang banua?'' *How did you do that? - ''Makananu meng gewa ita?'' *How did you get here? – ''Katnamu ka miparas keni?'' *How big is it? - ''Makananu ya karagul?'' (''Nu anti ya karagul?'') *When will you be back? - ''Kapilan ka mibalik?''

See also

* Malayo-Polynesian languages * Tarlac * Bataan

References

;Footnotes ;Bibliography *Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S. 1996. An Outline: The National Language and the Language of Instruction. In Readings in Philippine Sociolinguistics, ed. by Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista, 223. Manila: De La Salle University Press, Inc. *Bergaño, Diego. 1860. Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga en Romance. 2nd ed. Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier. *Castro, Rosalina Icban. 1981. Literature of the Pampangos. Manila: University of the East Press. *Fernández, Eligío. 1876. Nuevo Vocabulario, ó Manual de Conversaciónes en Español, Tagálo y Pampángo. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Perez *Forman, Michael. 1971. ''Kapampangan Grammar Notes''. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press *Gallárdo, José. 1985–86. Magaral Tang Capampangan. Ing Máyap a Balità, ed. by José Gallárdo, May 1985- June 1986. San Fernando: Archdiocese of San Fernando. *Henson, Mariano A. 1965. The Province of Pampanga and Its Towns: A.D. 1300–1965. 4th ed. revised. Angeles City: By the author. *Kitano Hiroaki. 1997. Kapampangan. In Facts About The World's Major Languages, ed. by Jane Garry. New York: H.W. Wilson. Pre-published copy *Lacson, Evangelina Hilario. 1984. Kapampangan Writing: A Selected Compendium and Critique. Ermita, Manila: National Historical Institute. *Manlapaz, Edna Zapanta. 1981. Kapampangan Literature: A Historical Survey and Anthology. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. *Panganiban, J.V. 1972. Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles. Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co. *Pangilinan, Michael Raymon M. 2004. Critical Diacritical. In Kapampangan Magazine, ed. by Elmer G. Cato,32-33, Issue XIV. Angeles City: KMagazine. *Samson, Venancio. 2004. Problems on Pampango Orthography. In Kapampangan Magazine, ed. by Elmer G. Cato,32-33, Issue XII. Angeles City: KMagazine. *Samson, Venancio. 2011. Kapampangan Dictionary. Angeles City: The Juan D. Nepomuceno Center for Kapampangan Studies, Holy Angel University Press. *Tayag, Katoks (Renato). 1985. "The Vanishing Pampango Nation", Recollections and Digressions. Escolta, Manila: Philnabank Club c/o Philippine National Bank. *Turla, Ernesto C. 1999. Classic Kapampangan Dictionary. Offprint Copy

External links


Sínúpan Singsing
''de facto'' language regulator
Bansa Kapampangan-English DictionaryKapampangan Wiktionary10 ICAL Paper – Issues in Orthography10 ICAL Paper – Importance of Diacritical Marks10 ICAL Paper – Transitivity & Pronominal Clitic OrderAustronesian Basic Vocabulary DatabaseElectronic Kabalen – New Writing on Kapampangan Life & Letters
*Wikibook Kapampangan
Siuala ding MeangubieOnline E-book of Arte de la Lengua Pampanga
by Diego Bergaño. Originally published in 1736. {{DEFAULTSORT:Kapampangan Language Category:Central Luzon languages Category:Verb–subject–object languages